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THE 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 


MAGAZINE. 


AN TELUSTRA TED: MONTHLY 


EDITOR; JOHN HYDE 


ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
A. W.. GREELY W J McGEE HENRY GANNETT 
C. HART MERRIAM ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


VOD VI Y RAR 199% 


WASHINGTON 
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 
1897 


“Bt ASOW Ay 


Nov 9 1981 
LIBRARIES 


CONTENTS 


The Gold Coast, Ashanti, and Kumassi; by Grorce K. Frexcu.... 1 
All around the Bay of Passamaquoddy ; by Atperr S. Garscner.... 16 
Return of the Hourst Niger Expedition; by Ernest pe SAsseviLie.. 24 


adermpuie seninis® (EIENRY GANNETT]. .......0...00cecccceees es Be, 
RORTA DOIG NOLES oo... iocie pc ebls uc aloe ees MFR ota RIG a PM eine 26 
DOTS RSTO Do ete oS a ee aed a 27 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society.................4-- 28 


The National Geographic Society : Synopsis of a course of lectures on 
the effects of geographic environment in developing the civiliza- 


Honrominer world) GARDINER G. HUBBARD ..3.. «01sec e.+e see 29 
enw Kes OTCCOD GMD ds Os IGRI Gar. s)ecsie cet oe traces e sete @ 33 
The Utilization of the vacant Public Lands; by Emory F. Besr.... 49 
me Mazainas > 0. S. DIcueR, ..... 6. .0... PN amie ie td nae 58 


Geographic Literature (Elementary Geology, Tarr; The inet of 
Erosion Due to Forest Destruction ; Preliminary Report on the 
Income Account of Railways in the United States ; Virginia Car- 


ROME ema S rae i yeti ete kieran le ycisiels aerate cieiecle. le tre.a aie 59 
Geographic Serials; [Henry GANNeTT]............. RNs Bal ON racy : ono 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society... .... oe a Ura nee 63 
eae IE EE ee I 8 LAT hale Casta Ss B10 Weak Nitin e veue hs 64 
Storms and Weather Forecasts ; by Witiis L. Moore... ..... ..... 65 
Rubber Forests of Nicaragua and Sierra Leone; by A. W. Greety.. 83 
Recent Explorations in Equatorial Africa ; ERNEST DE SASSEVILLE. 88 
Geographic Literature (Laboratory Pri dence for Beginners in Botan 

Setchell; An Introduction to Geology, Scott)............. ..... 91 
Geographic Serials ; [Henry GANNeETr]..........- GERRI Stee Ae 92 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society.................045 94 
Geographic Notes...... PUREE caw ve tots ae caesteeke MIR Pa Cetra tr mg oe islsy nace 95 
A Summer Voyage to the miei by G. R. Purnam. . 97 
Area and Drainage Basin of Lake Peas by Man W. Hs ARRING- 

TONS as. Gratuite fe Lo eed AO Vp ER ELE  EP EDICT A PR Re Cane Aer: li 
The Siberian ia epoiakitien tal Ratlroardiss Aveo GREEDY: . <4 «srs oes 121 
Geographic Literature (Glaciers of North America, Russell; A Treatise 

on Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils, Merrill)................ 124 
Geographic Serials; [Henry GANNETT]..............66. Gees kVabs 127 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society ...... ..........--- 128 
A Winter Voyage throughrthe Straits of Magellan ; by R. W. Mrapr. 129 
Mamiire ise. Meade; b. Ss. N.; [JOHN ELYDE). . 050.05. 2 seen seen 142 
Wosis tries: Ny RIGkRDO VINLAFRANCAL.. «6 esc e ce kes ev ane wees 143 
Applied Physiography in South Carolina; by L. C. GLENN..... Coswloe 
Sheik Sad ssURNESDEDE) SASSEVILLE, s) <a)-cijee sic uisico'sisiceencie aes seas 15d 
Geographic Literature; [Jonw Hypr].... 2.20... nce cee eee eee 156 
Geographic Serials; [Henry GANNETT]..........0.2005. EE eR 157 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society............+..++55- 159 


iv CONTENTS 


Page 
Wet yolet eee eerGna ne Geter Aric eMC Co Mrs aE mods 0 2ic < 160 
The Effects of Geographic Environment in the Development of Civ- 
ilization in Primitive Man; by Garprner G. HusBarp......... 161 
The National Forest Reserves; by Frengerick H. Newer ......... Mra 
George W. Melville, Engineer-in-chief U. 8. N.; [A. W. Greeiy]... 187 
Geographic Serials; [Henry GANNEIT]......0...002- 20 cece sata 190 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society................+05. 191 
The Venezuelan Boundary Commission and its Work; by Marcus 
BARU REIN SAARI nas areca ae obs s\avdcejteners. wre tee ba Ven Gee aang fen aed ae 193 
Mineral Production in the United States; [Joun Hyper] .......... 201 
The Forests and Deserts of Arizona; by Bernnarp E. Fernow. .... 205 
Mount St. (Helens: iby,Caarves' P. Hurrorrs::), 07. 1047 eee 226 
Geographic Literature (Magnetic Declination in the United States, 
Gannett ; Carpenter’s Geographical Reader; Studies in Indiana 
GeopraphyoWnyer):: iss to.e' sie'> ciclo Rye else ths aie chennai eae 230 
Modification of the Great Lakes by Earth Movement; by G. K. 
GIDBER TS 555 ci scisiac sis bse Riciera es 7 oid oie dare ehaten ce aU ea 233 
The Toronto Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
Of Science ;. [JOHN ELYDE]e.-'s > S458 ha ccerctateei eee 247 
The Great Unmapped Areas on the Earth’s Surface Awaiting the Ex- 
plorer and Geographer; by J. Scorr Keitin.............-...<- 251 
The Compass in Modern Navigation; by G. W. Lurruenabes.. ..... 266 
ihe jnochanted Mesa: by k.. W. HODGE... 5 ta.icar ser eee 273 
lectrie Street Railways; [Jorn Elyprl) . 22 c)s cr st cei eeenaeneee 284 
Geographical Research in the United States; by GARDINER G. ae 
BARD ANG WEARCUS BAKER)... 4s )p.ce:seeield shale Minis te  ee nea ae eae 285 


A Brief Account of the Geographic Work of the U. 8. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey ; by T. C. Menpennani and Orro H. Trrrmann.... 294 


United States Daily Atmospheric Survey ; by Wiiiis L. Moorr..... 299 
Geographic NOTES). f.1 25) Uk ak banter: ee ee eee . 3804 
Pateonias by J). Bs ELATOMER: {i3u do2 3d. etalk ae ee 305 
Hatcher's: Workin! Patagoma:: [|W od McGrm|i ..025.- se eee 319 
(he Sushitna River Alaska? by Wi. A... Dickey... 2c ce eee eee $22 
A Winter Weather Record from the Klondike Region ; by E. W. Net- 
SON.. Cr aiechateatesien falar fab stale Karbh «eal diya" Gis amas 22. atti ca a ae eee 327 
The ignesiin Census of 1897; [A. W. GREEDY) ijn dik ae ee ee 335 
The Washington Aqueduct and Cabin John Bridge; by D. D. Gatt- 
TANI}. 5: Ansara Yay sveroread eeu Tanttverate tlscopac ash atoe | Seay ecg yee ae ty Ste eee ae 308 
Gardiner Greene Hubbard; [JoHn iy pe les; 2. snes cee eee 345 
Pollution of the Potomac River; by F. H. Newer. ............-- . 346 
The Delta of the Mississippi River; by E. L. Corrmen............- aol 
ihe-Annexation Mever; Henry GaNNert ... sera. seer eee B04 
Sir John Evans and Prof. W J McGee; [Jonn Hypr].. ..........- 308 
Some Recent Geographic Events; [Joun Hype]...... Jevele 3 Se eS 
Geacraphie Waiteratures 2s) oiicis oo cle eeaeeeee Ieee kere Ma oe aloe 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society ..............-..-.- 365 
Generac: Notes i. ie tis ei, cc 5 act coer oiseay cs nee ean a ee 367 


At ovoVe>: <i BA" Giel Eesi' WelG 5 oLol A Mana reer OEIC eRe Sig SS 369 


i 
ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 
One of the huts of King Prempeh’s palace..............0006 oscee l 
Military road from Cape Coast Castle to Kumassi.................. 3 
Pune arin, Ane Nis COUP: e625. Vis sod aise oles s ov qos 7 
ear RPT TRAM IS a oct ido sates PANGS hie, Tips ok vee oe cae k Aree 10 
OA ELR SIS STL ESTES. 5 a a ea Oa RN a 1] 
SRO PEE MM WSU ATIICAS oye aied sv a's cd ceice ang oa nia aie cle ne See aie's 12 
BIGEUIG a TONITeeGnre Ol WO UIMASSI. 3.) ccs fleece bie vs wv we eidtsels's bo ead 13 
BeeR evr CurOInLY CMOURANE« 2:. 5 us 2c%. im wlome via dans be ces tg a velo obe edie 14 
Puce Oriseek wel And HIS COUT. c. ..2s sess cds cs eiea nis eed 15 
RareL es Mbt oeN CETONIC UDA ie 4 e's: > suc thacask nace bd eoviees srw al wlavcha’m Srocck Slaw rhe 33 
Map showing routes to Crater lake.............. doom tanreyere re ile raan's iite 35 
MMRNN CONN MMR aE ee Se Se I~ cae! eigiatNG ade Pea Viate, Ste Sale ate oa a Bawa viotent 36 
me MAGE CTE INORG ie Roe) si as, cals eh Gp Ss dnd tng eek cig hua wimg 38 
EAC MATING OO GAUGE DICE os! au s'onids tdie's wiis'eloe Seis c's» a aaare oe 39 
POMUMERNISMONE Ol OLALET LAKE, 2. ciluls sate S/olsaieie leit is oie oes «ssa tes 3 
nection of Crater lake and Mount Mazama.................000000. 45 
OMIM OM VIAETO ISIATIO: osc. vik cad oye wcisis e.g cuales baw eed awuce are oe 47 
OUR gie SSDI 9 Si CoS 7) ha 05 AR a 72 
Nae aE Did eee AA ILL PO Noe cl wn. aie 2 MASS «ao 0.08 Mcblb’a « vi blaree ave oheiaats 73 


MEIN IRIG MAM (OI fie. gsc ata e ned b ve cowed ae eaeus vice Gua 74 


EAE SERS SACS nya Uo fol Gol OR) ag ee Ra 74 
SPN SR PE Wes PEAR EHC iar sic Box S's «ras em don Gt w4 rdw oe als la aed 6 Biase sal abe tae 74 
NIN UIE) tree, Gir k Neila Sib op walbe se oars e atten 76 
na aM eT UREA EE ook fea oki ciao clate ss wins @ ftIAs ere eas Hee eRe S gees ewe 77 
hog HUES. TIS) 40] Bi) OS a ALE 77 
MePMMME ELUM TNC AL Ory F's) L- 2 oa 'e tre. sie's Wiel alecgle oxy a/dle aa vig neptos onal em 77 
Mold wave, 1660 (pl. UL) ee ce ce se Hee TON, astare nen eM tere Ne 77 
PR WAV GH UBOON GOL U2 Nes. cate wei dae Pen Sale Re teres’ Kivi «Ea Syas e S ami oh ae 
DROME OUUO I ag ioe ce nid ect ee ots «2 ais ghet Pd bos clogs Ainley nies 77 
Ol Waver LEGO (OU TAY Soca) sess kes eae ete pL kl tah a na Per 77 
Tornadovwat Louisville, (pl. 1d)... 35... . 60. UT rettates eaceanawe eu tat Nich eee 78 
SO iea eet es ECU ates MURAL POLO NG Jats a. 2 oh ialele a. Gu ie Ser ncse aldo ors aces wi\iigye ie cle 78 
Dares Pet Nana ROMER OUTLG NGI L gi) 'c%= ore > 5 cep-mpn <M eisiy in oe ip, «| pllhy Selim myale! pera 80 
Ohanve in air presstre:(pl. 18). osc. ee ees CANCE Secreta 80 
eMC RUT PICANIG (LeU Ojos ww acini sansa oe Meee 5 Sls ania aharatareys 80 
Change in air pressure (pl. 20)... 06... e ete cee eee cee eet ene eee 80 
+ Westie bebisiergu cr it cit 0] br d ) ae a ee e ene oe Coc esca tact ke 80 
Change in air pressure (pl. 22)...........- 0s eee cette rece teen eens 80 
West India hurricane (pl. 23)..........---..-.. A Ebrite aco ae 80 
Change in air pressure (pl. 24) .......-.- ee eee e se cece teen eee ees 80 
West India hurricane (pl. 25)........- 20sec ec eee ce eee cee nes 80 
Change in air pressure (pl. 26)...... 60 e cece eee eee cee eens 80 
UE TGM 30) Gye? 0 GOR Rene eee eae 99 
A settlement on Umanak fiord....... ccc ceese cece rere ence entnaee 102 


vi ILLUSTRATIONS 
\ 


Page 

AiGreenland mamiiky.. 5% 6) oa) 2 Dehenn. atest we esavo nese Baanaiote ORC Rrertecniat aa 104 
Kayaker in umanakitiords262.2555,s) tis oss caine vee cele aati Senne 105 
Face of Itivdliarsuk-olacienas ioc ace lsa Beatle assole nia tp lara oie wie oe oa 107 
The ‘Hope im, tueice: oi, Cape: Mereys 5 ou 56 bars Pete tes oie ole ssn ob 108 
Cumberland?’ Sounds Wskimosee sp 4-2.) sete eas a aeetoate Se Nsuaee 109 
Portrait of Admiral, Rie We Meade! (U8. 9N. (pl 27 oc sue aera sm eolelal ster 129 
Miip of the straitsiot Magellan yop pega er 2 ier cn sterstctnlecauaieret 131 
Simms COSTA HRTCA ier nates atae othr ne Serene ae rR ean oo Natal Poca, ae 144 
Mheveathedralat Sam VOSes Costa Dev Gh aati eeete ian eels eine ieee meee 146 
AGStTeehlul Sam OSe-aCOSta oluleas sm mentees aie ey te eee Biter (27 
in, Palamianca. Costa Rican Aa cao crdatesaic st iste hc eye nie hee ree ne 150 
Portrait of Engineer-in-chief Geo. W. Melville (pl. 28)......... .- + L6L 
NOFESLRY sR a eetesy alice ere ele er Oe crepe th alrwe i auctcehe aan eee 181 
Classitiedsland diaoram A. ero ce a acrepncee a aleve rete oleae ae eee i83 
Typical view of the Grand Cafion (pl. 29).....-.............. nie bOe: 
Petrie dt STAMINA ANT ZOU: c.15.) pt is oreo ie asthe hee 207 
Petritied lossscAmizonas. -cistcn,s 2 . clas Slate ete ol aes ee ce 209 
Sanekrancisco moumtarns (oles) merece seperate tule See eA, 
Mie CAN On COUNLEY.. 44 ea. 26ii-eit = 6 eerie Le Set aap cg ty A oe aa Rare as 
Map, of Mount stablelens (ole coil). 3: ascertain e 228 
Ancient and modern outlines of Lake Erie............ ........... 234 
_ Ancient and modern outlines of Lake Ontario..+...... ........... 235 
‘The Nipissipe( Great Wake a: 6 woe oa. ae Saitieeeieete co ote ieee 236 
Oscillations of the surface of Lake Michigan....................... 240 
Annual oscillations of the surfaces of the Laurentian lakes......... 241 
Lake surface as used for measuring earth movements .............. 241 
Map of the Great Lakes, showing gauging stations, ete ............ 243 
iRhe Enchanted=Mesa, (plie32) ee aenisere ce cers eres ee 278 
The great sandstone cleft of the mesa (pl. 33) .... ............... 274 
Bnehanted esa, trom the:southinc.. see ae ee ee PATEL 
hye wtattest paruot chem esay (plete) ieee er eae nee ern eee 279 
An artificial monument on the summit of the mesa................ 280 
kinchantedsMesa fromiythelsoutbeasteser cree ree eee 281 
Man; of the imesarsummnit,: s.Uok Sa en ae ieee cee 283 
Mayer'elacier, “Patagonia (ple 3)ohiesceneceei sony ate eae eee 305 
Tehuelche boy..... a ales Ue ATTN ee EE ee AG cre 3 ane tagei Oh See 307 
Mehnmelciie tama hy cum dat @l clogs wee ace iaee erect er ra ane 309 
Map of Pataromia. vaso) s eae Eb ipeh ibics bem ana age a fre 311 
SienraywVientanag teabae Oni a (poles) Fame eee e enn 9 cele 315 
Mount leviathan. dierracdely Rules @ rere reer fee old 
Typical view of the Pampas, Patagonia (pl. 37)...:.......-...2.0008 317 
Map of Sushitna river, Alasleats 2) 2sssns enon Mees 323 
Portraits of Sir John Bee and W J McGee (ploS8) 22 cescome eee 307 


Aqueduct bridge over Cabin John creek, near Washington, D. C.... 341 
Cabin John bridge, Washington aqueduct, the largest stone arch in 

the sworld goles): i a alc ee hearer oeneiina ts eycsnls acai eae 344 
SUAS VA TICEER Ea! si SUM kigrti he'd ee Ate ak aes Rae nee 360 


Psy 


AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 


Honorary Editor: JOHN HYDE 


Honorary Associate Editors ‘ 
LY (| We-S-McGEE : HENRY GANNETT, 
MERRIAM ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


CONTENTS 


OAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI. 


ustrations. | ; GEORGE K. PRENCH 
IND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY. 
xe 2. Ea ALBERT S. GATSCHET 


OF THE\HOURST NIGER EXPEDITION. 

e ¥ BRNEST DE SASSEVILLE 
erials, p. 25; Geographic Notes, p. 26; Miscellanea, p..27; Pro- 
‘s of the National Geographic Society, p. 28; Geographic 
pmentof Civilization, p. 29. Index to Volume VII. 


aa, WASHINGTON 

ED. BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 
| Agents.1In pHE.UNITED Srares AND CANADA a 
in News. Company; 39 AND 41 CuAmbers Street, New York ve 
Paris: Brentanos, 37 AVENUE DE OPERA a 
. “fy ; 
Y ee) 
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in Washington, D. C., as Second-class Mail Matter. ae . 

ed 


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a? y 2 5 a " 
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TH Ho: : 
National Geographic Society 


ORGANIZED, JANUARY, 1888 


PRESIDENT 
GARDINER G. HUBBARD 


Vicr-PRESIDENTS - 


MARCUS BAKER A. W. GREELY 

WILLIAM H. DALL C. HART MERRIAM 

G. K. GILBERT HERBERT G. OGDEN 
TREASURER 


CHARLES J. BELL 


RecOoRDING SECRETARY CorRESPONDING SECRETARY 
EVERETT HAYDEN HENRY GANNETT 
MANAGERS 
H. F. BLOUNT W J McGEE 
©. W. DABNEY, Jr. F. H. NEWELL 
DAVID T. DAY WB. POWELL 
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SECRETARY’S OFFICE, 1517 H STREET N. W., WASHINGTON 


The National Geographic Society, the object of which is the increase and diffusion 
of geographic knowledge, has a paying membership of 1,400. Its membership is not 
restricted to practical geographers, but is open to any person in good standing who may 
be sufficiently interested in its work to seek admission. The annual subscription is: for 
active members, $5.00 per annum ; for corresponding members, $2.00 perannum. Active 
members pay also an entrance fee of $2.00 on election. Tar Narronat GpoaRaPurc 
MaGazine is sent regularly to all members, both active and corresponding. 


Donations for the founding of Prize Medals and Scholarships are 
respectfully solicited. 


ECE 
National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. VIII JANUARY, 1897 No. 1 


He tsOLD. COAST, ASHANTI, AND. KUMASSI 
By Georcre K. FRENcI 


The Guinea coast les between the southern boundary of Sierra 
Leone and the delta of the tortuous Niger, in West Africa. It 
is a part of Africa that abounds in dark tradition and tragedy, 
and romance has never dared to trespass on its forbidding shore 
or penetrate its deadly swamps and jungle. It is a place where 


ONE OF THE HUTS OF KING PREMPEH’S PALACE 


From a photograph by George K. French 


2 THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 


a 


the fiercest and most selfish passions of man, white and black, 
have vented themselves for four centuries. The white slaver 
came here for his merchandise, the black slave-owner ashore 
supplied the trade, and if his barracoons were empty when a 
cargo was needed, a quantity of trade goods—rum, gin, cloth, and 
trinkets—accomplished his purpose in a moment. It was in 
very truth a survival of the stronger, and one native was as eager 
to sell his brother as he was to collect his pay from the native 
procureur. 

The old Grain coast is comprised within the Republic of 
Liberia, while the Ivory coast, now French territory, is adjacent 
on the southeast. The Slave coast extends from the Niger some 
900 miles west to the Gold coast, the latter section of the Guinea 
coast lying between the old Ivory and Slave coasts. A hundred 
years ago these distinctive names were applied by all geographers, 
but today only the Gold coast is to be found on our maps. ‘Three 
hundred and fifty miles of the latter coast belong to Great Britain, 
while the interior borders of the colony, of which this sea-coast 
forms one boundary, stretch away toward the north as far as the 
Ashanti country. Since the recent taking of Kumassi and the 
downfall of the Ashanti confederation the hinterland of the 
colony has been extended 100 miles further to the north. 

Between the eastern and the western boundaries of the Gold 
coast the view presented from the sea is varied and picturesque. 
The shore is often girt with great rocks over which the surf breaks 
with tremendous force; again, a sandy beach, fringed with tall, 
spectral palms, which stand like mute sentinels guarding the ap- 
proach to the forlorn shore, separates the ocean from salt lagoons 
and swamps of immense area, while in places the mouths of 
rivers reveal themselves by the presence of dangerous bars, over 
which the waters boil and seethe, affording fair warning of their 
existence to anxious mariners. The villages of the natives are 
discernible at frequent intervals, and a fair appreciation of archi- 
tectural taste is evinced in the construction of their huts. Rect- 
angular houses of swish, or adobe, sometimes ‘with ,a second 
story, take the place of the rude huts of the Grain and Ivory 
coasts, and among these are interspersed the more pretentious 
residences of European traders, and forts which have been erected 
from time to time during the past four centuries. 

_ As early as the middle of the fourteenth century the Gold coast 
was known to the European world, but not until 1471, when the 
Portuguese navigators, Juan de Santarem and Pedro Escobar 


THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI1 3 


touched at a point on the coast which they called Oro de la Mina, 
was there any definite knowledge concerning it. In 1481 a large 
fort was erected at Oro de la Mina, or Elmina, as it is now called, 
by the Portuguese, and it stands today in an excellent state of 
preservation. ‘The Dutch captured it in 1637, and held it until 
1872, when it was transferred to the British. Other stations on 
the Gold coast, established between the end of the fifteenth and 
the middle of the present centuries by the Portuguese, Spanish, 
Danes, French, Dutch, and Brandenburgers, have finally become 
British possessions either by conquest or purchase. 

Cape Coast Castle is eight miles east of Elmina. While the 
latter was under Dutch control it was the port of the Ashanti 
country, but since the expedition against King Kwofi in 1873-74, 
when a road through the dense forest was constructed to Kumassi 


MILITARY ROAD FROM CAPE COAST CASTLE TO KUMASSI 


From a photograph by George K. French 


4 THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 


from Cape Coast Castle, the trade has followed this route, and 
thus the latter place has developed into a town of some commer- 
cial importance. Palm-oil, palm-kernels, ginger, gold-dust, ma- 
hogany, monkey skins, camwood, and rubber are exported in 
enormous quantities to England and the European continent 
from this port in exchange for rum, gin, cloth, trinkets, and other 
articles of European manufacture. The castle from which this 
last-named town takes its name was built by the Portuguese and 
taken by the Dutch in the seventeenth century, but since 1666 
it has been a British possession. It is a spacious, strongly forti- 
fied, stone building, and back of it at a distance of two miles rise 
a series of heavily timbered hills, which have an altitude of eight 
or nine hundred feet. Between the fort and these hills lies the 
town. Akkra,. the seat of government of the Gold Coast colony, 
is about sixty miles east of Cape Coast Castle. There are numer- 
ous smaller towns and trading posts along the coast, but their 
European population is limited to two or three traders and an 
occasional missionary. 

The shore is difficult of access, as is the case along the entire 
Guinea coast; sand-bars block the mouths of rivers, and har- 
bors are lacking; consequently passengers and cargo are dis- 
charged in boats through a heavy surf on a frequently dangerous 
beach, and many a human life and many a ton of valuable mer- 
chandise have been lost in the effort to effect a landing. These 
surf-boats are English built, of heavy timber, are twenty-eight 
feet long, six feet beam, and have long, overlapping bow and 
stern in order that they may surmount and not cut the breakers. 
A boat’s crew is made up of eleven men and a coxswain. The 
latter steers with an ordinary long-bladed, straight oar or sweep, 
while the crew sit on the gunwales of the boat and propel it 
with paddles, the blades of which are fashioned not unlike a 
trident. The crew are almost naked, a loin cloth being the only 
attempt at clothing. They sing lustily while paddling, bestow- 
ing fulsome praise on the particular individual who has engaged 
them, and chanting vigorously of the amount of “ dash,” equiva- 
lent to the “bakshish ” of the East, which he will probably shower 
upon them when they have landed him in safety. 

The population of the Gold Coast colony, excluding the tribes 
of the Ashanti confederation, is roughly estimated at 2,000,000, 
of whom only about 150 are Europeans. There are many dif- 
ferent tribes of natives, speaking various languages or dialects, 
but all belonging to the negro race. The tribes of the Fanti 


: THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASS1 5 


confederation, who line the coast from Elmina to Akkra, deserve 
special mention as having from time immemorial been brought 
into close contact with the British. Of the natives who have 
migrated to the colony within the last fifty years, the most im- 
portant are the Mohammedan Haussas, from the Niger districts 
of the interior, who man the ranks of the military police, and 
the Krumen, from the coast to the west. The latter are a most 
useful element, but are somewhat unstable, as they invariably 
return to the Kru coast as soon as they have earned a small 
competence. Most of the natives are still pagans, but the pres- 
ence of Christian missionaries among them for the last fifty vears 
has at least resulted in their modifying their fetich worship and 
savage rites. The Mohammedans on the Gold coast are, with 
the exception of the Haussas, mainly traders, and they are 
found in the larger settlements on the coast and along the trade 
routes of the interior. 

The Fantis are an inoffensive, peace-loving, happy-hearted 
race, who readily succumbed to European aggression, but have 
been exceedingly loth to accept its civilization and Christianity. 
In common with the other natives of West Africa, with the ex- 
ception of the Haussas and the Krumen, the Fanti is shiftless 
and will work only when it is absolutely necessary. Centuries 
of life without a want that nature did not lavishly supply have 
quite spoiled him for the advantages of civilization and its ac- 
companying responsibilities, and it is no easy task to convert 
him to the ways of European life; yet he is tractable and read- 
ily governed, and the colonial official and trader find no great 
difficulty in utilizing him for many purposes. He has a full 
appreciation of justice, is honest, hospitable to strangers who 
approach him for no evil purpose, and has an absolute faith in 
the superior beauties and advantages of Fantiland, though to 
the white man it seems the dreariest and most hopeless place in 
the world, and official statistics prove it to be the most deadly 
spot on the face of the earth for the foreigner of every nation- 
ality. In the year 1895, for instance, the average European 
population of Cape Coast Castle was thirty-two. Of these, sev- 
enteen died during the first two months of the year from the 
malignant fevers which plague the coast at all seasons. It is 
true that, as a British colonial report apologetically states, it 
was a bad season on the coast, but the figures for every other 
year show an appalling death-rate among Europeans at all sta- 
tions on the Slave and Gold coasts. So far as can be judged 


6 THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSTI 


from imperfect statistics, the Grain coast and the British colo- 
nies of Sierra Leone and the Gambia, and also the region be- 
tween the Niger delta and the mouth of the Kongo, are by com- 
parison less deadly, but this is indeed faint praise. 

The stranger visiting the Gold coast will at first be sorely puz- 
zled by the similarity of the names of the natives. Every child 
takes its surname from the week-day of its birth, and strangers 
theirs from the day of their arrival, with an additional sobriquet. 
descriptive of some personal peculiarity. For instance, a child 
born on Wednesday receives the name of that day of the week, | 
Kwako. Kwabina (Tuesday) and Kwako are held to be “ strong 
days ” of birth; but children that appear on Fridays, Saturdays, 
and Mondays are considered ‘‘ weak as water.” Nothing will in- 
duce the Fanti to sleep with his head toward the sea or to take 
possession of a new dwelling-house ona Tuesday or Friday, both 
these days being regarded as unlucky for this purpose. Paternal 
affection and filial love apparently do not exist. The mother 
nurses her child for one or two years, and then it must shift for 
itself. There is no appearance of affection even between hus- 
_ bands and wives, or between parents and children; and Duncan, 
an English traveler who visited the Gold. coast fifty years ago, 
states that many parents offered to sell him their sons or 
daughters as slaves. 

In common with many other natives of Africa, the Fanti lives 
in close communion with the vague and mysterious beings of the 
unseen world. A large proportion of his.time is spent in con- 
sulting or appeasing the deities that inhabit the earth, the air, 
the sea, the rivers, and even trees, sticks, stones, and hits of cloth. 
If he is ill, he believes that his ancestors are summoning him, 
and he at once proceeds to consult the fetichman. The latter 
is given a fee and is requested to present the sick man’s excuses 
to the expectant shades. These fetich priests generally exercise 
great influence over their superstitious fellows. Sometimes the 
departed is supposed to have returned to earth in the body of a 
child, and yet. remaining in Deadland, thus giving rise to the 
assertion by some travelers that the doctrine of metempsychosis 
obtains among the Fantis. They bury their dead in their houses, 
choosing a room that can afterward be kept fastened up or se- 
cluded. This custom the colonial authorities have attempted to 
abolish on sanitary grounds, but the effort has not wholly suc- 
ceeded. So much homage did the Egyptians pay to their dead, 
that it was said that they lived in Hades, rather than on the 


THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 7 


THE KING OF ELMINA AND HIS COURT 


From a photograph by Skues, Cape Coast Castle 


banks of the Nile. So is it with the Fantis; constant sacrifices 
must be made to appease the departed and to remind them that 
they are not forgotten ; and it is part of the Fanti belief that 
unless the custom is religiously observed the shade will wander 
on the banks of the Sacred Prah for the space of a hundred years 
before it has performed sufficient penace for its friends’ neglect. 
Abonsam and Sasabonsam are the two great deities conjured up 
by the Fantis. The former controls the wicked in the land of 
shades, while the latter has his domicile on earth. Death isa 
matter of much moment, and extravagant ‘‘customs” are held 
and heavy expenses incurred by the deceased’s relatives in order 
to satisfy the demands of the shade, these orgies frequently being 
repeated at intervals in order to “lay the ghost” in case it be- 
comes restive. The rumbling of thunder is supposed to be the 
voice of the dead demanding propitiation and sacrifice, and 
lightning as the direct infliction of the evil spirit on the person 
or object struck. Mourning is evidenced by shaving the head 
for a certain period, and this is accomplished by bits of jagged 
stone or broken bottles. 

There was a time when the Fantis were the most powerful 
tribe of the Gold coast, but during the last century they have 


8 THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASST 


suffered so many crushing defeats from the Ashantis that they 
haye lost their national spirit, and are regarded both by the Brit- 
ish and by their hereditary enemies as arrant cowards. Land 
is held by individuals and families in severalty under well recog- 
nized rules, but boundary disputes are frequent, and are gener- 
ally determined by the memory of the oldest inhabitants. The 
Fantis are good artisans and make musical instruments (instru- 
ments of torture they seem to the white man’s ear), and iron 
implements for agricultural purposes, and they weave handsome 
cloths in narrow strips, which are sewn together so as to make 
them of any size required. Children go naked up to their ninth 
or tenth year. Men of the upper and middle classes wear robes 
of Manchester cotton, in exactly the same manner as the Romans 
wore the toga. Married women expose the upper half of the 
body and wear capacious cloths, which are deftly fastened about 
the waist and hang below the knees. Maidens cover the breast, 
and are much given to personal adornment. 


As the:shore is difficult of access from the sea, so Kumassi 
and the interior are difficult of access from the coast. The 
country lies in the forest belt of the continent, and the white 
man travels with difficulty. The native can wend his way along 
the narrow path, sleeping wherever nightfall may find him, and 
eating from his own supply of kenke, faful, or plantain. But 
the white man must provide himself with hammockmen, if he 
would spare himself, and carriers to transport his food supplies 
and paraphernalia; in fact, the necessary preparations for a trip 
of a few hundred miles through the average African hinterland 
are quite as extensive as for a trip around the world by the regu- 
lar routes of travel. For a week after landing at Cape Coast 
Castle in January of last year, I devoted my entire time to en- 
gaging carriers, hammockmen, and attendants. In this I was 
assisted by a Fanti youth of sixteen years, Amoah by name, who 
spoke fair English and a dozen native dialects in addition to his 
own tongue. His grandfather, a great war chief, enjoyed a pen- 
sion of seven pounds a month from the British government for 
services rendered the colony in the Ashanti war of 1873-74, and 
this distinction gave Amoah superlative standing both in his 
own estimation and that of his friends. 

The distance from Cape Coast Castle to Kumassi is 142 miles, 
and I pursued the identical route taken by the expedition of 
1874 under Sir Garnet Wolseley. Prahsu, a town of not less 


THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI1 9 


than 10,000 inhabitants, is situated on the Prah river, 72 miles 
from the coast, and this I reached at the end of ten days. The 
road from the coast to this point has been through the Assin 
country, a veritable wilderness of swamp and virgin forest, the 
monotony of which was broken only by great bamboo groves 
and by stagnant pools of fetid water. Villages of from 50 to 500 
huts were passed at intervals of a few miles, and in all of them 
the inhabitants proved hospitable and honest. The Prah, which 
forms the southern boundary of the Ashanti country, is an in- 
significant stream whose course is frequently interrupted by 
rapidsand shoals. In the dry season it is navigable only a short 
distance from its mouth, near Chama, 30 miles west of Cape Coast 
Castle. As water is a precious commodity on the Gold coast, 
particularly during the dry season, the natives have imposed the 
term “sacred” upon it. although it may have been, in deference 
to the particular god which makes its habitat therein. 

The path from Prahsu to Kumassi threads its way through 
the Adansai country. For days at a time the light of the sun 
never pierces the gloomy forest, and, although the traveler is thus 
protected from the fierce tropical heat, the damp atmosphere is 
most depressing. Forty miles south of Kumassi is the Monse or 
Adansai hill. Stanley, in 1873, roughly estimated its altitude at 
1,600 feet, but recent observations determine it to be but 700. It 
is an abrupt elevation, and a hundred Ashantis with modern 
guns could easily repulse ten thousand adversaries from its rugged 
slopes and passes. On our fourteenth day out from the coast a 
small Ashanti village. within four miles of Kumassi, was reached. 
My carriers insisted upon stopping here for an hour in order to 
prepare for an imposing entry into the capital of the Ashanti 
kingdom. When we resumed our journey we found the physi- 
cal features of the country changing rapidly. The forest had 
disappeared, and we passed along a narrow road, lined on either 
side with tall plantains and bananas, until we emerged into an 
open plain covered with stubble. Over this plain our path led 
for some two hundred yards, until the edge of the swamp which 
surrounds Kumassi was touched. <A corduroy road made this 
easy of passage, and we soon found ourselves marching up a 
slight incline that broadened into a wide street or avenue which, 
as we afterward learned, was the main street of Kumassi. ‘The 
first glimpse was disappointing. ‘Travelers, from Bowditch to 
Winwood Reade, have described Kumassi as a city of preten- 
tious houses, possessing a stone palace wherein the king lived in 


10 THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 


‘ASHANTI WOMEN 


From a photograph by Skues, Cape Coast Castle 


great splendor, and containing a population variously estimated 
at from 40,000 to 100,000. But the first view convinced me that, 
whatever Kumassi may have been in the past, it was now but a 
poorly built town of a few thousand huts. Later and more care- 
ful observations confirmed me in this estimate. 

Some writers assert that the Fantis and Ashantis originally 
occupied the country south of the Kong mountains, near the great 
bend of the upper Niger. The Mohammedan tribes drove them 
south as far as the coast, where they were forced to stop. As the 
two peoples undoubtedly sprang from the same stock, the natural 
boundaries of rivers and hills, among other causes unknown to 
African history, were probably the first dividing lines in their 
development as separate nations. The languages of both are 
derived from the Tshi tongue and differ in only a few words and 
idioms. Their customs, folk-lore and legends, supernatural dei- 
ties and fetich worship, dress, and physical characteristics are 
almost the same, but the Fanti, through the civilizing influence 
of his contact with Europeans, extending over four centuries, has 
abandoned many of the savage practices which still obtain among 
the Ashantis. . 

For three centuries Ashanti has maintained its existence as a 


THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 11 


confederation of powerful tribes, acknowledging as its only rival 
the neighboring kingdom of Dahomey. From the beginning of 
the seventeenth century down to the present time its history is 
replete with bloody wars and mercenary incursions on weaker 
tribes, and among the latter the Fantis have felt its merciless 
heel only too often. Great Britain has during the present cen- 
tury sent five expeditions against Ashanti, and, with the excep- 
tion of the last one, with but little success. In 1824 Sir Charles 
McCarthy, governor-general of the British possessions on the 
Gold coast, led a large force of loyal natives as far north as Mansu, 
where the Ashantis gave battle. Sir Charles and his officers were 
captured and put to death, their bones being distributed among 
the Ashanti chiefs and sub-chiefs as talismans. Between 1824 and 
1875 two other expeditions were dispatched against the Ashantis 
by Great Britain, but both of them were driven back to the coast. 
In 1874, however, Sir Garnet Wolseley marched straight into 
Kumassi at the head of only 1,400 troops, among whom were the 
42d Highlanders, the famous “ Black Watch” of the Indian 
mutiny; but, although Kumassi was sacked and burned, the 
expedition accomplished little beyond inspiring the natives with 
a high opinion of British valor. 


ASHANTI CHILDREN 


From a photograph by George K. French 


12 THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSTI 


A ROYAL PROGRESS IN WEST AFRICA — THE KING OF DADIASST 


From a photograph by George K.. French 


Toward the end of 1895 the once powerful Ashanti confedera- 
tion had become greatly weakened by the open secession or 
wavering loyalty of its constituent tribes. These were ten in 
number, namely, Beckwai, Daniassi, Kokofu, Nkoranza, Dadiassi, 
Juabin, Mampon, Nquanta, Nsuta,and Kumassi. Only three of 
these, the most remote from the coast to the north of Kumassi, 
were openly loyal to the King of Kumassi, who held the throne 
or golden stool and was called the King of Ashanti. The other 
kings were quite ready to secede from the confederation, the 
unity of which was now about to be attacked and destroyed by 
British arms, and they were anxiously awaiting overtures from 
the coast. Such was the pitiable and humiliating condition of 
the “ Ruler of Heaven and Earth ” at thistime. Proud and arro- 
gant to the last, although abandoned by most of his followers, 
King Prempeh calmly awaited the approach of the little band 
of British soldiers, led by Sir Francis Scott, from Cape Coast 
Castle. He was, however, only a weak and misguided tool of 
the savage Queen Mother and a dupe of dishonest advisers, and 
he offered no resistance to his seizure, with some forty of his 
courtiers, and his removal to the coast, where he is now impris- 


‘ THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 13 


oned in Elmina castle. Thus Kumassi fell without the shedding 
of a drop of blood, though the deadly fever claimed its usual vic- 
tims, among them being Prince Henry of Battenberg. 

Kumassi is about three miles in circumference, oval in shape, 
and is surrounded by a noisome swamp. The main street runs 
north and south and is about a mile in length. It is less than 
thirty yards in width, and on either side are built the swish and 
thatch huts of the general aspect of those given in the accompa- 
nying illustration. Back of these two rows of huts are perhaps 


DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE OF KUMASSI 


From a photograph by George K. French 


three thousand other huts. Allowing six or seven inhabitants 
to each hut, the population may number, but can hardly exceed, 
20,000. There seemed no regularity of direction or plan in the 
streets or passage-ways between the huts,and without a guide it 
would be difficult to find a given place. In the extreme south- 
eastern part of Kumassi, adjacent to the swamp, is the king's 
palace. It consists of a hundred huts grouped within a stockade 
thirty feet high. This stockade gives way in places to the walls 
of two- and even three-storied huts, evidently erected under the 
direction of European captives. The decorations on the walls 


14 THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 


of the palace, both interior and exterior, are crudely worked in 
clay in faint bas-relief, and consist of grotesque figures of men 
and women, hybrids, with bodies of sheep, goats, elephants; 
snakes, deer, and leopards combined with heads and tails of 
monkeys, lizards, and alligators. On one hut I noticed the figure 
of a man holding in one hand a human head, evidently his own, 
as that member was missing from its proper place. 

West of the main street and near its southern extremity is the 
Sacred Grove, so graphically described by Stanley and others, 
as it existed prior to 1874. Several hundred lofty cottonwood 
trees, scattered over a rectangular space four acres in area, thou- 
sands of bodies in all stages of de- 
composition and grinning skulls 
gleaming white from their resting- 
place, scores of vultures hovering 
above or perched on the limbs 
of the trees waiting for the next 
human sacrifice —such was the 
, Sacred Grove at the beginning of 
1896. Dynamite, however, had 
materially altered its appearance 
before I left Kumassi. The Great 
Executioner, an officer of high 
rank closely attached to the king’s 
household, presided here in his 
gruesome work. While in recent years the practice of making 
human sacrifices in Kumassi has been greatly checked by Euro- 
pean influences, the present executioner is chargeable with the 
taking of many thousands of human lives—a number variously 
estimated at from twenty to fifty thousand—during the thirty 
years of his tenure of office. Some time after the main body of 
the British expedition under Sir Francis Scott had returned to 
the coast the executioner was captured and held as a prisoner 
in Kumassi, the British authorities believing that he knew where 
the golden stool, the emblem of the king’s office, was hidden. 
While he was thus detained I photographed him on several 
occasions, and the picture reproduced in this article is from the 
best of these. | 

On the return journey to the coast I diverged from the main 
route in order to visit the King of Beckwai. I found him living 
in pomp and splendor at the town of Beckwai, the population 
of which is about half that of Kumassi. It has no characteristics 


THE GOLD COAST, ASHANTI, AND KUMASSI 15 


dissimilar to those of the latter place. Lake Busumakwe, care- 
fully explored in February, 1896, by Major Donovan, of the 
British army, I spent two days in exploring, but found nothing 
that Major Donovan had not noticed. 

It is unnecessary to trace the real reasons that impelled the 
British government to subjugate Ashanti and annex it to the 
Gold Coast colony. A careful study of the history of the colony 
and its relations with its savage neighbors will throw much light 
on the subject; but it is proper to assert that England's enlight- 
ened policy in other parts of Africa will undoubtedly be ap- 
plied here and will result in the ultimate spread of civilization 
throughout this darkest part of the dark continent. In this con- 
nection it seems proper to call attention to a map of the “ British 
Possessions in West Africa,” published in November, 1895, by 
Stanford, of London, whereon, before the expedition had left 
England, Ashanti was presented as a part of the Gold Coast 
colony. The same map gives the Half Cape Mount river as 
the boundary line between the English colony of Sierra Leone 
and Liberia, whereas it should have been the Manoah river, 50 
miles further north. 


. THE KING OF BECKWAI AND HIS COURT 


From a photograph by George K. French 


ALL AROUND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 


By ALBERT S. GATSCHET, 


Bureau of American Ethnology 


Travelers coming from the south will find in the deeply in- 
dented coast lands of the state of Maine a type of landscape 
differing considerably from others previously noticed. Through 
the fiord-like character of Maine’s tidewater section the water 
element everywhere blends in with terra firma, which alternately 
projects and recedes, and by the well-marked color contrast be- 
tween the blue ocean and the green or somber-hued earth strikes 
our sight agreeably. The level shore lands of the southern At- 
lantic states are here replaced by hills, headlands, and capes of 
bolder outlines, partly clothed in the fainter green of northern 
vegetation, while other elevations exhibit the-rocky, ocean-beaten 
foundation upon which they are built. The dark-hued pine and 
_ fir trees, which in other countries live in the mountains only, 
here descend to the sea-coast, enlivening the tops and sides of 
the numerous islands which lie scattered along the coast. The 
further we proceed northeastward along the coast, the more the 
scenery assumes a northern character. This is well evidenced 
by the spare vegetation and the thinness of the humus which 
we notice everywhere in and around Passamaquoddy bay, an 
extensive basin, the waters of which are fed by the majestic St 
Croix river from the north and by the St George or Megigadevie 
river from the east. The mainland encompasses this bay on all 
sides, fringing it with rock-bound promontories and some flat 
sand spits; only on the southeast side does it open toward the 
Atlantic ocean, and there a row of islands forms its limit and 
affords numerous passages suitable for navigation. 

The elevations encircling the bay of Passamaquoddy, though 
bolder than those we see further south, are mostly flat-topped 
and of tame outlines. They are nearing an incline of 20 to 30 
degrees, and therefore the local erosion through the impact of 
rain is not very considerable. None of the hills or islands in the 
bay rise above sea level more than about 300 feet. A feature that 
may be pertinently called the headland shore is prominent here. 

Whenever a portion of the mainland or of one of the larger 
islands in this region advances toward the salt water it first 

16 


——_—-- —- 


ALL AROUND THE. BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 17 


sinks down, forming a depression, and then rises as a knoll or 


rounded hillock or hill before it plunges its rocky face abruptly 


into the ocean. These formations, appropriately termed heads or 


headlands, are frequent all around Passamaquoddy bay, Campo- 


bello island, Cobscook bay, and in many other sections of the 
Maine and New Brunswick coasts. Beaches filled with coarse 
gravel, the detritus of the rocky shores, form the transitory stage 
between the headlands and the more level promontories or points. 
Not infrequently one headland succeeds another in a line before 
reaching the water, and even after reaching the shore they reap- 
pear, jutting out from the briny element, two or three in suc- 
cession, and lying in one continuous file. This I have observed, 
e. g., on the north shore of Cobscook bay, west of astport, 
Maine. Campobello island, New Brunswick, is -replete with 
“heads” on its far-extending shores, the island being eleven 
miles long from north to south ; thus we have Bald head, Wilson 
head, East Quoddy head, Friar’s head, Head harbor—whereas 


the term * point,”’ less frequent there, appears in more numerous 


instances on the west side of the bay and up the St Croix river. 

Two large whirlpools, perceptible in the channel of the St Croix 
river, are objects of great curiosity to the strangers visiting these 
parts. One ofthem occurs between Moose island and the southern 


end of Deerisland, New Brunswick; the other, of minor propor- 


tions, lies two miles above, the river being over one mile wide at 
each place. They are carefully avoided by people passing, either 
ina white man’s boat or in the Indians’ canoe, for, like Charybdis 
of old, they are liable to capsize any small craft that ventures to 
come too near. They owe their existence not exclusively to the 


shock produced by the impact of the currents from the bay meet- 


ing those of the river, but also to the incoming tides and toa 
difference of temperature between the two bodies of water. 
The air temperature is generally low on the bay and around 


it. Winter begins in October, and even at midsummer persons 


who are not provided with warm clothing will often feel a chill 
pervading their system whena sudden breeze breaks in from the 
north or a thick fog stays till noontime over the ever-moving 
waters. The weather is generally serene throughout the year, 
but nevertheless morning fogs are of frequent occurrence. 

The Canadian Pacific is the only railroad company that brings 
visitors to the hospitable shores of Passamaquoddy bay, but there 
are numerous steamboats plying between St Andrews, St Ste- 
phen, Calais, and Eastport and the neighboring cities of St Johns, 

2 


18 ALL AROUND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 


Bar Harbor, and Portland. Whether the tourist visits these parts 
for sightseeing or for restoring impaired health by the aid of their 
bracing sea-breezes, he is sure to take a peculiar interest in the 
native Indians, whom he sees peddling their neat baskets and 
toys along the streets, on steamboats, and on hotel verandas. But 
little attention is needed to sean the Indian among a crowd of 
people by his dusky complexion and a sort of nonchalance in 
his deportment. His appearance and habits show him to bea 
living and moving survival from prehistoric times. 

The Passamaquoddy Indians of Maine constitute a portion of 
the northeastern or Abnaki group of the widespread Algonkinian 
stock, of which the ancient domain extended over a large area 
of the United Statesand Canada. The Abnaki Indians now sur- 
viving are divided into five sections, among which (1) the Pe- 
nobscots in Oldtown are the nearest affinity in language and race 
to the (2) St Francis Indians of Canada; (8) the Passamaquoddies, 
whose nearest kinsmen are (4) the Milicites, or Etchemins (this 
is their Micmac name), scattered along the St Johns river, New 
Brunswick; (5) the Micmacs, settled in Nova Scotia and on the 
east coast of New Brunswick. 

The present Passamaquoddies are about five hundred in num- 
ber, and a large intermixture with white blood has taken place, 
which according to a safe estimate may amount to one-third of 
thetribe. Inabout the same proportion they have also preserved 
their Indian vernacular, which among its European loan words 
counts more of English than of French origin. Many of these 
natives exhibit unmistakably the full physical marks of Indian 
descent—the long, straight, and dark hair, the strong nasal bone, 
and a rather dark complexion. The cheek-bones are not very 
prominent. The majority of the tribe are slim-built and of a 
medium stature. They are not increasing, and their Indian 
congeners on the Penobscot river are positively on the decrease. 

No central chief rules over these Indians now, but each of their 
three settlements-in Maine has a sagum or elective governor. 
These settlements all lie on watercourses or on the seashore. 
The one nearest to Eastport is at Pleasant point, near the town 
of Perry; another is in a suburb of Calais, and a third one for- 
merly lived upon Lewis island, but transferred its seats to the 
neighboring Peter Dana’s point, near Princeton, on the Kenne- 
bassis river, about 42 miles north of Eastport. Fishing is one 
of their chief industries, but in this they now follow entirely the 
example set by the white man; they care nothing for agriculture, 
and their village at Pleasant point is built upon the rockiest and 


ALL AROUND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 19 


most unproductive ground that could have been selected. The 
same may be said of some other Indian settlements, for many 
Indians do not require any better soil to rest their houses upon. 

The industries now forming their main support are the man- 
ufacture of toy boats from birch bark, of fishing canoes from the 
same material, of fans from ash-wood, and, chiefly, of ornamental 
and fancy baskets from the wood of the yellow ash. The baskets 
are made by the women, and during the summer season the men 
sell them in the markets, especially at the watering-places and 
in the commercial centers of the eastern states. The women 
display a high degree of taste in selecting their models for these 
tiny, elegant, and delicate art-products. The ash-wood is split 
into splints or blades of extreme thinness by machinery, seldom 
wider than an inch, then dyed in all possible, but always bright, 
colors. After this the splints are interlaced so as to form baskets 
of the most varied shapes. During the work of interlacing, 
blades of sweet-scented grass are inserted in the baskets, and 
thus “ finished” they are sent to the stores with a fragrant odor, 
which clings to them for months and increases their salability. 

The present area of the Passamaquoddy dialect is confined 
within a small district in Washington county, in southeastern 
Maine, and limited to the three settlements already mentioned. 
We may, however, add to it the area of the Milicite or “ Broken 
language ” dialect, which is heard in five or six Indian villages 
on the St Johns or Ulastuk river, in New Brunswick, and differs 
but little from Passamaquoddy. In former centuries these two 
dialectic areas were much more extensive, the proof of this rest- 
ing in the spread of geographic names worded in Passamaquoddy 
over the whole of Washington and Hancock counties, a part of 
Aroostook county, Maine, and over the western part of the New 
Brunswick territory. Just as large as this historic area was that 
of the Penobscot dialect, for, as the local names still demonstrate, 
it embraced the whole Penobscot river basin, with the valleys 


of its numerous tributaries. 


Inquiry into the signification of historic and actual geographic 
names of Indian origin has of late become popular among the 
educated classes of Americans. It is just twelve years since 
Charles Godfrey Leland encouraged those who might be able to 
accomplish the task to solve the riddles contained in the names 
of that country, most of which have a sound so musical and 
harmonious.* ‘Long acquainted with the great historic value of 


. 
*The Century Magazine, New York, 1884, vol. 28, pp. 668-677, in Leland's article: 
“Legends of the Passamaquoddies.” 


20 ALL AROUND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 


topographic names, Leland’s suggestion induced me, while study- 
ing the dialect, to listen to the opinions of capable Indians when 
I requested them to interpret a series of these names. Many 
interpretations thus obtained were so crude and ungrammatic 
that they could not besustained fora moment; but the majority 
of those resting on a correct linguistic basis disclosed the fact 
that they are mostly compound nouns and combinations either 
of two.substantives or of an adjective and a substantive, with 
the substantive standing last. In the first case, the noun stand- 
ing first is sometimes connected with the noun standing second 
by the case-suffix 7,as in Edu’ki m/’ni’ku, Deer island, from édak, 
deer. The local names around the bay mostly refer to the watery 
element, for the terms, beach, sand-bar, cliff, rocky shore, island, 
headland, point, bay and cove, eurrent and confluence make up 
almost the whole terminology of the region. The frequent end- 
ing -k (ik, -ik, -6k, -Gk) sometimes marks the plural of a noun 
considered as animate, but more frequently it is the locative case- 
ending observed in all Algonkinian dialects under various forms. 
This case-suffix corresponds minutely to our prepositions at, in, 
on, upon, at the place or spot of. It also obtains in the Penobscot 
and Milicite dialects; but in the southwest corner of Maine occur 
a number of geographic names in -éé, -it, -ot, which approximates 
the dialect in which they originate to that of Massachusetts and 
of Eliot’s Bible. So we meet there with names like Abadasset, 
Harriseekit, Manset, Millinoket, Ogunquit, Pejepscot (Sheepscot), 
Webhannet, and Wiscasset. The name Penobscot cannot be ad- 
duced here, for its original form in that dialect is Panawampskek, 
“where the conical rocks are.” 

The Indian names of elevations, rivers, and localities are in 
this article spelt in a scientific alphabet in which the vowels 
possess the value of and are pronounced as they are in the lan- 
guages of the European continent.“ To readers it will soon ap- 
pear how inconsistently the Indian names were rendered by the 
American and British natives in their pronunciation and how 
often parts of them were dropped entirely. These Indian names 
are generally easy to pronounce for Americans; still, Algonkin- 
ian dialects have a tendency to drop vowels when standing be- 
tween consonants at the beginning of words. This causes a 
peculiar difficulty of utterance, and makes some of them unpro- 
nounceable to a majority of English-speaking people. 


*g is always hard and é has the sound of e in bucket. 


ALL AROUND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 21 


A LIST OF INDIAN GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OCCURRING AROUND PASSA- 
MAQUODDY, BAY, MAINE, WITH THEIR DERIVATIONS 


Bar Harbor, Mount Desert, and Mount Desert island are all called in 
Indian Péssank or Péssan, ‘at the clam-digging place or places ;”’ 
from ess, ‘‘ shell,” referring here to the clam only; p- prefix, -an ver- 
bal ending. 

Bay of Fundy, a storm-beaten corner of the Atlantic ceean hetween 
Nova Scotia and New Paes is to the Indians Wekwabegituk, 

‘waves at the head of the bay,’’ -tuk referring to waters driven in 
waves or moved by the tide. Nowhere else in the world are the tides 
so high as in this bay. (See Oak bay.) 

Bishop's point, a locality on north head of Grand Manan island, New 
Brunswick. Its Indian name, Budebé-uhigen, means death- “rel of 
whales, from budebé-u, ‘‘ whale’’; —higen, a suffix which stands for 
‘*tool” or ‘‘instrument.” 

Bo npobello island, New Brunswick, is called Ebagwfdek, from its posi- 
’ tion between Maine and the mainland of New Brunswick, “ floating 
between; ” éba, between; ewiden, floating. Another Indian name 
for this island is Edlitik, which seems to refer to the sudden deepen- 
ing of the waters on the west side. 

Cherry island, a rocky formation just south of Indian island, New Bruns- 
wick, is known to the native Indian as Misik négtisis, ‘‘at the little 
island of trees.’’ Mfsi is ‘‘ tree” or ‘‘ trees;”’ misik, ‘‘ where trees 
stand ;” négi, abbreviation of m’niku, ‘‘island;’’ -sis, diminutive 
ending. . 

Cobscook bay, a body of salt water lying west and southwest of Moose 
island. Itis the Indian term kdpskuk, ‘‘at the waterfalls.’’? The 
tide, rising here daily to about twenty feet, enters into the sinuosi- 
ties of the shorelands, and the waters returning to the ocean form 
‘apids, riffles, or cascades (kdpsku). 

Deer island, New Brunswick, a large isle at the southern extremity of 
Passamaquoddy bay, is Edtitki m’niku, ‘‘ of the deer the island.” 
D’Orville’s head, eminence where St Croix river empties into Passama- 
quoddy bay ; Kwagustchus’k, “at the dirty mountain ;” from kwag- 
wéyu, ‘‘dirty;” tghus, “‘mountain;” —k, locative particle, “at.” 
The naine was long ago corrupted into the more popular ‘“ Devil’s 

head.” 

Eastport, city and harbor, has the same Indian name'as Moose island, 
upon which it is built, Muselénk. This is a corruption from the hy- 
brid compound Miis-élind’k, its second half being a corruption of 
island, with the locative -k appended. The locality where the las 
moose was killed, about a century ago, lies on its northern part. The 
genuine Indian name for Moose island is Mus m’niku. The Moose 
islanders (and the Eastport people especially) are called Mustléniek. 

Eel brook, a small rivulet at the northern end of Grand Manan island, 
isin Indian Katekddik, which stands for ia 7 ae and signifies 
““ where (-k.) eels (kit) are plentiful (akddi).”’ 


22 ALL AROUND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 


Gardner’s lake, in Machias township, is called Némdamsw’ dgum, the 
term némdam designating a species of fresh-water fish rushing up 
brooks and channels (ném, upward); d4gum, ‘‘ lake.” 

Grand Manan, New Brunswick, a large giana with high shores, south 
of Passamaquoddy bay, is the Menantk of the Indians. The name 
probably signifies ‘‘ at the island” in the Micmac dialect. 

Herring cove, a large sea-beach on the east side of Campobello island, 
facing Fundy bay and Grand Manan island, is called Pitchamkfak, 
“at the long beach ;’’ pitchéyu, i is long; Aamk, gravel; —kie, beach ; 
locative case, -kiak. This cove has lately been made accessible by 
a good road leading to it from the Tyn-y-coed hotel, and with its 
picturesque views and its multicolored pebbles forms quite an attrac- 
tion to visitors. 

Indian island, New Brunswick, forms a narrow strip of one and a half 
miles’ length at the southwestern entrance to Passamaquoddy bay, 
and was inhabited by these Indians before they crossed over to 
Lincoln’s point and Pleasant point, Maine. They call it Misik-négus, 
‘“at the tree island.’”’ The name of Cherry island (q. v.) is a diminu- 
tive of this. 

Kendall's head, a bold headland in northern Ba of Moose island and 
facing Deer island, New Brunswick, upon the ‘‘ western passage”’ of 
St Croix river, is called by the Indians Wabfgenék, or ‘‘at the white 
bone,” or Wabigén, ‘‘ white bone,” from the white color of a rock 
ledge on its top; wabi, white; -gen or —ken, bone; —k, at. 

Kunaskwamkuk, abbreviated frequently into Kunaskwaémk, is a com- 
prehensive name given to the town of St Andrews, New Brunswick, 
to the heights above and north of it, where the Algonquin hotel is 
erected, and to the coast between St Andrews and Joe’s point. The 
name signifies “at the gravel beach of the pointed top;” ‘kund, 
‘‘ point,” referring to a sandbar projecting into the bay; kunaskwé, 
‘“pointed top or extremity;” dmk, ‘‘gravel,” and here ‘‘ gravelly 
beach ;’’ —uk, locative ending, at, on, wpon. 

Lubec, a village south of Eastport, at the narrows between Campobello 
island and the mainland of Maine, is called Kebamkfak, “at the 
beach forming the narrows.” Kebé-ik means ‘‘ at the narrows,’’ and 
is the same word as the Cree and Montagnais: Kébek, Quebec, in 
Canada; —kfak is the locative case of kie, ‘‘af*the beach or beaches.” 

Machias and Hast Machias, two towns on the southern trend of the 
Maine coast, in Washington county, which were settled from Scar- 
borough, in Maine, represent the term metchiéss, partridge. 

Meddybemps village and Meddybemps lake, drained by Dennys | 
river, Dennysville township, are called after a fresh-water fish, méde- 
béss’m, or the hanpout. 

Moose island. (See Hastport.) : 

Moosehead lake, in the interior of Maine, Piscataquis county, is called _ 
in Passamaqnoddy Ktchi-siguk, ‘‘at the wide outlet.’’ A literal 
translation of the English name would be Musdtp dgémuk; mus, 
““moose deer;’’ —atp suffix referring to ‘‘head;’’ 4gémuk, ‘‘at the 
lake.’’ Chesuncook is in Penobscot dialect the name of a lake to the 


ALL AROUND THE BAY OF PASSAMAQUODDY 23 


northeast of Moosehead lake, and signifies ‘‘ at the big outlet,’’ 
Ktchi-sankuk. 

Mount Katahdin, on Penobscot river, though its name is worded in the 
Penobscot dialect, may be mentioned here as signifying ‘‘ large moun- 
tain;’’ the syllable kt- is equivalent to ktchf, “‘ large, great, big; ’ 
ad’ne, ad’na, is ‘‘ mountain.’’ The Penobscot Indians pronounce it 
Kta/d’n (a short); the Passamaquoddies, Ktad’n (a long). 

Norumbega is the alleged name of a river and some ancient villages or 
Indian ‘‘ cities” in Maine, spelled in many différent ways, but never 
located with any degree of certainty. The name does not stand for 
any Indian settlement, but is a term of the Abnaki languages, which 
in Penobscot sounds nalambigi, in Passamaquoddy nalabégik—both 
referring to the ‘‘ still, quiet ’’ (nala—) stretch of a river between two 
rifles, rapids, or cascades ; —bégik, for nipégik, means ‘‘at the water.”’ 
On the larger rivers and watercourses of Maine ten to twenty of these 
‘still water stretches’? may occur on each ; hence the impossibility 
of determining the sites meant by the old authors speaking of these 
localities. Narantsuak, now Norridgewok, on middle Penobscot river, 
has the same meaning. 

Oak bay, a large inlet of St Croix river, east of the city of Calais, is 
named Wekwadyik—‘‘at the head of the bay.” 

Passamaquoddy bay, according to its orthography now current, means 
the bay where pollock is numerous or plentiful. The English spell- 
ing of the name is not quite correct, for the Indians pronounce it 
Peskédémakéadi pekudebégek. Peskédem is the pollock-fish or ‘* skip- 
per,” ‘‘jumper ;”’ called so from its habit of skipping above the sur- 
face of the water and falling into it again ; —kadi, -akadi is a suffix, 
marking plenty or abundance of the object in question. (Cf. the name 
Acadia, derived from this ending.) There are several places on the 
shores of this bay especially favorable for the catch of this food-fish, 
like East Quoddy head, etc, as mentioned previously in this article. 
Quoddy, the abbreviated name now given to a hotel in Eastport, 
should be spelt; Kadi or Akddi, for there is no u-sound in this Indian 
term, and it would be better to write the name of the bay, if scientific 
accuracy is desired, ‘‘ Peskedemakadi bay.” 

Pembroke lake, a long water sheet, stretching from northwest to south- 
east, is in Indian Tmnakwan dgum, or ‘‘the lake where sweet tree- 
sap is obtained.” Mdakwan, or ‘‘sweet,” stands for the liquid sugar 
running from the sugar maple in season. Agum means ‘ lake.” 

Pleasant point, Indian village on the western shore of St Croix river, is 
called Sibd-ik, Sibdyik: ‘‘at the water-passage, on the thoroughfare 
for ships or canoes,’’ which refers to the sites just south of the 
pot.” 

Princeton, a village on the Kennebasis river, south shore (an affluent of 
the St Croix river from the west), is called Mdakmiguk, ‘‘on the 
rising soil; ’’ from mda, ‘ high, rising,’’ and kmigu, an abbreviation 
of ktakmigu, “land, soil, territory.” 

Red Beach, on west shore of lower St Croix river, Calais township, 
above Robbinston, is named Mekwamkés’k, ‘fat the small red 


24 RETURN OF THE HO URST NIGER EXPEDITION 


beach ;’’ from mékw/(a), ‘‘red;’’? admk, ‘‘ beach;” -es, diminutive 
ending, ‘‘ small, little,’’? and ’k, -tik, locative case suffix, ‘‘ at, on.” 

Schoodic or Skudik, “atthe clearings,’”’ is a topographic'term given to 
the Schoodic or Grand lake, on headwaters of St Croix river; also to 
the St Croix river itself, and to the town of Calais; built on its lower 
course. That these clearings were effected by burning down the 
timber appears from the term itself; for skwtit, skut means fire, and 
the name really means “‘at the fire.”” Another Skidik lake lies in the 
southeastern corner of Piscataquis county, Maine. . 

St Croix river, in Indian Skudik sip, ‘‘ the river of clearings ;” from the’ 
clearings on its shores or on the Skidik lake, where the river takes its 
origin. For a long distance it forms the frontier between Maine 
(Washington county) and New Brunswick. The French name, “ Holy 
Cross,’’ came from a cross erected by early French explorers. 

St Francis river, in Canada, Ontario province, upon which Indians 
cognate to the Penobscots of Maine are living, is called by them 
Lesigantuk, a contraction of Ulastigin-tuk. ‘Thesame name is given 
to their village and to the natives themselves. 

St George and St George river, emptying into the northeast end of 
Passamaquoddy bay, are just as well known by their Indian name, 
Megigadéwik, ‘‘many eels having;” from mégi, many ;' gat or kat, 
eel ; —wi, adjectival ending; —k, locative case suffix. ' 

St John river, running near ine western border of New Brunswick and 
its large tributary, the Aroostook, are both called in Penobscot and 
in Passamaquoddy, Ulasttik, ‘‘good river,” meaning river of easy 
navigation, without cascades, falls, or rapids; from tla, wuli, good ; 
-tuk, tidal river and waters driven in waves. aes 


) 


. RETURN’OF THE HOURST NIGER EXPEDITION 


The great geographical event in France just now is the return of the 
Hourst Niger expedition. The object of the mission was to survey the 
Niger, especially that part of the river which flows through French ter- 
ritory. As will be remembered, the Anglo-French agreement of 1890 
made the boundary between the French and English ‘‘spheres of in- 
fluence” a line starting from Say and running eastward to lake Chad. 
The upper Niger being unknown, the French: government decided to send 
an expedition, and the occupation of Timbuktu by the French made it. 
imperative. Accordingly the expedition was organized and placed under 
the command of Lieut. Hourst of the navy, his companions being Father 
Hacquard, a man of imposing appearance and well versed in Arabic and 
especially Tuareg dialects; Beaudry, senior midshipman; Bluzet, a lieu- 
tenant of marines, and Dr Taburet ; in all five young men whose combined 
ages would hardly make 140 years. . 

The party started in August, 1895, and-has just returned. The expedi-. 
tion was a complete success. The river has been duly studied and sur- 
veyed by competent men; about 45 meters of maps were brought back ; 


PE Oe ob ie 


’ 


Bi Sa A ie lee 


et = —> Oe 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS patie 


hostile tribes of wild Tuaregs were visited and friendly intercourse 
established (this was due mainly to Father Hacquard) ; not a man, white 
or black, has been killed; in fact, not a shot was fired (this is character- 
istic of French explorations anyhow), and the five men returned safe 
and sound. The maps which they bring will soon be published. The 
party, in three boats, descended the Niger from Timbuktu to its mouth, 
in spite of the rapids of Bussa, always declared impassable by the English 
Royal Niger Company. One of the boats was of aluminum and the other 
two were dug-outs. 

An interesting and amusing incident of the trip is told as follows: 
When the celebrated Barth visited that part of the Sudan he was ac- 
companied by a Tuareg interpreter called Backhay, who saved Barth’s 
life. When the great traveler left, Backhay prophesied that a son of 
Barth would some day visit the Sudan. Accordingly when Hourst ap- 
peared he was asked whether he was not Barth’s son, and the lieutenant, 
not knowing just what that meant, said that he was Barth’s nephew. 
When the history of the western Sudan is written up the Hourst expe- 
dition will certainly receive more than a passing notice. 

Ernest DE SASSEVILLE. 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The Geographical Journal for November contains a valuable paper by 
Major Leonard Darwin on Railways in Africa, in which the author sug- 
gests the railway system necessary to supplement the facilities afforded 
by the rivers for commerce. It contains also the narrative of a Journey 
around Siam, by J. S. Black, of a Journey in the Valley of the Upper 
Euphrates, by Vincent W. Yorke, and from Teheran towards the Caspian, 
by Lieut. Col. Henry L. Wells. There is also a review of De Morgan's 
Mission Scientifique to Persia, by Major General Sir Frederick J. Gold- 
smid. The December number isa notable one. It begins with the presi- 
dential address of Sir Clements Markham. Arthur Montefiore Brice con- 
tributes a long and extremely interesting article summarizing the work 
done by the Jackson-Harmsworth Polar Expedition during the last year. 
It is accompanied by a map summarizing the discoveries made by this 
expedition. Prince Henri d’Orleans gives the narrative of his journey 
from Tonkin to Assam. Commander H. E. Purey-Cust describes the 
Eruption of Ambrym Island in the New Hebrides in 1894. This article 
is accompanied by maps and illustrations. Other articles are ‘‘An At- 
tempt to Reconstruct the Maps Used by Herodotus” and “‘ The Surface 
of the Sea and the Weather.” 


The Scottish Geographical Magazine for November contains notes on the 
Yukon country, and particularly that part of it which adjoins the bound- 
ary between Canada and Alaska, including the Forty Mile district, and 
the region about Juneau, by Alexander Begg. The subject of geograph- 
ical education is continued by Prof. A. J. Herbertson. Much prominence 
has been given to this subject by the Scottish Magazine in its recent 


; 


26 GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 


issues. The December number contains an article by W. Eagle Clarke 
on Bird Migration in the British Isles. The most important article is one 
summarizing the work of M. V. L. Seroshevski on the Country of the 
Yakuts—i. e., northern Siberia. It is an admirably condensed descrip- 
tion of a little-known region. 


The quarterly Bulletin of the American Geographical Society for October 
opens with an article by Prof. I. C. Russell, of the University of Michi- 
gan, entitled ‘‘ Mountaineering in Alaska,” which is in substance an ac- 
count of the author’s last trip to the St Elias region. The bulletin also 
contains an article by Franz Boas on the Indians of British Columbia 
and on a Graphic History of the United States by Henry Gannett. 


Appalachia, the journal of the Appalachian Mountain Club, devotes a 
large part of its November number to Philip 8. Abbot, one of its mem- 
bers, whose lamented death in the Canadian Rockies was noticed in THE 
NaTionAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE for the same month. Other articles are 
entitled ‘“‘Ascents near Saas, Switzerland,” ‘‘ Grand ,Cafion of the Tuo- 
lumne,” ‘‘ Exploration of the Air,” and ‘‘ Notes on a recent Visit to 
Katahdin.” He Ge 


GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 3 ; 


NORTH AMERICA 


Canapa. Of the 21,341 immigrants who arrived in Canada last year, 
14,197 declared their intention to settle in the Dominion. 


Mexico. The coffee crop of 1895 amounted to 24,100 tons, of which 
Oaxaca furnished 9,610, Veracruz 8,817, Chiapas 1,962, and Puebla 1,256 
tons. These four states have doubled their production since 1892, and 
they contribute 90 per cent of the entire crop. The best Mexican coffee 
is a variety of mocha, and the second best, known as myrtle, is similar 
to java. Trees in full bearing yield on an average about 24 ounces of 
coffee per annum, but some run as high as 60 to 80 ounces. The methods 
of curing and the quality of the product are steadily improving. 


SOUTH AMERICA 


The ascent of Aconcagua, the highest summit of the Andes, is being 
attempted by a scientific expedition under the direction of Mr E. A. Fitz- 
gerald, who recently returned from his explorations in the New Zealand 
alps. The exploring party are well equipped, the sum of £5,000 having 
been made available for the expedition. 


ARGENTINA. A recent report of the Argentine Census Bureau shows the 
de facto population of the republic on May 10, 1895, to have been 4,042,990, 
to which number an addition of 50,000 is made for persons temporarily 
absent from the country. This shows an average annual increase of 4.6 
per cent since 1869. The vity of Buenos Ayres contains 663,854 inhabi- 
tants, of whom 345,393 are foreigners. 


MISCELLANEA 27 


EUROPE 


Enaianp. Dr Nansen’s lectures are attracting large audiences, not- 
withstanding the very high prices charged for admission. 

Although the traffic receipts of the Manchester ship canal for 1896 
show a large increase over those for 1895, the diversion of trade has made 
no appreciable impression upon the revenues of the port of Liverpool. 


France. The Paris Academy of Sciences has awarded one of the two 
Arago medals to M. D. Abadie, the Abyssinian explorer, and a prize to 
Prince Henry of Orleans for his explorations. 

GERMANY. 7,931 steamships and 9,023 sailing vessels passed through 
the North Sea and Baltic canal during its first year. The receipts from 
tolls fell far short of the official estimates. 


ASIA 


Japan. The German consul at Yokohama reports that a general rise 
in the cost of living as well as in the scale of wages is already decreasing 
the danger of Japanese industrial competition with European nations. 

Inpra. The production of coal has increased 55 per cent in a single 
year and has almost quadrupled in tenyears. The imports are also in- 
creasing rapidly, and as coal is not used for domestic purposes, its increas- 
ing consumption points to that expansion of manufacturing industries of 
which there are so many other indications. An illustration of the maxim 
that the trade follows the flag is found in the fact that 86 per cent of the 
tonnage that entered the ports of India last year was British. 


AFRICA 


TRANSVAAL. It is believed that of the public revenue for the current 
year, estimated at £4,462,193, the Uitlanders will pay £3,500,000. 

Wrst Arnica. Telegraphic dispatches announce that ex-King Prempeh 
and his relatives and attendants have been removed to Sierra Leone. 
— A British officer has just returned from an important mission, occupy- 
ing five months, to the north and northwest of Kumassi, having traversed 
the entire distance of 900 miles on foot. He reports the country as ex- 
ceedingly rich in mineral and vegetable products, gold, rubber, kola-nuts, 
and mahogany being abundant. 


MISCELLANEA 


In a paper read last month before the Royal Geographical Society, Col. 
J. K. Trotter, R. A., who was the principal British officer of the Anglo- 
French Delimitation Commission appointed in 1895, stated that the com- 
mission were disappointed at finding the sources of the Niger at so low 
an elevation, the highest recorded being 3,379 feet. The adjacent coun- 
try was mountainous, but none of the summits exceeded 5,000 feet. 

The Proceedings and Transactions of the Queensland Branch of the 
Royal Geographical Society of Australasia contain, among other articles, 


28 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


a Résumé of Capt. Cook’s First Voyage Around the World, by Gen. Sir 
Henry W. Norman; a summary history of Arctic exploration, by Major 
A. J. Boyd, and the narrative of Capt. G. A. Tennefather ; Aly Explora- 
tion of the Coen, Archer, and Batavia Rivers and of the islands of the » 
western coast of Karpantaria, by the same author. } 


The Weather Bureau has recently issued Part 3 of the Report of the 
International Meteorological Congress held at Chicago in 1893, in connection 
with the World’s Columbian Exposition. It contains Brice papers upon 
the climates of yarious parts of the world, commencing with that of the 
United States, by Prof. H. A. Hazen. Under the title of ‘ Instruments 
and Methods of Investigation” are described many of the latest adapta- 
tions of instruments for special work, including ‘‘ Observations of Solar 
Radiation” and ‘‘ The Study of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of Bal- 
loons, from Mountain Stations, and from Cloud Observations.” 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. 
SOCIETY,*SESSION 1896-97 


Special Meeting, December 4, 1896.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
Admiral R. W. Meade, U.S. N., delivered an address, with lantern-slide 
illustrations, descriptive of a TVG Voyage through the Straits of Ma- 
gellan, with Visits to Rio Janeiro and Valparaiso. 


Regular Meeting, December 11, 1896.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
President David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., of the Leland Stanford Junior 
University, read a narrative entitled “Matka: a Story of the Mist Islands.”’ 
This story, the life history of a fur-seal family (the members half personi- 
fied), was followed by a series of lantern-slide illustrations of scenes in 
the Pribilof islands. 


Special Meeting, December 18, 1896.—Secretary. Hayden in the chair. 
Geo. M. Sternberg, M. D., LL. D., Surgeon-General. of the Army, read a 
paper on the Etiology and Geographic Distribution of Infectious Diseases, 
afterwards exhibiting a series of lantern-slides illustrative of the subject. 


Exections.—New members have been elected as follows: 


November 25.—G. W. Bacon, F.R.G.S., Gen. Samuel Breck, U.S. A., Col. 
Chas. Chaillé-Long, A. W. Cowles, Prof. Thomas Davidson, Walter R. 
Dayies, J. P. Earnest, Col. M. J. Foote, Henry 8. Graves, Lieut. T. D. 
Griffen, U.S.N., Mrs Bella Kilbourn-Bourgeat, Miss Elizabeth A. Riley, 
F. P. Schumann, C. F., Mrs Emma Triepel, Miss Alice Twight, M. Gregory 
de Vollant (Russian Legation), Geo. H. Warner, John H. White. 


December 11.—Dr Aaron Baldwin, John S. Blair, Prof. Frank M. Com- 
stock, Dr Ira W. Dennison, Rey. Geos A. Dougherty, Dr L. W. Eugster, 
Fred. L. Fishback, Senor Don Domingo Gana (Chilean Minister), Prof. 
Wm. H. Goodyear, Lee R. Grabill, C. E., Miss Edith S. Hancock, Hon. 
M. A. Hanna, Henry L. Haven, John J. Heron, Hon. 8. G. Hilborn, 


GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION 29 


M. C., R. H. Hood, David Huteheson, Henry Clay Johnson, William D. 
Kelly, Miss Mary A. Law, Capt. S: C. Lemly, U.-S. N., J. E. Luckett, 
Col. Geo. G. Martin, Wm. W. Neifert, Lieut. H. C. Poundstone, U.S. N., 
L. M. Prindle, Hon. Redfield Proctor, U. 8. S., Mr von Reichenau (Ger- 
man Embassy), Bushrod Robinson, Sefor Don J. D. Rodriguez (Minister, 
Greater Republic of Central America), Geo. Otis Smith, Prof. A. W. Span- 
hoofd, T. W. Stanton, John J. Stephens, Capt. C. A. Stevens, Dr Chas. 
Swisher, Lt. Comdr. E. D. Taussig, U. 8. N., Hon. E. O. Wolcott, U.S. S. 


December 30.—Geo. H. Baker, Jas. A. Barwick, Marcus W. Bates, John D. 
Blagden, W. L. Blunt, H. B. Boyer, A. von Breuning, Prof. J. P. Byrne, 
Henry Calver, Prof. R. A. Dobie, Dr Geo. A. Dorsey, Prof. J. Fairbanks, 
Count A. Goetzen (German Embassy), Prof. R. R. N. Gould, Arpad Gross- 
mann, Hon. F. M. Hatch (Hawaiian Minister), Edwin B. Hay, Med. 
Director A. A., Hoehling, U. S. N., Corliss W. Lay, Prof. E. H. Mark, 
Frank E. Pyne, Prof. A. W. Riggs, James A. Scott, Dr Z. X. Snyder, 
Joseph Stewart. 


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


_ SYNOPSIS OF A COURSE OF LECTURES ON THE EFFECTS OF 
GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT IN DEVELOPING THE 
CIVILIZATION OF THE WORLD 


The National Geographic Society has for several seasons given three 
courses of lectures, a technical course and two popular courses; the former 
by officers of the Army and Navy and distinguishéd scientists in different 
departments of the Government, the latter by leading exponents of origi- 
nal investigation of subjects pertaining to geographic research. 

It is the intention that each speaker in the popular course shall be a 
recognized authority on the subject treated by him, and that each lecture 
shall be illustrated by stereopticon views, which have been found to add 
not only to the interest but also to the value of the lectures. 

The average attendance at the popular lectures has increased steadily 
from 500 in 1893-94 to 800 in 1894-95, and to 1,000 in 1895-96. The 
audience is composed of members of the Society and their friends, com- 
prising many of the most cultured residents of Washington, senators and 
representatives, scientists and students. The second course of lectures 
has been held on Monday afternoons. Two years ago the subject was a 
trip over the Northern Pacific Railroad to the Pacific ocean, returning via 
San Francisco, the cafions of the Colorado, and the Rocky mountains, 
Last year it was a trip through Canada and the inland passage to Alaska. 

Kor the popular course of 1896-97 the subject selected is the effects 
of geographic envirenment in developing the civilization of the world, 
The course opens with prehistoric man and the beginnings of history, 
and passes on to the period of our earliest definite knowledge in those 
countries where the history of our race begins. At this epoch geographic 


30 GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION 


environment exercised a controlling influence on life, character, insti- 

tutions, and religion; it was the primary if not the sole cause of de- 

velopment in the transition of man from savagery through barbarism to 

civilization. The same cause continued to influence the successive stages 

of civilization, though as man advanced in knowledge and intelligence 

he became more and more independent of his surroundings. Even now 
.they influence him in various ways. 

The first lecture will be of a general character, showing prehistoric 
man, the beginnings of industries (such as agriculture and the domestica- 
tion of animals), of institutions and religion, and of the acquisition of 
real and personal property, and will be delivered by the President of the 
Society. ; 

We look for the earliest civilization where the environment was most 
favorable, as in Babylonia and Egypt, and possibly in China. The tran- 
sition of man from barbarism to partial civilization in these countries 
probably originated at about the same time, and therefore the second 
lecture will be on Babylonia, where the environment is in some respects 
more marked than in Egypt or China. In the rich valleys of the Tigris 
and Euphrates men were first gathered into great cities under the rule of 
a despot who was above all humanity, the representative only of him- 
selfandof God. Here the family seems to have become obsolete, all rights 
undefined, personal and civil liberty unknown, for there were only two 
classes, the master and slave. Yet here we find the first great library, 
hanging gardens, and magnificent architecture. 

This lecture will tell us of the development of the city, library, and 
architecture, and of the rule of the despot, and will be delivered by Mr 
Talcott Williams, of the Philadelphia Press, a gentleman born in Mesopo- 
tamia and well acquainted with the country and its inhabitants. 

The third lecture will be on Syria. In Syria we have an entirely dif- 
ferent geographic environment, developing different institutions and 
religious beliefs, with a nationality and history of a different type. The 
Semites, probably Bedouins, came from the desert of Arabia, a country 
as unlike the valley of the Euphrates as the people of the two countries 
are unlike each other. In these deserts originated the ideas of humanity 
and charity, and a religion tending to monotheism. The chiefs or rulers 
of the nomad clans were patriarchs, like Abraham and Jacob, wandering 
over the desert. Although their civilization was in some respects and 
for a long time inferior to that of the Babylonians, yet they had a love of 
freedom and manly character unknown in the despotisms of the Eu- 
phrates and Nile. While they estimated the value of the life of the indi- 
vidual higher than did the Assyrian, yet even here personal liberty, as we 
understand it, did not exist, as every man belonged to a family group and 
was subject to its head, and every family to its clan. 

This lecture will trace the development of the family, monotheism, and 
the Jewish nation, and will be delivered by Prof. Thomas J. Shahan, 
LL. D., of the Catholic University of America. 

The fourth lecture will be on Tyre and Sidon, cities which derived their 
civilization from Assyria. Here we find a third condition of environ- 
ment—mountains behind, the sea in front—evolving a higher civilization. 


GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION 51 


Life on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean led the inhabitants to find 
in commerce prosperity, wealth, and civilization. Their ships followed 
along the coast, then gradually sailed out into the Mediterranean, on 
through the Pillars of Hercules into the Atlantic, and north to England; 
the ships of Tarshish sailed south, through the Red sea, into the Indian 
ocean, south of Africa, and they may even have circumnavigated that 
continent. 

This lecture will show the development of commerce and shipping; 
the origin and growth of colonies, exemplified by Carthage, Sicily, and 
Spain, and will be delivered by Prof. Thomas Davidson, M. A., of Aber- 
deen University, Scotland. 

Fifth lecture—Greece. Tyre and Sidon gave to Greece all their knowl- 
edge. There it was developed by different geographic conditions. The 
two great races of the world—the Semitic and the Aryan—differed in 
their environment as in their institutions and habits. In Syria was 
monotheism, in Greece unlimited polytheism. The language and coun- 
try of the Grecian Aryan were more favorable than those of the Semite 
in Syria. Their mountains, inclosing numerous small valleys, the islands 
and seas of Greece, its beautiful climate and luxuriant soil, developed a 
people different in their institutions, their government, arts, and sciences 
from any that ever existed, either before or since, and gave the world the 
first idea of personal liberty of the individual man. As no other nation 
ever showed such rapid development, such early maturity, so no other 
people ever had such a rapid decline without renaissance. 

The lecture will show the causes for this wonderful development and 
early decay, and will be delivered by Prof. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, LL. D., 
of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, professor in the American 
School of Archeology at Athens, 1895-96. 

Sixth lecture—Rome. The Seven Hills, one densely wooded, the river 
Tiber, and the rich valley and plain around made the environment of 
Rome, and secured Romulus and his band of freebooters from attack, 
while they easily invaded the country of their neighbor. In Rome the 
civilizations of the old world met, and from this union a broader culture 
was developed, upon which modern civilization was founded. By the 
conquest of Italy, Greece, Egypt, Syria, and Assyria, Rome obtained from 
each what was best adapted to its needs—arts and letters from Greece, agri- 
culture from Egypt, commerce and colonization from Tyre; from Syria 
and Arabia, monotheism and science; from Assyria, imperial govern- 
ment. The lecture will show the conditions and causes that led to this 
expansion of Rome, slowly and steadily extending its dominion until 
it embraced in its empire the whole of the known world. From Rome 
came law, authority, and power, with a dominion so wide and powerful 
that in any part of the world a man could say with the Apostle Paul, “I 
am a Roman citizen,” and thus secure protection. Freeman truly says: 
‘‘None but those who have grasped the place of Rome in history can ever 
fully understand the age in which we live.” By Rev. Alex. Mackay- 
Smith, D. D., of Washington, D. C. 

Seventh lecture—Constantinople. The culture and civilization of Rome 
were carried to Constantinople by Constantine. The geographic position 


32 GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION 


of this city is more commanding than that of any other city. Seated on 
two continents, the connecting link between the Orient and Europe, 
mistress of the seas, glorious in situation, the desired of many nations, 
we behold environments which caused its rise and continued existence. 
Weare not surprised that this city has been the seat of a government 
longer than any other that ever existed, and has enjoyed a continuity and 
concentration of imperial rule in an imperial city without parallel in the 
history of mankind. By Prof. Edwin A. Grosvenor, of Amherst College, 
Amherst, Massachusetts, formerly of Roberts College, Constantinople. 

Kighth lecture—Venice and Genoa. When the rule of Constantinople 
passed from the Christians to the Mohammedans, on the ruins of the old 
world rose these two cities, fitted by their geographic environment to 
take up the civilization of the old world and to develop that of modern 
Europe—two cities unlike any other cities of Europe, each supreme 
within its small territory, owing no feaity to any sovereign outside its 
own district, each deriving power and wealth from the control of the sea. 
In their conditions of environment on the Mediterranean, with colonies 
in the Crimea and in Asia Minor, with easy access to the interior of 
Europe, we find the causes which led to the increase of their population 
and wealth, to the expansion of their commerce and’ their territorial 
possessions. When these are known we understand the part they bore 
in the awakening of the world from the torpor of the Dark Ages, opening 
the way to the new world, and to the renaissance of commerce, literature, 
arts, and science. By Prof. Wiliara H. Sey, of the Brooklyn Insti- 
tute of Arts and Sciences. 

Ninth, lecture—A merica. From the Old World we pass to the New, 
‘America, where the Puritans of Plymouth and Massachusetts bay, the 
nie al soumers of New Amsterdam, the Quakers of Pennsylvania, the 
_ Catholics of Baltimore, and the Blorakas of Virginia all unconsciously 
laid the foundation of a unique empire. Their descendants have spread 
over the whole land and mingled with the best class of emigrants from 
every country of Europe, and are the progenitors of a new race. All 
geographic environments have become subservient to’ the will of the 
people, from ocean to ocean, from the waters of the Hudson to the waters 
of the gulf of Mexico, one people and one language, an American race, 
an empire vaster than that of Rome, home of all the nations of the world, 
welded into one great and free syncs 

The lectures will be neither historical nor scholastic treatises, but 
general accounts of the several nations and cities in popular lonenees Sto) 
arranged as to show how largely their development depended on natural 
causes, including their geographic environment, until we come to the 
New World, where the envir onments become subservient to man and not 
man to his environments. 

With this exception, it suffices to indicate only the general scope of the 
lectures, leaving to each lecturer perfect freedom to treat his subject in 
his own manner, ever bearing in mind the effect of geographic environ- 
ment on the continuous development of civilization from one nation to 
another through the centuries. . 

; GARDINER G. HuBBarp. 


AN IMPROVED METHOD OF KEEPING THE SCORE IN 


DUPLICATE WHIST, COMPASS WHIST, STRAIGHT WHIST AND EUCHRE, 


‘Since Duplicate and Com- 
ass Whist have come into 
fashion there has been an 
| unprecedented revival of in- 
terest in the game, due to 

Mi fact that mere /zck is to 
a large extent eliminated by 
acomparison of the scores 
made in the play of the same 
hands by different players. 


The one thing needed to 

ect the new method has 

i a convenient device 
by means of which the score 
made on the first round can 
be concealed until after the 


splay of the hands, as a 
knowlege of the first score 
en enables a good player 
tomake a decisive gain, and 
matches are lost aud won on 
just such little chances. 


Cosmos Duplicate Whist Score 


COMPaSS WHEHIST | 


DUPLICATE WHIST HAND 


WinNi- 
A:nih:wit 


A Washington player has at 
length invented and put upon 
the market at a very low price a 
little device which admirably 
answers the purpose, and at the 
same time serves as a pretty 
and useful table ornament, 
marker, and pencil rest. It is 
called the ‘‘Cosmos COUNTER,”’ 
and consists of a little polished 
wood tablet with a metal key- 
board that can be clamped down 
on the score in such a way as to 
bring 24 little metal plates over 
the 24 spaces in the ‘‘score”’ 
column of the card, for use in 
concealing each first score as 
soon as recorded and until the 
hand is replayed (in duplicate 
whist) or the entire series fin- 
ished (in compass whist). 


©: o:n 


_ Whist players will at once see 
the advantage of this new 
method of keeping the score, as 
it effectually prevents their op- 
ponents at the same or another 
table from taking advantage, 
either by accident or design, of 
a knowledge of what the hand 
is capable. The trouble with 
duplicate whist, especially, is 
that the replay is liable to be in- 
fluenced by memory of the cards 
and score, and anything that 
helps to confuse such recollec- 
tion is a great gain to fair play. 


The ‘‘Cosmos Score Card,” 
prepared for use with the 
counter, shows several new fea- 
tures, such as a heading for both 
Duplicate and Compass Whist 
and (on the reverse) for Straight 
Whist, Euchre, &c., thus ena- 
bling the same counter and score 
to be used for any game of cards. 


a 
CI 
= 
wo 
= 
<a 
é 
=) 
2 
s 
x 
S 
4 
o 
> 
= 
“Ts 
a 
fa 
- 
id 
5 
3 


Cosmos Counters, with tablet 
of quartered oak, maple, or 
birch , and metal in either gold” 
or silver finish, 50 cts. apiece ; 6 
for $2.75; 12 for $5; by mail, 4 

apiece extra. Cosmos Score 
Cards, 25 cts. per package of 50; 
12 packages for $2.50; by mail 
free of postage. 


Ask to see samples at an 
| Stationer’s, or order direct frau 
the General Agents. 


E. MORRISON PAPER CO., 1009 Penna. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 


a. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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WM. HENRY TAYLOE, District Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 

S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 

Cc. A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


THE SHORTEST, 
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THE FLORIDA CENTRAL AND PENINSULAR RAILROAD 
begins on the north at Columbia, runs through Savannah, 
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the principal interior points in Florida. Three trains daily 
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Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington. 


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The ASHEVILLE ROUTE is the scenic route (over the Carolina mountains) between Cincin- 
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The KANSAS CLTY through car route is by this road, via Fort Scott, Memphis, Holly Springs, 
Birmingham, Atlanta and*Everett. : 

The NEW ORLEANS through sleeper route runs from New Orleans by Pensacola on this 
route and via the beautiful Middle Florida Country. 

Remember that the LORIDA CENTRAL AND PENINSULAR does not only go to Jack- 
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Get THE BEST INDEXED MAP OF FLORIDA from any of our agents or from the 
General Passenger Agent. 


J. L. ADAMS, Genl. Eastern Agt., W. B. PENNINGTON, Genl. Western Agt., 
353 Broadway, New York. 417 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, O. 
WALTER G. COLEMAN, Genl. Trav. Agt., 353 Broadway, New York. 
N. S. PENNINGTON, Traffic Manager, A. O..MacDONELL, Genl. Pass. Agt., 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


“FROM FROST TO FLOWERS.”’ 


“Ge Ghariot... 
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SUNSET LIMITED is the Southern Pacific’s great train, running through 
solid from New Orleans to the Pacific Coast. 


SUNSET LIMITED leaves New Orleans every Monday and Thursday, at 
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SUNSET LIMITED covers the 2006 miles to Los Angeles in 58 hours, 
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SUNSET LIMITED is vestibuled throughout, steam heated and gas lighted. 


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SUNSET LIMITED traverses a road where snow never falls and blockades 
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SUNSET LIMITED is at your service, and any Southern Pacific Agent 
will be glad to tell you all about it, or if you want to know more, 
send 10 cents in stamps to the General Passenger Agent, and a 
beautiful book of 205 pages, that will tell you all about the route, 


will be sent you. 
S. F. B. MORSE, 


General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 
NEW ORLEANS, 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


National Geographic Monographs 
On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - -:) 
GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - ~J. W. Powell 


PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATE Ss - 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prof. N.S. Shaler 

PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - Prof. I. C. Russell 

APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 

APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - . C. Willard Hayes 

MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - py S/Diller . 

THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - = 2 : - - Prof. W. M. Davis 

NIAGARA FALLS AND ITS HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 

Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 
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QS 8989099998 9808900099 90009 


ie The Great Hotels . KEY WEST AND MIAMI 
@ © ee @ ~ ..,, STEAMSHIP CO, . 
ee) SSOe® SSSsoeee THE BEAUTIFUL ROUTE TO 


KEY wisT. 


© He 
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Keys in daylight. 


BA CA ES 
gasses SeOOSOooe See local time card for sailing dates. 


AT 


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eo) ORIMOND, €& MIAMI AND NASSAU 
Par BES _ STEAMSHIP SERVICE 
TMWATII. ieee 
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eeoeeeooee” Miami and Nassau, N, P. 


(Bahama Islands), 


Will be inaugurated about JANUARY 15th 
for the WINTER TOURIST SEASON 


OF 1897. 


ceeaeeaedes® See advertisements for sailing dates. 


For map of Florida and book Florida East Coast, address ; 
ais RAHNER, 
J. R. PARROTT, fed 2 BE Asst cae al Pass + Ag. ent, 
Vice-President. Traffic Manager. Sz Aveudeae. Fila. 


neeeueeeceeeneeseesoqosess SO@ 


QOOOOGOSOSOOOSOS® 
ah wi goon 
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© 


nl HE MAPLE LE 
ate DIRECT LINE 


BETWEEN CHICAGO, DUBUQUE, 
\p Vie ST. PAUL. MINNEAPOIIS. DES MOINES, 


Ls 


%* ST. JOSEPA ANPKANSAS CITY. 
es < ‘ 


ALIFORNIA 


AS USUAL 


But vary the monotony of 
travel by returning 
via the 


SHASTA 
ROUTE 


NN ees 


NORTHERN PACIFIC BR. 


By so doing you can 
see the 


ORIGINAL OF THIS SCENE. 


RAPIDS NEAR UPPER FALL. 


. am . Iti is in the YELLOWSTONE PARK, and can be reached on your 
- feturn from CALIFORNIA if you will see that your ticket reads as 
Ja above, In addition you will see 


MT. SHASTA, MT. HOOD, and MT. TACOMA, 


| the Giant Peaks of the Pacific Coast, and pass through Portland, 
- Tacoma, Seattle, Spokane, Helena or Butte, Missoula, Bismarck, Fargo, 
jinneapolis, and St. Paul. 


Send me 6 cents for 


| SkeTcHEs OF WONDERLAND. 


CHAS. S. FEE, Gen. Pass. Agent. 
forthern Pacific Railroad. St. Paul, Minnesota. 


THE NATIONAL ee WG 4 


WILL BE THE see ea 


~The Physical Fie af a sp 


By DR MARK W. HARRINGTON, 


Crater Lake, Oregon, 


By MR J. S. nee 


By JUDGE EMORY ie BEST, 


ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER OF THE GENERAL LAND OFFICE; 


Down the Volga, from Nijni Novgorod to aZi 
: ae BROF. Bese onic = Ne TAYLOR, te a 


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; ILLUSTRATED MONTH LY 
Bee's Bad, . Cot \ ‘ 


Sat | | ( 
, Honorary Editor: JOHN HYDE 
Honorary Associate Editors 


GREELS | WIMcGEE “| ~ HENRY GANNETT 
. HART |MERRIAM ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


_ \conteNTs | | 


a pe . | mf, xe GE PAGE 
AKE, OREGON. ~~S<S./DILLER, 33 


iy \ie3 \ 6 
ZATION <i ne tate Reema ys EMORY F. BEST. 49 


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marAS\ =< \ or. | OW ei cate: 8, DILhaR:. ! SE 


a ¢ TiteRATURE p. 59: GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS, p. 61; 
: >. 59; R 
BEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 


F NX a“ 
E MISCELLAN BA) p. 64. 


ay 7 Aes 
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SHED BY THE \NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


AGENTS In THE Untrep Stares)\anp CaNnapa 


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: PRESIDENT é, : E ig 
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oe He tues > Sn 
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an 
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tg Magazine i is sent regularly to all members, both active and corresponding 


MT. SHASTA, op 4 : 14,350 feet high, 
MT. HOOD, - - ‘ - 11,225 « ¢ 
MT. ST. HELENS, - v 9,750 « ? 
MT. RAINIER, - - u = ra,530 « st 
MT. ADAMS, - - ss 12,250 “ ‘6 


BY TAKING THE 


NORTHERN 
_ PACIFIC 


CAN ALL BE SEEN 


A 


SHASTA | 


\ 
ROUTE. | 
Returning from CALI FO R N IA, 


See that your re- 


| turn tickets read 
| wa this route, 


| and visit 


Yellow- 
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Park 


| SIX CENTS sent 
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you TOURIST 
MATTER that will 


detail the scenic 


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CHAS. §, FEE, 
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ROWMMMMGVMCMV MMC VM VV MEBEETODAAT S 


WL Pl PE EE EE LE LEE EE i i és decd decdéde de déddddddddéddmadukiu@sigsgd in duadadsiumddtiike 


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Cc. A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


THE SHORTEST, 
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MOST ATTRACTIVE 
ROUTE 


IS BY THE LINES OPERATED OVER THE 


Florida Central & Peninsular R. R. 


THE FLORIDA CENTRAL AND PENINSULAR RAILROAD 
begins on the north at Columbia, runs through Savannah, 
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and all Kast Coast points; for Miami, Key West, and Nassau; 
also for points on the Gulf of Mexico and Havana and for all 
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The CINCINNATI AND FLORIDA LIMITED, another very elegant vestibuled train, makes 
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verett. 
The ASHEVILLE ROUTE is the scenic route (over the Carolina mountains) between Cincin- 
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_ The KANSAS CITY through car route is by this road, via Fort Scott, Memphis, Holly Springs, 
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The NEW ORLEANS [through sleeper route runs from New Orleans by Pensacola on this 
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Remember that the FLORIDA CENTRAL AND PENINSULAR does not only go to Jack- 
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Get THE BEST INDEXED MAP OF FLORIDA from any of our agents or from the 
General Passenger Agent. 


J. L. ADAMS, Genl. Eastern Agt., W. B. PENNINGTON, Genl. Western Agt., 
353 Broadway, New York. 417 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, O. 
WALTER G. COLEMAN, Genl. Trav. Agt., 353 Broadway, New York. 
N. 8S. PENNINGTON, Traffic Manager, A. O. MacDONELL, Genl. Pass. Agt., 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


$690000000000000900009900000 


. The Great Hotels |) KEY WEST AND MIAN 
oF. on wemee, 7 STEAMSHIP CO, 
> Py ahaa Oo ven THE BEAUTIFUL ROUTE TO 
LL © REY Ww esT. 
4 ast Coast © Ten Hours from Miami along the Florida 
Keys in daylight. 
4 O CODSHISRENS See local time card for sailing dates 
© ©@ st. AUGUSTINE, Sana 
@ R @ ORTIOND, © MIAMI AND NASSAU 
4 ic ft eal STEAMSHIP SERVICE 
MAS til. BETWEEN 
@ yf @ 
@ 1 seeseeeore 9 OO" Te 
ee) e il . Will be inaugurated about JANUARY 15th 
® D Al Way. © @ for the WINTER Sabon SEASON 
OF 1897. 
® COSSSSSeeseees See advertisements for sailing dates. 
A @ For map of Florida and book Florida East Coast, address— 
& J. R. PARROTT, J. P. BECKWITH, Ass't Ge Diora Panes ont, 
& Vice-President. Traffic Manager. St. Augustine, Fla. 
OSOOO SO SS OS SS SOO O0OOOSCSSO609 


Lt E MAPLE L 
vi DIRECT LINE 


BETWEEN CHICAGO, DUBUQ 
YI fe ST. PAUL.MINNEAPOLIS. DES MOINES, 


_————— 


oe JOSEPH ie yas CITY. 


| ‘Gueaco 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE & RY. 


HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 

solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. © 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green Known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. ; 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the Kast and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Genl. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


™ Mutual Life Insurance Company 


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RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 


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NATIONAL GU Ghee MAGAZINE 


National Geographic Monographs 


On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - . - - - ) 

GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - - ~J. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - j 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - C. Willard Hayes 
Mr. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller 

THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND ITS HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


Remit with order to AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY, 


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THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 


--RONS.. 
Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
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AN IMPROVED METHOD OF KEEPING THE SCORE IN 


DUPLICATE WHIST, COMPASS WHlST, STRAIGHT WHIST AND EUCHRE: 


Since Duplicate and Com- 
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terest in the game, due to 
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The one thing needed to 
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by means of which the score 
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matches are lost aud won on 
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little device which admirably 
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marker, and pencil rest. It is 
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and consists of a little polished 
wood tablet with a metal key- 
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on the score in such a way as to 
bring 24 little metal plates over 
the 24 spaces in the ‘‘score”’ 
column of the card, for use in 
concealing each first score as 
soon as recorded and until the 
hand is replayed (in duplicate 
whist) or the entire series fin- 
ished (in compass whist). 


Whist players will at once see 
the advantage of this new 
method of keeping thé score, as 
it effectualiy prevents their op- 
ponents at the same or another 
table from taking advantage, 
either by accident or désign, of 
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fluenced by memory of the cards 
and score, and anything that 
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The ‘‘Cosmos Score Card,”’ 
prepared for use with the 
counter, shows several new fea- 
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Cosmos Counters, with tablet 
of quartered oak, ‘maple, or 
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Ask to see samples at any 
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Wind 


COMPASS WHHEHIST 


DUPLBICATE WHIST 
score [| cain | trump | cain | score 


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E, MORRISON PAPER CO., 1009 Penna. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 


, 1897, PL. 1 


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> 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


DEVILS BACKBONE AND LLAO ROCK IN THE DISTANCE 


J 


WIZARD ISLAND 


eltine 


from a photograph by M. M. Ha 


National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. VIII FEBRUARY, 1897 No. 2 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON * 
By J. 5. Ditter, 


Inited States Geological Survey 


Of lakes in the United States there are many and in great va- 
riety, but of crater lakes there is but one. Crater lakes are lakes 
which occupy the craters of volcanoes or pits of voleanic origin. 
They are most abundant in Italy and Central America, regions 
in which volcanoes are still active ; and they occur also in France, 
Germany, India, Hawaii, and other parts of the world where 
volcanism has played an important réle in its geological history. 

The one in the United States belongs to the great volcanic 
field of the northwest, but it occurs in so secluded a spot among 
high mountains that it is almost unknown to tourists and men 
of science, who are especially interested in such natural wonders. 
Crater lake of southern Oregon lies in the very heart of the Cas- 
cade range, and, while it is especially attractive to the geologist 
on account of its remarkable geological history, it is equally in- 
viting to the tourist and others in search of health and pleasure 
by communion with the beautiful and sublime in nature. 

According to W. G. Steel,t the lake was first seen by white 
men in 1855. It had long previously been known to the In- 
dians, whose legends, as related by Steel, have contributed a 
name, Llao rock, to one of the prominences of its rim. They 
regarded the lake with awe as an abode of the Great Spirit. The 
first travelers of note who visited the lake were Lord Maxwell 

* Published by permission of the Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
+ The Mountains of Oregon, by W. G. Steel, 1890, p. 13. tIbid 
3 


34 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


and Mr Bentley, who, in 1872, with Captain O. C. Applegate, of 
Modoc war fame, and three others, made a boat trip along its 
borders and named several of the prominences on the rim after 
members of the party.* Mrs F. F. Victor saw the lake in 1873 
and briefly describes it in “Atlantis Arisen.” f 

The first Geological Survey party visited the lake in 1883, 
when Everett Hayden and the writer, after spending several 
days in examining the rim, tumbled logs over the cliffs to the 
water’s edge, lashed them together with ropes to make a raft, 
and paddled over to the island. In 1886, under the direction of 
Captain (now Major) C. E. Dutton, many soundings of the lake 
were made by W. G. Steel, and a topographic map of the vicinity 
was prepared by Mark B. Kerr and Eugene Ricksecker. Dut- 
ton was the first to discover the more novel and salient features 
in the geological history of the lake, of which he has given, for 
his entertaining pen, an all too brief account. 

Under the inspiration of the “ Mazamas,”’ a society of moun- 
tain climbers at Portland, Oregon, of whose work an account is 
eiven in this magazine (page 58),a more extended study of the 
lake has just been made by government parties from the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the Fish Commission, and the Geological 
Survey. 


Crater lake is deeply set in the summit of the Cascade range, 
about 65 miles north of the California line. As yet it may be 
reached only by private conveyance over about 80 miles of 
mountain roads from Ashland, Medford, or Gold Hill, on the 
Southern Pacific railroad, in the Rogue River valley of southern 
Oregon. This valley marks the line between the Klamath moun- 
tains of the Coast range on the west and the Cascade range on 
the east. The journey from the railroad to Crater lake affords 
a good opportunity to observe some of the most important 
features of this great pile of lavas. The Cascade range in south- 
ern Oregon is a broad irregular platform, terminating rather 
abruptly in places upon its borders, especially to the westward, 
where the underlying Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments come 
to the surface. It is surmounted by volcanic cones and coulees, 
which are generally smooth, but sometimes rough and rugged. 
~* The names Watchman, Glacier, Llao, and Vidae, which appear on the map of the 
lake, have recently been adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names. 

7 ‘Atlantis Arisen,”’ by Mrs Frances Fuller Victor, p. 179. 


t Science, vol. 7, 1886, pp. 179-182, and Eighth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, pp. 156-159. 


Seeds i. 


36 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


The cones vary greatly in size and are distributed without regu- 
larity. Hach has been an active voleano. The fragments blown 
out by violent eruption have fallen about the volcanic orifice 
from which they issued and built up cinder cones. From their 
bases have spread streams of lava (coulees), raising the general 
level of the country between the cones. From some vents by 
many eruptions, both explosive and effusive, large cones, like 
Pitt, Shasta, and Hood, have been built up. Were we to exam- 
ine their internal structure, exposed in the walls of the canyons 
carved in their slopes, we should find them composed of over- 
lapping layers of lava and volcanic conglomerate, a structure 
which is well illustrated in the rim of Crater lake. 

The journey from Ashland by the Dead Indian road crosses 
the range where the average altitude is less than 5,000 feet. The 
road passes within a few miles of Mount Pitt and skirts Pelican 
bay of Klamath lake, famous for its fishing. After following 
northward for some twenty miles along the eastern foot of the 
range, it ascends the eastern slope, along the castled canyon of 
Anna creek to the rim of Crater lake. 

From Medford or Gold Hill, the trip is a trifle shorter by the 
Rogue River road. It affords some fine views of the canyons 


RIM OF CRATER LAKE IN THE DISTANCE, AS SEEN FROM THE SOUTH, ACROSS THE 
CANYON OF ANNA CREEK 


From a photograph by J. S. Diller 


as 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON 37 


and rapids of that turbulent stream and of the high falls, where 
it receives its affluents. Striking features along both roads, within 
20 miles of the lake, are the plains developed upon a great mass 
of detritus filling the valleys. Across these plains Anna creek 
and Rogue river have carved deep, narrow canyons with finely 
sculptured walls, which the roads follow for some distance. 

Approaching the lake from any side, the observer sees a broad 
cluster of gentle peaks rising about a thousand feet above the 
general crest of the range on which they stand, but not until 
after he has left the main road, three miles from the lake, does he 
begin to feel the steepness of the ascent. The way winds overa 
large moraine littered with lava boulders and well studded with 
firs. Arriving at the crest, the lake in all its majestic beauty 

comes suddenly upon the scene, and is profoundly impressive. 
_ Descending the wooded slope a short distance within the rim to 
Victor rock,an excellent general view of the lake isobtained. The 
eye beholds 20 miles of unbroken cliffs ranging from over 500 to 
nearly 2,000 feet in height, encircling a deep blue sheet of placid 
water, in which the mirrored walls vie with the originals in bril- 
lianey and greatly enhance the depth of the prospect. 

The first point to fix our fascinated gaze is Wizard island, lying 
nearly two miles away, near the western margin of the lake. Its 
rugged western edge and the steep but symmetrical truncated 
cone in the eastern portion are very suggestive of volcanic origin. 
We cannot, however, indulge our first impulse to go to the island, 
for the various features of the rim are of greater importance in 
unraveling the earlier stages of its geological history. 

The outer and inner slopes of the rim are in strong contrast ; 
while the one is gentle, ranging in general from 10° to 15°. the 
other is abrupt and full of cliffs. The outer slope at all points 
is away from the lake, and as the rim rises at least 1,000 feet above 
the general summit of the range, it is evidently the basal portion 
of a great hollow cone in which the lake is contained. 

The map of Crater lake, prepared from the U.S. Geological 
Survey special sheet, fully illustrates this feature, and also in part 
another feature, namely, the occurrence of a number ofsmall cones 
upon the outer slope of the great cone. These,adnate cones are of 
peculiar significance when we come to consider the volcanic rocks 
of which the region is composed. The rim is ribbed by ridges 
and spurs radiating from the lake, and the head of each spur is 
marked by a prominence on the crest of the rim. The variation 
in the altitute of the rim crest is 1,469 feet from 6,759 to 8,225) 


38 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


Wizard Id. 


SECTION FROM AtoB 


MAP OF CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


Reduced from U.S. Geological Survey Special Sheet 


with seven points rising above 8,000 feet. The crest generally is 
passable, so that a pedestrian may follow it continuously around 
the lake, with the exception of short intervals about the notches 
in the southern side. At many points the best going is on the 
inner side of the crest, where the open slope, generally well 
marked with deer trails over beds of pumice, affords an unob- 
structed view of the lake. 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON 39 


‘ 

Reference has already been made to the glacial phenomena of 
the outer slope of the rim. There are boulders not only upon 
the surface, but also in piles of glacial gravel and sand spread 
far and wide over the southerf and western portion of the rim, 
extending down the watercourses in some cases for miles to 
broad plains through which the present streams have carved the 
. deep and picturesque canyons already observed on the ascent. 
At many points the lavas are well rounded, smooth, and striated 
by glacial action. This is true of the ridges as well as of the 
valleys, and the distribution of these marks is coextensive with 
that of the detritus. 

A feature that is particularly impressive to the geologist mak- 
ing a trip around the lake on the rim crest is the general occur- 
rence of polished and striated rocks, in place, on the very brow 
of the cliff overlooking the lake. The best displays are along 
the crest for three miles northwest of Victor rock, but they occur 


GLACIATED CREST OF RIM OF CRATER LAKE 


From a photograph by M. M. Hazeltine 


40 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


also on the slopes of Llao rock, Round Top, Kerr Notch, and 
Eagle crags, thus completing the circuit of the lake. On the 
adjacent slope toward the lake the same rocks present rough 
fractured surfaces, showing no strive. The glaciation of the rim 
is a feature of its outer slope only, but it reaches up to its very 
crown. The glaciers armed with stones in their lower parts, that 
striated the crown of the rim, must have come down from above, 
and it is evident that the topographic conditions of today afford 
no such source of supply. The formation of glaciers requires an 
elevation extending above the snow line to afford a gathering 
ground for the snow that it may accumulate, and under the in- 
fluence of gravity descend to develop glaciers lower down on the 
mountain slopes. It is evident that during the glacial period 
Crater lake did not exist, but that its site must then have been 
occupied by a mountain to furnish the conditions necessary for 
the extensive glaciation of the rim, and the magnitude of the 
glacial phenomena indicates that the peak was a large one, rival- 
ing, apparently, the highest peaks of the range. 

The Mazamas held a meeting last summer at Crater lake in 
connection with the Crater Lake clubs of Medford, Ashland, and 
Klamath Falls, of the same state. Recognizing that the high 
mountain which once occupied the place of the lake was name- 
less, they christened it, with appropriate ceremonies, Mount 
Mazama. The rim of the lake is a remnant of Mount Mazama, 
but when the name is used in this paper reference is intended 
more especially to that part which has disappeared. 

The inner slope of the rim, so well in view from Victor rock, 
although precipitous, is not a continuous cliff. It is made up 
of many cliffs whose horizontal extent is generally much greater 
than the vertical. The cliffs are in ledges, and sometimes the 
whole slope from crest to shore is one great cliff, not absolutely 
vertical, it is true, but yet at so high an angle as to make it far 
beyond the possibility of climbing. Dutton cliff, on the south- 
ern, and Llao rock, on the northern, borders of the lake are the 
greatest cliffs of the rim. Besides cliffs, the other elements of 
the inner slope are forests and talus, and these make it possible 
at a few points to approach the lake, not with great ease, but 
yet, care being taken, with little danger. Southwest of the lake 
the inner slope, clearly seen from Victor rock, is pretty well 
wooded, and from“near the end of the road. just east of Victor 
rock, a steep trail descends to the water. Where talus slopes 
prevail, there are no trees, and the loose material maintains the 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON 41 


steepest slope possible without sliding. Such slopes are well 
displayed along the western shore opposite the island and near 
the northeast corner of the lake under the palisades. At the 
latter point the rim is only 520 feet high, and a long slide, called 
from its shape the Wineglass, reaches from crest to shore. 

The best views of the rim are obtained from a boat on the lake, 
which affords an opportunity to examine in detail the position 
and structure of the ‘cliffs. They are composed wholly of vol- 
canic conglomerate and streams of lava arranged in layers that 
dip into the rim and away from the lake on all sides. Both 
forms of voleanic material are well exposed on the trail descend- 
ing the inner slope, and although most of the cliffs are of lava 
many are of conglomerate. 

On arriving at the water’s edge, the observer is struck with 
the fact that there is no beach. The steep slopes above the 
surface of the lake continue beneath its waters to great depths. 
Here and there upon the shore, where a rill descends from a 
melting snowbank near the crest, a small delta deposit makes 
a little shallow, turning the deep-blue water to pale green. 

As the boat skirts the western shore and passes toward Llao 
rock, the layered structure of the rim is evident. On the whole 
the lava streams predominate, although there is much conglom- 
erate. Of all the flows exposed upon the inner slope, that of 
Llao rock is most prominent and interesting. In the middle it 
is over 1,200 feet thick, and fills an ancient valley down the outer 
slope of the rim. Upon either side it tapers to a thin edge 
against the upper slope of the valley, as shown in Plate 1, and 
to the lake it presents a sheer cliff—that is, itis abruptly cut off— 
and one wonders how much farther it may have extended in 
that direction. Beneath the rock the outline of the valley in 
cross-section is evident, and it rests upon many layers of older 
lavas forming the rim down to the water’s edge. The direction 
of flow in this great lava stream forces us to believe that it was 
erupted from a large voleano which once stood upon the site of 
the lake. Every layer of lava in the rim is a coulee, dipping 
away fromthelake. This is especially well shown in the canyon 
of Sun creek, cut in its outer slope. The sections of these radi- 
ating flows exposed upon the inner slope of the rim all tell the 
same story as to their source. By projecting the lavas in their 
course toward a common center we can reconstruct in fancy the 
great voleanic mountain that once occupied the place of the 
latter—that is, Mount Mazama—and, like Shasta or Rainier, 


42 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


% 

formed a great landmark of the region. Proceeding eastward 
from Llao rock, the rim loses somewhat in height, and at the 
head of Cleetwood cove one sees the remarkable spectacle of a 
lava stream descending the inner slope of the rim. It is the 
only one that has behaved in this way, and its action throws 
much light upon the disappearance of Mount Mazama. 
_ The Palisades are less than 600 feet in elevation above the 
lake, and are composed almost wholly of one great flow. The 
streams of lava extending northeast from this portion of the rim 
are broad and much younger in appearance than those forming 
the great cliffs south of the lake, where the flows are thinner and 
more numerous. 

Round Top is a dome-shaped hill over the eastern end of the 
Palisades, and is made up chiefly of the lava stream that formed 
the Palisades, overlain by two sheets of pumice separated by a 
layer of rhyolite. The upper surface of the Palisade flow, where 
best exposed upon the lakeward slope of Round Top, bears 
glacial strize that extend beneath the layers of pumice and rhyo- 
lite of later eruption from Mount Mazama. It is evident. from 

this relation that Mount Mazama was an active voleano during 

the glacial period. The occurrence of eruptions from a snow- 
capped volcano must necessarily produce great floods, and these 
conditions may account in some measure at least for the detritus- 
filled valleys of the streams rising on the rim of Crater lake. 

Returning from this glacial digression to the boat trip on the: 
lake, it is observed upon the eastern side of the lake that Red 
Cloud cliff is rendered beautiful by the pinnacles of reddish tuff 
near the summit, where it is capped by a great, dark flow of 
rhyolite filling a valley in the older rim and extending far to the 
northeast. Here the springs begin to gush from the inner slope 
and cascade their foaming rills to the lake. They recur at Sen- 
tinel rock, Dutton cliff, and especially under Eagle crag, as well 
as further westward. Their sources in many cases can be seen 
in the banks of snow above, but in others they gush forth as real 
Springs whose water must find its way in from the snow upon 
the outer slope. 

The boldest portion of the rim, excepting perhaps Llao rock, 
is Dutton cliff, which is made more impressive by the deep 
U-shape notches on either side and the Phantom Ship at its 
foot. The notches mark points where the canyons of Sun and 
Sand creeks pass through the rim to the cliff overlooking the 
lake. ‘These canyons, due to erosion on lines of drainage, belong 


fl 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON 43 


SOUTHERN SHORE OF CRATER LAKE, AS SEEN FROM KERR NOTCH. DUTTON CLIFF ON 


THE LEFT: EAGLE CRAGS AND CASTLE CREST BEYOND THE PHANTOM SHIP 


From a photograph by J. S. Diller 


to the period when the topographic conditions in that region 
were quite unlike those of today. They were carved out by 
streams of ice and water descending from a point over the lake, 
and their presence, ending as they do in the air thousands of 
feet above the present water level, affords strong evidence in favor 
of the former reality of Mount Mazama. 

The Phantom Ship is a craggy little islet near the border of 
the lake under Dutton cliff. Its rugged hull, with rocks tower- 
ing like the masts of a ship, suggests the name, and, phantom- 
like, it disappears when viewed in certain lights from the western 
rim. Standing in line with an aréte that descends from an angle 
of the cliff, it possibly marks a continuation of the sharp spur 
beneath the water, or perhaps, but much less likely, it is a block 
slid down from the cliff. Whatever its history, it attracts every- 
one by its beauty and winsomeness. 

At times of volcanic eruption the lava rises within the volcano 
until it either overflows the crater at the top or, by the great 
pressure of the column, bursts open the sides of the voleano and 
escapes through the fissure to the surface. In the latter case, as 


44 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


the molten material cools, the fissure becomes filled with solid 
lava and forms a dike. The best example of this sort about 
Crater lake appears along the inner slope directly north of 
Wizard island, and is locally known as the Devil’s Backbone. 
This dike rock standing on edge varies from 5 to 25 feet in thick- 
ness and cuts the rim from water to crest. Dikes are most 
numerous in the older portion of the rim under Llao rock. 
They do not cut up through Llao rock and are clearly older than 
the lava of which that rock is formed. Dikes occur at intervals 
all around the lake, and radiate from it, suggesting that the 
central volcanic vent from which they issued must have been 
Mount Mazama. 

There is another important feature concerning the kinds of 
volcanic rocks and their order of eruption and distribution about 
the rim of Crater lake that is of much interest to the geologist. 
All the older lavas comprising the inner slope of the rim, espe- 
cially toward the water’s edge, are andesites. The newer ones 
forming the top of the rim in Llao rock, Round Top, and the 
Rugged Crest about the head of Cleetwood cove, as well as 
at Cloud Cap, are rhyolites. Other later flows, all of which 
escaped from the smaller adnate cones upon the outer slope of 
the rim, are basalts. The eruptions began with lavas of medium 
acidity (andesites), and after long-continued activity lavas both 
rich (rhyolites) and poor (basalts) in silica follow, giving a com- 
pleteness to the products of this great volcanic center that make 
it an interesting field of study. Furthermore, the remarkable 
opportunity afforded by the dissected volcano for the examina- 
tion of its structure and succession of lavas is unsurpassed. It’ 
should be stated, before dismissing the kinds of lava, that there 
are some rhyolites in the Sun Creek canyon south of the lake 
that appear to be older than those upon the north side, and that 
the final lava of the region on Wizard island is andesitic. 

The glaciation and structure of the rim clearly establish the 
former existence of Mount Mazama, but there may well be doubt 
as to its exact form and size. Judging from the fact that Mount 
Shasta and the rim of Crater lake have the same diameter at an 
altitude of 8,000 feet, and that their lavas are similar, it may 
with some reason be inferred that Mount Mazama and Mount 
Shasta were nearly of equal height. The slopes of Mount Shasta 
may be somewhat steeper than those of the rim of Crater lake at 
an equal altitude, but the glaciation of the rim is such as to re- 
quire a large peak for its source. 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON 45 


SECTION OF CRATER LAKE AND ITS RIM, WITH THE PROBABLE OUTLINE OF MOUNT MAZAMA 
. 


Vertical and Horizontal Scales the same 


In the accompanying figure is given a section of Crater lake 
and its rim, with the probable outline of Mount Mazama. Won- 
derful as the lake, encircled by cliffs, may be, it serves but to 
conceal in part the greatest wonder—that is, the enormous pit 
which is half filled by thelake. The pit or caldera, as it is called 
by some geologists, is 4,000 feet deep. It extends from the top 
of the rim half-way down to the sea-level, and nearly a square’ 
mile of its bottom is below the level of Upper Klamath lake at 
the eastern foot of the range. The volume of the pit is nearly a 
dozen cubic miles, and if we add the volume of the lost Mount 
Mazama, that amount would be increased by at least one-half, 
How was it possible to remove so large a mass and in the process 
develop so great a pit? 

The pit is completely inclosed, so that it cannot be regarded 
as an effect of erosion. The volcanic origin of everything about 
the lake would suggest in a general way that this great revolu- 
tion must have been wrought by volcanism, either blown out by 
a great volcanic explosion or swallowed up by an equally great 
engulfment. It is well known that pits have been produced by 
volcanic explosions, and some of them are occupied by lakes of 
the kind usually called crater lakes. Pits produced in this way, 
however, are, with rare exceptions, surrounded by rims composed 
of the fragmental material blown from the pit. 

At first sight the rim about Crater lake suggests that the pit 
was produced by an explosion, and the occurrence of much 
pumice in that region lends support to this preliminary view ; 
but on careful examination we find, as already stated, that the 
rim is not made up of fragments blown from the pit, but of layers 
of solid lava interbedded with those of volcanic conglomerate 
erupted from Mount Mazama before the pit originated. The 


46 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


moraines deposited by glaciers descending from the mountain 
formed the surface around a large part of the rim, and as there 
is no fragmental deposit on these moraines it is evident that 
there is nothing whatever to indicate any explosive action in 
connection with the development of the pit. 

We may be aided in understanding the possible origin of the 
pit by picturing the conditions that must have obtained during 
an effusive eruption of Mount Mazama. At such a time the col- 
umn of molten material rose in the interior of the mountain until 
it overflowed at the summit or burst open the sides of the moun- 
tain and escaped through fissures. Fissures formed in this way 
usually occur high on the slopes of the mountain. If instead, 
however, an opening were effected on the mountain side at a 
much lower level—say some thousands of feet below the sum- 
mit—and the molten material escaped, the mountain would be 
left hollow, and the summit, having so much of its support re- 
moved, might cave in and disappear in the molten reservoir. 

Something of this sort is described by Professor Dana as occur- 
ring at Kilauea, in Hawaii. The lake in that case is not water, 
but molten lava, for Kilauea is yet an active voleano. In 1840 
there was an eruption from the slopes of Kilauea, 27 miles dis- 
tant from the lake and over 4,000 feet below its level. The col- 
umn of lava represented by the lake of molten material in Kilauea 
sank away in connection with this eruption to a depth of 385 
feet, and the floor of the region immediately surrounding the 
lake, left without support, tumbled into the depression. In the 
intervals between eruptions the molten column rises again to- 
ward the surface, only to be lowered by subsequent eruptions, 
and the subsidence is not always accompanied by an outflow of 
lava upon the surface. Sometimes, however, it gushes forth as 
a great fountain a hundred feet or more in height. 

The elevated position of the great pit occupied by Crater lake 
makes its origin by subsidence seem the more probable. The 
level of the lowest bed of the lake reaches the surface within 15 
miles to the westward. That Mount Mazama was engulfed is 
plainly suggested by the behavior of its final lava stream. The 
greater portion of this last flow descended and spread over the 
outer slope of the rim, but from the thickest part of the flow 
where it fills an old valley at the head of Cleetwood cove some 
of the same lava, as already noted, poured down the inner slope. 
The only plausible explanation of this phenomena seems to be 
that soon after the final eruption of Mount Mazama, and before 


CRATER LAKE, OREGON 47 


the thickest part of the lava effused at that time had solidified, 
the mountain collapsed and sank away and the yet viscous por- 
tion of the stream followed toward the pit. 

It has been suggested, but perhaps not in serious thought, 
that the cone on Wizard island may represent the summit of the 


sunken Mount Mazama, projecting above the water. To deter- 
mine the truth of the matter we must cross over to the island. 
Wizard island has two portions—an extremely rough lava field 
and a cinder cone. The lava is dark and has a much more 


SNOWDRIFT IN THE CRATER OF THE CINDER CONE ON WIZARD ISLAND 


From a photograph by H. B. Patton 


basaltic look than any seen in ‘the main body of the rim. It 
has evidently been erupted from the base of the cinder cone in 
its present position. The cinder cone, too, is a perfect little 
volcano with steep symmetrical slopes, 845 feet in height, and 
surmounted by a crater 80 feet deep. It is so new and fresh 
that it is scarcely forested, and shows no trace of weathering. 
Instead of being a part of the sunken Mount Mazama, it is an 
entirely new volcano built up since the subsidence by voleanic 
action upon.the bottom of the pit. Were it not for the lake 
the whole bottom of the pit could be examined, and it is pos- 


48 CRATER LAKE, OREGON 


sible that other small volcanic cones might be found. This sug- 
gestion is borne out by the soundings of the lake, which appear 
to reveal two other cases, but they do not rise to within 400 feet 
of the surface of the water. It is evident that the volcanic 
eruptions upon the bottom of the pit have partially filled it up. 
Originally it may have been much more than 4,000 feet deep. 

Given the pit with water-tight walls, there is no difficulty in 
forming Crater lake, for in that region precipitation is greater 
than evaporation. The lake does not fill up and overflow. The 
surplus water must have a subterranean outlet, probably toward 
the southeast, where the region is traversed by extensive breaks 
in the rocks, and abounds in excellent springs. 

The color of the lake is deep blue excepting along the borders, 
where it merges into various shades and tints of green. It is so 
transparent that even on a hazy day a white dinner plate 10 
inches in diameter may be seen at a depth of nearly 100 feet. 
It contains no fish, but a small crustacean flourishes in its waters, 
and salamanders occur in abundance locally along the shore. 

The level of the lake oscillates with the seasons. During the 
rainy winter it rises, and in the summer it falls. In August last 
observations were made for twenty-two days, and the lake sank 
at the rate of one inch for every five or six days, depending 
somewhat on the conditions of the weather. The Mazamas have 
established a water gauge, and it is hoped that an extended series 
of observations may be obtained in the future. 

Mr B. W. Evermann, of the U. 8. Fish Commission, who vis- 
ited the lake last summer, made some interesting observations of 
its temperature. At 1p. m., August 22— 


The temperature of the surface water was. .............---:----.- 60° 
At a depth of 555 feet the temperature was.............-.......-+: 39° 
At adepth of 1,048 feet the temperature was..................-.... 41° 
At a depth of 1,623 feet (on the bottom) the temperature Was. ..... 46° 


The increase of temperature with the depth suggests that the 
bottom may yet be warm from volcanic heat, but more observa- 
tions are needed to fully establish such an abnormal relation of 
temperatures in a body of water. 


Aside from its attractive scenic features, Crater lake affords 
one of the most interesting and instructive fields for the study 
of volcanic geology to be found anywhere inthe world. Consid- 
ered in all its aspects, it ranks with the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado, the Yosemite valley, and the Falls of Niagara, and 
should be set aside as a National Park for the pleasure and in- 
struction of the people. 


es 


THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 


By Emory F. Best, 


Assistant Commissioner of the General Land Office 


~ No question of public policy has demanded more earnest con- 
sideration than the disposal of the public domain. It involved 
not only the creation of a fund for the redemption of the public 
debt, but the fundamental principles of government upon which 
the republic was founded. It has been asserted by some that 
mismanagement and an inefficient policy have characterized the 
disposal of the public land from the foundation of the govern- 
ment. On the other hand, it is claimed that a wise and benefi- 
cent system has peopled the country with thrifty and energetic 
settlers, and this is pointed to as one of our greatest achievements. 
When the Treaty of Peace was concluded between Great Britain 
and the United States the unsettled territory west of the Appa- 
lachians belonged to certain of the colonies. This fact was one 
of many obstacles to the ratification of the Articles of Confedera- 
tion.. It was removed by the cession of these lands to the United 
States. By such cession the United States became the proprietor 
of a territory greater in extent than France or Spain. This 
formed the nucleus of the public domain, and the laws enacted 
for the disposal of the public lands in that region have been ex- 
tended over all the territory thereafter acquired by the national 
government except Alaska. 

The first step in the disposal of the public lands was the pas- 
sage by Congress of the ordinance of 1787 for the organization 
and government of the territory northwest of the Ohio. It pro- 
vided for the organization of the territories into states, with all 
the rights of the original states, but declared that the new states 
should never interfere with the disposal of the soil by the United 
States, nor with any regulations Congress might find necessary 
for securing the title in such soil to the purchaser. Upon the 
admission of new states into the Union, the absolute proprietary 
power and primary right of disposition of the soil has been uni- 
formly reserved by solemn compact in conformity therewith. 

- The cessions of territory made to the United States by the 
several states were upon the condition that the land should be 


4 49 


50 THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 


held in trust, to be disposed of for the common benefit of all the 
states, and this condition applied as well to all land thereafter 
acquired by the United States. At first the controlling purpose 
in the disposal of the lands was to create a fund for the redemp- 
tion of the public debt. Settlement upon the public domain 
was not only discouraged, but was actually forbidden. In pur- 
suance of the policy to convert the public domain into cash as 
rapidly as possible for the extinguishment of the public debt, 
large tracts of land in the Northwest Territory were sold to mee 
viduals and companies under authority granted by special act 
of Congress prior to the adoption of the Constitution. 

In 1790 Mr Hamilton, then Secretary of the Treasury, sub- 
mitted to Congress a plan for the disposal of the public domain, 
which has formed the basis of the public-land system. All legis- 
lation upon this subject, until the Homestead Act of 1862, em- 
bodied the fundamental principle of Mr Hamilton’s plan, which 
contemplated the raising of revenue from the sale of the land- 
His plan presented two leading features: one, the facility of ad- 
vantageous sales, which, as a financial operation, claimed pri- 
mary attention; the other, the accommodation of individuals 
then inhabiting the Northwest Territory, or who might afterward 
settle therein, who were permitted to purchase small tracts for 
homes. Upon this plan our public land system was laid. It 
provided for the disposal of the public domain at public offer- 
ing, by private cash sales, and by the allowance of the preference 
right of purchase to actual settlers under the several preémption 
laws. The preémption laws were at first temporary, being limited 
in their operation, until the general law of 1841, which continued 
in force until its repeal by the act of March 3, 1891. 

While the preémption right was generally considered as a 
special favor or benefit conferred upon those who inhabit, culti- 
vate, and improve a tract of public land, with the intention of 
making a permanent home, it was practically only the extension 
of a credit for twelve months to the settler, but with no actual 
security that he would finally get the land. Up to 1848 there 
was no land subject to preémption that could not at any time be 
bought upon application at the local office, at private cash entry, 
at the same price the preémptor was required to pay, and it was 
not until 1860 that preémption rights could be initiated by set- 
tlement upon unsurveyed lands. Even in the bestowal of the 
munificent grants of alternate sections to aid in the construc- 
tion of railroads and other works of public improvement, the 


a 
j 
; 


SS 


4 


when 


THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 51 


controlling feature in the disposition of the public lands was not 
abandoned, because the sections of land remaining to the gov- 
ernment within the limits of the grant were doubled in price for 
the purpose of reimbursing the government for the land granted. 
It was not until the agitation of the question of free homes for 
the people, which resulted in the act of May 2, 1862, that the 
general policy of sales for revenue was changed. 

’ The homestead law provided that any citizen who is the head 
of a family, or who has arrived at the age of 21 years, may ac- 
quire title to 160 acres of land by residing upon, cultivating, and 
improving the tract for five years immediately preceding his 
final proof, free from all cost except the land office fees. Since 
the year 1862, when this law went into effect, up to the close of 
the last fiscal year, 508,936 homestead entries have been allowed, 
embracing an area of 67,618,451 acres. 

How far this beneficent act has demonstrated the wisdom of 
the measure and fulfilled the expectations of its advocates must 
be judged by the growth and prosperity of the country since the 
period of its enactment. It is true that it went into operation 
at practically the same period that witnessed the extensive grants 
in aid of the construction of the Pacific railroads and other im- 
portant works of internal improvement; but this important 
factor, with the aid of the railroads, was mainly instrumental in 
converting the boundless domain of wild, unsettled Indian coun- 
try into thriving communities and states, adding immensely to 
the material wealth and prosperity of the nation. Thus the goy- 
ernment has indirectly derived larger revenues from its bounties 
than it could have acquired from the cash sales of its lands. 

It is unnecessary to give a detailed statement of the extent to 
which the public lands have been entered under the several laws 
by which such disposition has been governed. Suffice it to say 
that about 247,000,000 acres of land have been sold for cash, in- 
cluding commuted homestead entries, for which the government 
has received about $280,000,000, and that this item, with the 
grants to aid in the construction of railroads and the donations 
to states for educational purposes and internal improvements, 
constitute the largest portion of the public domain that has been 
disposed of by the government. 

It is estimated that there now remain, exclusive of Alaska, 
over which the general land laws have not been extended, 
about 600,000,000 acres of vacant public land, of which about 
500,000,000 are within a region where the rainfall is not sufli- 


52 THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 


cient to insure the cultivation of crops without irrigation. ‘The 
title to the soil is in the United States, and it is subject to dis- 
posal under the general land laws; but the control of the water, 
which is the important element in the utilization of these lands 
for agricultural purposes, rests with the state. Unless these two 
elements are combined, the land is valueless, and until the land 

can be brought to an agricultural condition, permanent settle- 
ment, that will advance the prosperity of the state and nation, 
cannot be expected. Hence the question is forced upon us, Are 
the laws which have operated so favorably in the disposal of the 
well watered and fertile lands of the Mississippi valley adequate 
to the conditions that confront us in the arid west? 

The act of March 3, 1877, authorizing the entry of 640 acres 
of desert land, conditioned upon the payment of $1.25 per acre 
and the reclamation of the land by conducting water thereon, 
was designed to meet these conditions; but whether from the 
imperfection of the system or from the injudicious administra- 
tion of the law, it has certainly failed to yield the results most 
to be desired, even if it has accompHshed the purposes of its 
enactment. : 

It is generally conceded that the lands lying along the borders 
of the small streams and rivulets, which can be irrigated by the 
individual efforts of the settlers, have practically been appro- 
priated by settlers under the homestead and other general land 
laws, and that the desirable vacant public lands unreclaimed are 
so situated that they cannot be reclaimed by means at the com- 
mand of the individual settler. The combined efforts of labor 
and capital must be employed to insure a reclamation that is 
economical and practical. Hence the homestead law is no longer 
of practical application in the arid region, as its operation is 
rather to retard than to promote the reclamation of these lands. 

But a more serious problem is, how to secure the reclamation 
of the largest possible portion of the 500,000,000 acres of vacant 
public lands within the arid region. It is estimated that only 
20 per cent can, under the most favorable conditions, be reclaimed 
and brought to an agricultural condition, not because of the lack 
of irrigable land, but because of the limited supply of water, and 
the irrigation of this quantity can be accomplished only by the 
most economical and conservative use of the water and the most 
judicious selection of the tracts of land to be irrigated. It is 
therefore evident that as the solution of the problem lies in the 
economical and practical utilization of the water, the control and 


ee ee 


THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 53 


use of this element must be of paramount importance to secur- 
ing title to the land. 

If the waters of the perennial streams which are wasted during 
the winter months could be stored and reservoirs could be con- 
structed to impound the storm waters, the area of territory sus- 
ceptible of irrigation could be largely increased. As the irrigable 
land is far in excess of the available water supply, the land to 
be irrigated should also be selected with a view to the most eco- 
nomical use of the water, so that the available lands should be 
irrigated and disposed of as agricultural lands, and the remain- 
ing lands be held for disposition for other uses. 

The importance of observing the strictest economy in the dis- 
tribution of water and the selection of lands is forcibly stated 
in the minority report of the Special Committee appointed by the 
United States Senate in 1889 to consider the subject of the irriga- 
tion and reclamation of the arid lands. It says: 


“The irrigable lands are limited inextent. Thearea of the arid region 
which can be irrigated is a small fraction of the entire region. This arises 
from the fact that all the waters that can be used are insufficient to serve 
all the possible irrigable lands. It therefore becomes necessary to select 
the lands to be redeemed. On the wisdom of this selection vast interests 
depend. It is possible to irrigate lands on the mountains and on the high 
plateaus, but if the water is used there it cannot be used below, and these 
elevated lands will not make the best homes for the people. The climate 
there is rigorous, and the variety of agricultural products that can be 
raised is limited, being chiefly hay and vegetables. To use the water on 
such lands is largely to waste it, and to drive agriculture into the moun- 
tains is to doom the people engaged therein to a dreary life in a subarctie 
climate. It is therefore manifestly to the interest of the greatest number 
of people that the agriculture of the arid lands should not be established 
in the mountain regions. The valleys and plains below are warm, salu- 
brious, and rich, the variety of agricultural products is great, and if the 
waters are used on these lands they will give support to a prosperous 
people.”’ 


If this is the condition with which we are confronted with re- 
gard to the vacant public lands in the arid region, then it must 
follow that these lands should not be disposed of until they have 
been brought to an agricultural condition, if due regard be had 
to the practical and economical disposition of them, and with a 
view to deriving the greatest benefit for the state and nation. 

This may be accomplished in three ways: (1) by the construc- 
tion of reservoirs and irrigating works and the adoption of an 
irrigation system under the direction of the general government; 


54 THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 


(2) through the agency of irrigation companies; and (8) by the 
states controlling the waters within their respective borders. 

On March 20, 1888, Congress passed a joint resolution direct- 
ing the Secretary of the Interior, through the direction of the 
Geological Survey, to make an examination of that portion of 
the arid region where agriculture is carried on by means of irri- 
gation, as to the natural advantage of the storage of water, and 
the practicability and cost of construction and capacity of reser- 
voirs, and such other facts as bear on the question of the storage 
of water for irrigation purposes. This resolution was followed 
by legislation making appropriations to enable the Director of 
the Geological Survey to make the necessary examination, and 
he was authorized to select sites suitable for the storage reservoirs 
contemplated by the resolution, which were to remain segregated 
and reserved from entry, occupation, and settlement until other- 
wise provided by law. Under this authority 120 suitable sites 
have been selected, and the lands covered by such selections 
have been reserved from entry, occupation, and settlement, but 
to this day no provision has been made for their utilization. 

The plan of reclamation through the agency of land and irri- 
gation companies would not, in my judgment, be commended 
by the people, and although it might be effective in putting 
under irrigation all the territory possibly susceptible of irriga- 
tion by the water that could be stored, yet it would hardly be 
possible to make such limitations and restrictions upon a grant 
of such power as would absolutely protect the settler against ex- 
tortion and oppression. 

The third appears to be the most feasible plan for the utiliza- 
tion of the arid lands. he right to the use of the water being 
under the absolute control of the state, it would, if it controlled 
the land also, be enabled so to direct and govern the appropria- 
tion of it as to secure, by a judicious selection of the lands to be 
irrigated, the most economical and practical use. It would en- 
able the state to check the waste growing out of faulty construc- 
tion of dams and imperfect systems of applying water. The 
settler on a tract of desert land who has acquired a right to the 
use of water is interested solely in the application of it to his 
particular tract, with no responsibility for its economical use. 
The land is abundant, but the water is scarce, and if we expect 
to reap advantages by utilizing the water to the greatest extent, 
it must be accomplished by reclaiming the lands before they are 
disposed of. This can be accomplished more effectively by the 
states than through the general government or other agencies. 


THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 55 


The state of California has adopted a policy, based upon the 
principle of state or common ownership in natural waters, which 
provides for the ownership by communities of works for the stor- 
age and distribution of waters for irrigation purposes. This law, 
known as the Wright law, which has recently been declared con- 
stitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States, has been 
adopted, I believe, by nearly all the arid land states. It pro- 
vides for the organization of irrigation districts wherever fifty 
or a majority of the owners of lands susceptible of one mode 
of irrigation from a common source and by the same system of 
works desire to provide for the irrigation of their holdings. 

It also provides for the creation of a board of directors, who 
have power to purchase lands, water and water-rights, and to 
construct the necessary reservoirs and irrigation works. It also 
authorizes the issuance of bonds to raise money for the construc- 
tion of such works, which bonds are to be paid out of revenues 
derived from annual assessments upon the real property of the 
district, and all such property subject to taxation by the state is 
liable to such assessment. I do not attempt to give details, but 
simply the general features of the law, to show how unjustly it 
would operate in a district where there was a tract of vacant pub- 
licland. This land would be susceptible of irrigation by the same 
system and from the same common source, and would therefore 
be materially enhanced in value by the construction of irriga- 
tion works at the expense of the inhabitants of the district, al- 
though the government would not be liable to contribute to it, 
for the reason that the government lands are not subject to tax- 
ation by the state, and are therefore not liable to the assessment. 
This inequitable feature could be removed if the title to the lands 
were in the state. 

In the arid region an average of about 76 per cent of the land 
isin the hands of the government. In Nevada about 95 per 
cent of the area is vacant. These lands contribute nothing to 
the revenues of the state. With its taxable resources so dimin- 
ished it is impossible for the state to undertake a system of irri- 
gation. They should be so disposed of as to make them avail- 
able as resources from which the state may increase its revenue. 

The states in the arid region have established laws for the 
acquisition and protection of riparian rights, based upon the 
doctrine of priority of appropriation. This has been rendered 
necessary by the failure of the general government to formulate 
a uniform system for the protection of the rights of parties and 


56 THE UTILIZATION OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 


to secure the economical distribution of the water. Under these 
laws, which differ in many material respects, rights have been 
acquired, so that a uniform system could not now be established 
without involving irrigation interests in serious conflicts. It 
can be remedied only by giving to each state control of its arid 
lands, to be reclaimed and disposed of under their separate sys- 
tems. 

The advantages that would accrue to the state through the 
control of the land and water are, in a measure, attained by the 
act of August 19, 1894, known as the Carey Act. This law au- 
thorizes the Secretary of the Interior to contract with any of the 
desert land states to donate to the states, free of cost, such lands, 
not exceeding 1,000,000 acres in each state, as the state may 
cause to be irrigated, reclaimed, occupied, and cultivated by 
actual settlers. It also authorizes the state to make all neces- 
sary contracts for causing the lands to be reclaimed and for in- 
ducing settlement and cultivation, but the state is not authorized 
to lease or dispose of the lands except to secure their reclama- 
tion, cultivation, and settlement. ; 

It is in the nature of a grant, limited in quantity, and condi- 
tioned upon reclamation and cultivation. It contemplates that 
the reclamation shall be accomplished by private capital, but as 
the land selected cannot be disposed of until it has been patented 
to the state, it fails to give the state sufficient control over the 
lands to enable it to pledge them as security for their reclama- 
tion, and hence it cannot contract for the construction of works 
on the most favorable terms. If this law were amended so as to 
provide for the granting of the lands to the state upon applica- 
tion, leaving the state free to contract for their reclamation and 
to pledge the lands as security therefor, it would be of practical 
benefit, and under its provisions the state might be enabled to 
secure the reclamation of all the lands within its limits that could 
be utilized. As it is, but two states have applied for its benefits, 
and the feasibility of the scheme for the reclamation and disposal 
of the arid lands is yet to be ascertained. 

With this condition confronting us, can there be any valid 
reason urged against the cession of these lands to the states, and 
may we not go farther and inquire if there is any reason why the 
trust imposed upon the general government for the disposal of 
all the public lands may not safely be delegated to them? The 
cession of the Northwest Territory was made upon the express 
condition that the ceded lands should be considered as a com- 


—" 


B & | 
*» 


THE UTILIZATION. OF THE VACANT PUBLIC LANDS 57 


mon fund for the use and benefit of all the states and should be 
disposed of for that purpose and for no other purpose whatever. 
During the existence of the Confederation and in the earlier dec- 
ades of the Republic, it was clearly contemplated that the lands 
so acquired, as well as those acquired by purchase and treaties, 
could only be disposed of for the purpose of revenue for the re- 
demption of the public debt, and that any other disposition of 
them would be a violation of the trust. 

But the policy has gradually changed from a system of sales 
for revenue only to that of free homes for the people. For the 
past twenty years the tendency of legislation has been to repeal 
all laws authorizing the purchase of the public lands by cash 
entry and to subject them to homestead entry only.” In 1889 a 
law was passed withdrawing from private cash entry all the 
public lands, except in the state of Missouri, which was followed 
by the act of March 3, 1891, repealing the preémption law and 
declaring that no public lands of the United States, except aban- 
doned military or other reservations or isolated and disconnected 
tracts and mineral and other lands of a special nature having 
~ local application, shall be sold at public sale. Since the passage 
of this law isolated tracts are not subject to public sale until they 
have been subject to homestead entry for three years after the 
surrounding land has been disposed of and abandoned. Mili- 
tary reservations containing more than 5,000 acres are now sub- 
ject to homestead entry only. The public lands are therefore no 
longer to be disposed of with a view to the revenue to be derived 
therefrom. 

Besides, less than thirty years ago a great part of the vast ter- 
ritory west of the Mississippi river was Indian country, to which 
the Indian title had not been extinguished, and was practically 
unorganized territory. Since then all of what was commonly 
known as the Indian country has been ceded to the United States 
and become a part of the public domain. The Indian title has 
been extinguished as to all the territory formerly occupied as 
hunting grounds, in consideration of which diminished reserva- 
tions of a permanent character have been established. From 
time to time states have been admitted into the Union, until the 
entire country is now divided into separate sovereignties, with 
all the rights, powers, duties, and privileges of the original states, 
except the organized territories of Arizona and New Mexico, 
which are. knocking at the door for admission to the sisterhood. 


THE MAZAMAS 


There was organized on the summit of Mount Hood, on July 19, 1894, 
a society of mountain-climbers called the Mazamas, whose qualification 
for membership is the ascent of an acceptable snow-capped peak. Re- 
markable as it may seem, so much enthusiasm was aroused at that time 
that 193 people ascended 11,225 feet to attend the meeting. W. G. Steel, 
one of the leading spirits of the occasion, was made the first president of 
the organization. 

The objects of the society are mountain exploration, the protection of 
forests and scenery, and the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge 
concerning them. In the summer of 1895, with Mr Steel again as presi- 
dent and T. Brook White as secretary, parties were organized to ascend 
Mounts Baker, Rainier, Adams, Hood, and Jefferson and establish inter- 
communication by heliotroping, but, owing to the smokiness of the at- 
mosphere, the latter part of the program could not be carried out. 

With Mr C. H. Sholes as president and Rev. Earl M. Wilbur as secre- 
tary, the society continued its enthusiastic work in the spring of 1896 by 
publishing the first number of a magazine called Mazama, a record of 
mountaineering in the Pacific northwest. This publication contains, be- 

‘sides the presidential addresses, the reports of the historian for 1894 and 
1895, and other matters relating to the society, the following papers: The 
Flora of Mount Hood, by Thomas Howell, who mentions 272 species 
growing above 2,000 feet ; The Elevation of Mount Adams, by Prof. Edgar 
McClure, who states the height of the mountain, as determined by aver- 
aging three hourly readings of a mercurial barometer compared with 
three synchronous readings at Seattle, Portland, and Eugene, to be 
*12,401.9 feet; The Heliotrope in Mountaineering, by T. Brook White, 
describes the instruments used and the Morse code; The Flora of Mount 
Adams, by W. N. Suksdorf and Thomas Howell, enumerates 480 species 
(excluding mosses and lichens) above 2,000 feet; in The Glaciers of 
Mount Adams Prof. W. D. Lyman estimates that at the timber line there 
are 8 or 10 glaciers, but only 3 are described as larger than those of 
Mount Hood. The veteran geologist of Oregon, Prof. Thomas Condon, 
describes the ice-caves of Mount Adams, which years ago furnished the 
ice for the city of Portland. He ascribes the cold-storage feature of 
the caves to currents of cold air descending from the mountain along the 
tunnels once filled with molten lava from the same source. Under the 
title of The Klamath Mountains the present writer calls attention to the 
geologic and topographic relation between the Sierra Nevada and the 
Cascade and Coast ranges. 

The Mazama excursion of August, 1896, was to Crater lake, in connec- 
tion with the Crater Lake clubs of Medford, Ashland, and Klamath Falls 
in southern Oregon. In all, nearly 500 people attended the meeting, a 
number of them also ascending Mount Pitt. By previous arrangement 


*See Nar. Geog. Maa., Vol. vii, No. 4, pp. 151-153. 
58 


eee 


eo *S Ep 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 59 


four government parties met the excursionists at Crater lake and en- 
deavored in various ways to promote the success of the occasion. B. W. 
Evermann, of the Fish Commission, studied the fish food and spawning 
grounds of the lake and made some interesting observations on the lake 
temperature. Dr C. Hart Merriam, chief of the Biological Survey of the 
Agricultural Department, assisted by Vernon Bailey and Edward A. 
Preble, collected a large number of animals about the rim of the lake and 
upon the island, and Mr F. V. Coville, the Department Botanist, assisted 
by Mr Lieburg, made a large collection of plants. A geological party under 
the charge of the writer prepared a geological map of the region. The 
heads of all the government parties, as well as many others, were called 
upon for camp-fire talks, addresses, or recitations concerning matters of 
scientific and popular interest, especially relating to Crater lake. The 
proceedings were opened August 18 by the Klamath Falls club before the 
Mazamas arrived, but thereafter the great camp-fire of the Mazamas was 
the rendezvous after the excursions of the day. Among the excursionists, 
aside from the government parties, were a number of botanists and 
zoologists, as well as geologists and professors of various departments. 
Many were armed with cameras to carry away permanent impressions of 
the lake. Asa whole the excursion was a great success, and its fruits are 
to be found, not only in the widespread interest aroused in such proceed- 
ings, but also in the forthcoming number of the Mazama, which is to 
contain full accounts of the lake, both popular and scientific, from various 
contributors. : J. S. Disver. 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Elementary Geology. By Ralph 8S. Tarr, Professor of Dynamic Geology 
and Physical Geography at Cornell University. Pp. xxx + 499, with 
25 plates and 268 other illustrations. New York: The Macmillan 
Company. 1897. $1.40. 

This is a refreshing book. In the first place the type is large and wel] 
leaded, and the printers have realized the true function of punctuation 
and largely omitted brain-wearying dots in useless places; so the eye is 
attracted by the clean-cut pages. In the second place illustrations are 
freely used to supplement the succinct text, and nearly all the pictures 
are photo-mechanical reproductions from nature; even the minerals and 
fossils are represented mainly by half-tone engravings; thus the facts of 
nature are represented with a vividness and brought home to the under- 
standing with a vigor not to be attained in any other way. Again the 
author has realized, at least in some measure, that the progress of knowl- 
edge is ever from the remote toward the near, and he has had the courage 
to directly assail the last fortress of the unknown by depicting the every- 
day and commonplace features of the earth which every child may see, 
and by explaining the principles of earth-science in terms of common 
things; no geologic book ever written is less affected by mysticism, scholas- 
ticism, metaphysics, dialectics, and other pernicious vestiges of intel- 
lectual barbarism. Then the work must appeal to the teacher, because 


60 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


it is adapted to youth and because it fills a need not quite met by any 
previously issued text-book.. 

After an introductory chapter the work is divided into three parts, viz., 
(1) Structural geology, (2) Dynamic geology, and (3) Stratigraphic geol- 
ogy. Professor Tarr half apologizes in his preface for the space given to 
the second of these divisions; but he might well have spared the expla- 
nation and even doubled this eminently practical and useful part of the 
treatise. The third ‘‘ part’? might better have been divided in name, as 
it is in fact, into paleontology, or the history of life on the globe, and the 
geographic development of the continents; for the treatment is essen- 
tially historical and not at all stratigraphic. Then it would have been 
in accord with the general method of the book, which is the emphasis of 
the actual and the near, to give relatively more space to the life of the 
later ages; also, and more especially, to explain the earlier stages in 
geographic development of North America in terms of the later stages. 
Unfortunately these later stages, which are in themselves of great inter- 
est and are now well understood, receive but little attention. The chief 
imperfections in the work lie in incompleteness of the treatment from 
the point of view of the geographer, and are due to the fact that it is a 
complement to the same author’s ‘‘ Elementary Physical Geography.” 
In the main, the facts and principles of geology are well generalized and 
happily expressed. W JM. 


The Lessons of Erosion Due to Forest Destruction. Chart. The U. 8. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Washington, 1896. 


A part of the exhibit made by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture at the International and Cotton States Exposition held in Atlanta 
during the autumn of 1895 was a series of three models representing (1) 
the soil destruction consequent on the removal of forests, (2) the processes 
required for reclamation in the same tract, and (3) the same tract as re- 
claimed and restored to pristine fertility and productiveness. These 
models were carefully executed by Howell, under the direction of Bern- 
hard E. Fernow, Chief of the Forestry division, with the co-operation of 
several geologists, particularly W J McGee. These models attracted 
much attention, and their exhibition in the region in which old-field 
erosion is particularly active was undoubtedly productive of much good. 
Recently the features of the models have been reproduced by chromo- 
lithography in the form of a large wall-chart, for distribution among 
agriculturists and others. The reproduction, unhappily, is not equal to 
the models in accuracy of representation, and will hardly be serviceable 
for educational purposes save in a single direction, viz., in attracting at- 
tention to a subject of, great economic importance in many parts of the 
country. WwW JM. 


Preliminary Report on the Income Account of Railways in the United States for 

the Year ending June 30, 1896. Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Pp. 68. Washington, 1896. Prepared by the Statistician to the Com- 
mission. 

During the fiscal year 1895-96 the railways of the United States, having 

an operated mileage of 172,369 miles of line, earned in gross $1, 123,646,562. 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 61 


The operating expenses were $754,971,515, leaving an income from opera- 
tion of $368,675,047. Two-thirds of the gross earnings were absorbed in 
operating expenses, leaving one-third as income from operation. High- 
water mark in railway earnings, as represented by gross earnings and 
income from operation per mile of line, was reached in 1891-92. In that 
year gross earnings per mile of line were $7,213, and the income from 
operation was $2,404. From. that time until 1894-95 the gross earnings 
diminished, and in that year reached their lowest point, which was 
$6,050 per mile. The income from operation reached its lowest point in 
1893-94, when it was $1,946. In 1895-96 the gross earnings had increased 
to $6,519 and the income from operation to $2,139 per mile. It is evident 
from these figures that the lowest point in the business of transportation 
has been passed, and that this branch of business is on the upgrade. 
This gain is not confined to any one part of the country, but is shown to 
extend to all parts, with the exception of the states of Louisiana and 
Texas. The dividends declared by the roads during the year aggregated 
$54,983,732, an amount almost identical with that of the preceding year. 
EL, G. 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 1089. Virginia Cartography. A 
Bibliographical Description by P. Lee Phillips. Washington, 1896. 
This is an exhaustive account of the early maps of Virginia. Special 
attention is given to John Wyth’s map of 1585, Capt. John Smith’s map 
of 1608, and that of Augustine Herman of 1670. Of the multitude of maps 
published in recent years only a few are listed, and it is difficult to see 
upon what basis selection was made, unless it be the fact that they happen 
to be represented in the Library of Congress. A singular omission is that 
of the sheets of the U. S. Geological Survey, which constitute the modern 
mother map. HerG: 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The Bulletin of the Geographical Club of Philadelphia for December com- 
prises ‘‘A Trip to Manika Land,”’ by J. Edward Farnum. This is a little 
known region in southeastern Africa, just south of Zambesi river. The 
article is accompanied by a sketch map. 

The Journal of Geology for November-December, 1896, is of special in- 
terest from a geographic point of view. It opens with an article on ‘‘ The 
Age of the Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada,’’ by W. Lindgren, 
of the Geological Survey. These gravels were carefully studied by 
Prof. J. D. Whitney, who assigned them to the Plioceneiage. Mr Lind- 
gren assigns a somewhat greater age to these beds, placing them in the 
Miocene or even Eocene, the evidence upon which his conclusions rest 
being mainly derived from -plant remains. Mr Harry Fielding Reid 
contributes an exceedingly interesting article upon the ‘‘ Mechanics of 
Glaciers,’ and Prof. R. D. Salisbury a paperupon ‘‘ The Loess in the Wis- 
consin Drift Formation.” Mr Carlos Sapper contributes an article on the 

‘Geology of Chiapas, Tabasco, and the Peninsula of Yucatan,” accom- 


OZ); . GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


panied by a small sketch map of this little known region. Another con- 
tribution by Prof. R. D. Salisbury, entitled ‘Studies for Students,” 
treats in outline of glacial phenomena. 

The Scottish Geographical Magazine for January, 1897, contains as its 
leading article a paper by Dr John Murray on the “ Temperature of the 
Water of the Scotch Lakes.’’ The observations, which are tabulated in 
extenso, show as a rule a slight increase of temperature from the surface 
down to three or four fathoms, and a gradual reduction in temperature 
down to the greatest depths obtained, viz., 80 fathoms. The article is 
illustrated by diagrams, which admirably summarize the results. 


The Geographical Journal for January, 1897, contains a number of articles 
of interest, among them being accounts of journeys and explorations in 
Malay, Africa, Australia, and South America. These are, “A Journey 
Through the Malay States of Trengganu and Kelantan,” by Hugh Clifford; 
“Researches in Karia,’’ by W. R. Paton and J. L. Myres; ‘‘ Journeys 
in Gosha and Beyond the Deshek Wama,”’ by Clifford H. Craufurd ; 
‘‘Take Mweru and the Luapula Delta,’”’ by A. Blair Watson; ‘‘ Journey 
from Western Australia to Warina, in South Australia,’ by W. Carr 
Boyd. Mr W. L. Sclater continues his series of articles on ‘‘ The Geog- 
raphy of Mammals,”’ the present article being devoted to the Nearctic 
region. Mr George G. Chisholm has an article on the ‘‘ Distribution of 
Towns and Villages in England,” especially with reference to their 
geologic location, an aspect which is beginning to receive attention. 


The Bulletin of the Sierra Club of California opens with an ascent of 
Mount Lefroy, in the Canadian Rockies, which resulted in the death of 
Mr Philip Stanley Abbot. Mr Bolton Coit Brown contributes a pleasant 
sketch entitled ‘‘ Wanderings in the High Sierra between Mount King 
and Mount Williamson.’’ The mountain-climber is advised by Mr How- 
ard Longley “ What to Take and How to Take It.’’ Mr J. M. Stillman 
writes of a ‘Trip to Tehipite Valley from the Kings River and Grand 
Cafion,’’ and Theodore S. Solomons upon ‘‘An Early Summer Excursion 
to the Tuolumne Cafion and to Mount Lyell.” 

The Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Number 4 of the year 
1896, opens with a brief summary of the ‘‘ Topographic Work of the U.S. 
Geological Survey in 1895.” Signor Romero, the Mexican Minister to 
the United States, furnishes a most admirable descriptive article on the 
topography, climate, people, government, and resources of his country. 
It is well that we should have a better knowledge than we have hitherto 
possessed of our next-door neighbor on the south. Mr J. V. Brower has 
an article entitled ‘‘ The Utmost Waters of the Missouri River.” The 
region described, the headwaters of Red Rock creek, Montana, was ex- 
plored twenty-five years ago, and has since been subdivided by the Gen- 
eral Land Office, which by running a line at every mile—east, west, 
north, and south—surely leaves little room for geographical discovery. 


The Geographical Society of Lima, Peru, publishes a report, accom- 
panied by a map, on the ‘‘ Navigability of the Eastern Rivers of Peru.” 
The map summiarizes the information contained in the report, showing, 
by means of symbols, the head of navigation of the rivers. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 63 


The Journal of the Tyneside Geographical Society gives considerable space 
to Arctic exploration, the first article being on the Jackson-Harmsworth 
expedition, by Mr A. Montefiore Brice, and the second upon Nansen’s 
expedition, by Professor Mohn. ‘‘ The Resources of Canada”’ are treated 
by Sir Donald A. Smith. It seems strange that with such wonderful 
resources of soil, climate, and minerals as Canada is said to possess, its 
development has been so slow. The exceedingly interesting lecture on 
Venezuela, delivered before the National Geographic Society by Prof. 
Wm. E. Curtis, is republished in this magazine. Sir Frederic Goldsmid 
continues in this number his papers upon ‘ Persia and Her Neighbors.” 

H. G: 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY, SESSION 1806-’97 


Regular Meeting, January 8, 1897.—Vice-President Merriam in the chair. 
Mr J. 8. Diller addressed the Society on the subject of Crater Lake, Ore- 
gon, with lantern-slide illustrations. 


Special Meeting, January 15, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
Mr Sidney Dickinson, M. A., F. R. G. S., lectured on Picturesque New 
Zealand, with lantern-slide illustrations. 


Regular Meeting, January 22, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair, 
Mr T.S. O’Leary read a paper entitled ‘‘ Winds and Their Uses, with some 
Types of Ocean Weather,” illustrating his subject with lantern slides. 


Special Meeting, January 29, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
Major Henry E. Alvord, C. K., read an address, illustrated by lantern 
slides, on the Geography of a Battle, with special reference to the battle 
of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. 


Regular Meeting, February 5, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
Joint meeting with the American Forestry Association. Dr B. E. Fernow 
read a paper entitled ‘‘ The Gardens, Forests, and Deserts of Arizona,” 
with lantern-slide illustrations. 


Special Meeting, February 12, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
Hon. Wm. L. Wilson, Postmaster General, read a paper, with incidental 
anecdotes and recollections, on the Development of the United States 
Postal Service. 


Exvecrions.—New members have been elected as follows: 


January 12.—Henry Black, Jos. R. Buckalew, J. Ross Colhoun, Arthur 
J. Collie, Geo. E. Corson, Arthur B. Crane, Miss Ida R. Hamaker, Alvin 
M. Lothrop, Miss Leontine Mackay, Hon. R. E. Preston, W. C. Ralston, 
Miss Isabella Read, Miss Alice B. Sanger, W. A. Shaw, Dr Max West. 


January 22.—Francis B. Austin, Jas. O. Broadhead, Ellwood P. Cub- 
berly, Mrs A. M. Davis, Chief-Eng. Jas. A. Doyle, U. S. R. M., C. C. 
Duncanson, G. 8. Hobbs, Capt. D. H. Kelton, U. 8S. A., Dr Fridtjof Nan- 
sen (honorary), Hon. Edward Lee Plumb, T. C. Powell, Col. Wm. H. 


64 MISCELLANEA 


Powell, U.S. A., Albertus McCreary, H. D. Mirick, E. J. Shives, Ed- 
ward A. Wright. 


February 11.—Col. 'C. J. Allen, U. S. A., M. W. Baldwin, Miss M. S$. 
Booz, Hon. Chas. A. Boutelle, M. C., Oscar Fitz Clifford, James Fraser, 
E. B. Grandin, Edward Graves, Gen. John P. Hawkins, U.S. A., Leander 
L. Hawkins, Mrs Mary A. Hepburn, Dr David J. Hill, J. Q. Kern, Frank 
M. Kurie, C. E., F. A. Lester, Miss Julia C. Lindsley, Miss Harriet A. 
Luddington, Edgar A. Lynham, Mrs Mary K. Matthews, Mrs B. 8S. Mc- 
Donald, F. W. Pettigrew, C. E., Warren W. Phelan, J.Q. Redway, F. R.G.S., 
P. C. Riley, James Edgar Smith, Herbert G. Squiers, George B. Stark- 
weather, Frank B. Taylor, Matthew Trimble, Thos. P. Woodward. 


MISCELLANEA 


The North American Review for February contains a valuable article by 
John Hays Hammond, from which the following items of interest are 
abstracted: From 1887 to 1895 the Transvaal produced gold to the value 
of $158,750,000, $144,000,000 of which came from the Witwatersrand dis- 
trict. The central part of this district, 27 miles of reef, is expected to 
produce $3,000,000,000 of gold, of which two-thirds is in the central sec- 
tion of 11.5 miles; its output for 1896 was $37,000,000, or about 16 per 
cent of that of the entire world. California produced up to January, 1897, 
$1,282,000,000 in gold, three-fourths being from placers. Kimberley has 
produced upwards of twelve tons of diamonds, representing a value of 
$400,000,000; the present annual production is about 2,500,000 carats, of 
the value of $20,000,000. ; A. W. G. 


The Rajputs and Brahmans of India are breaking down the barriers of 
caste and displaying in competition with the Anglo-Saxon race that bril- 
liance and subtlety of intellect for which they are distinguished. Prof. 
Jagadis Chunder Bose, of the University of Calcutta, has excited the aston- 
ishment and admiration of all Europe by his recent papers on the Deter- 
mination of the Indices of Electric Refraction and of the Wave-lengths 
of Electric Radiation. The highest honors of the India Civil Service ex- 
aminations for 1896 also fell to a Hindoo, who vanquished in a keen intel- 
lectual encounter many candidates with distinguished academic careers. 
In England Prince Ranjitsinhji has taken high university honors, besides 
securing by the brilliancy of his play the very foremost place in the great 
national game of cricket. Several Indian barristers have won their way 
into the higher ranks of the legal profession in London, an Indian physi- 
cian was recently elected to the staff of one of the London hospitals, and . 
two highly educated Indian surveyors are working in British Central 
Africa. In November the University of Oxford conferred the degree of 
Doctor of Music upon Raja Svi Sourindro Mohun Tajore, of Caleutta, the 
principal exponent of the theory of Indian music, who has for 31 years 
devoted his wealth and talents to the development of music among his 
countrymen. In this case, however, the recipient of the distinction was 
unwilling to lose caste, even temporarily, by crossing the ocean, and the 
degree was conferred in absentia. 5 ie 5's 


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


THE FortHCOMING CourRSE OF LECTURES ON THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC 
ENVIRONMENT IN DEVELOPING THE CIVILIZATION OF THE WoriLp 


As supplementary to the general synopsis of this Course, pub- 
lished in the January number of THe NatrionaAL GEOGRAPHIC 
MaGaZInk, the following special synopses have been furnished 
by the different lecturers : 


March l. The Effect of Geographic Environment in the Development of 
Civilization in Prehistoric Man, by Hon. Garpiner G. Husparp. 


The civilization of man did not originate from within, but has ever been 
the effect of geographic environment, pressing from without. 

While civilization has been on the whole beneficial, yet every advance 
has been accompanied by suffering and death. Man was originally sub- 
ject to nature and depended on nature for his food and habitation, and 
was even less provided than many other animals. ; 

The joy and suffering of the savage were less than those of civilized 
man, for care and responsibility come with civilization. 

Civilization has never advanced steadily in any country or any age. 
After remaining stationary for ages and often retrograding, beginning in 
the Orient it has gradually traveled westward, save in its early progress 
to China in the east and to Egypt in the south. 

Nearly three-fourths of the earth have always been and are now occu- 
pied by savages or barbarians and nomad races. Three-fourths of the 
population are civilized and occupy the remaining quarter of the globe. 

The earliest remains of man are found in banks of rivers and in caves 
in England and France, and are accompanied by bones of animals, either 
long since extinct or now living in the arctic or torrid zones, showing the 
great antiquity of man, and his manner of life and implements of offense 
and defense. 

Savage and barbarous nations obtain all their food from nature, and, 
like many animals, have no care or thought for the morrow; this un- 
certainty of life leads to recklessness and idleness. 

The first step in advance seems to have been made by the inhabitants 
of central Asia, where the geographical environment furnished induce- 
ment for the life of the nomad, for here was the home of the sheep, goat, 
and horse. They were obliged to care for their flocks morning and night, 
and in summer provide for winter. Thus they were trained in ways un- 
known to the savage, and took the first step toward civilization. These 


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY ‘ 


nomads have never made further progress; they live the same life today 
in Arabia and central Asia that they have lived for thousands and per- 
haps tens of thousands of years. 

The next step in civilization, and the first progressive step, was in coun- 
tries like Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China, where rivers overflow their 
banks and irrigate the desert, and where the people were taught of neces- 
sity to dig irrigating ditches. The land yielded luxuriantly and with little 
labor, so alarge population was soon gathered, and men were thus brought 
in close contact—for there can be no progressive civilization without the 
intimate contact of man with man. This contact is impossible where men 
live by hunting, or by pasturing cattle, for then one man requires for his 
support the same territory that will sustain many civilized men. 

The civilization of Egypt and Mesopotamia was of a low order, for there 
could be neither liberty of thought nor of action where there were only 
two classes, master and servant. 

Under the Patriarchal system the father was the head of the family, 
the children were subject to him and the property belonged to him. As 
the families increased, the successor of the father, the oldest or most 
powerful son, became in like manner the patriarch. We see these feat- 
ures exemplified in the life of Abraham, who had absolute control over 
the life of Isaac. 

The continuance of this despotism and slavery in Babylon led to luxury, 
decay, and the extinction of civilized life. 

It was not until civilization reached Greece that personal freedom, with 
liberty of mind and body, was obtained, and only then was the com- 
mencement of arts, science, and true civilization. 


March 8. Babylonia, by Witt1am Hayes Warp, D.D., LL. D., of 
The Independent. 

It is still uncertain whether civilization began in the Nile or the 
_ Euphrates valley. Babylonian history must now be pushed back a 
thousand years or more beyond Sargon of Agane, who lived 3800 B. C. 
It is generally asserted that civilization must begin in a river bottom 
which affords abundant food for a dense population and compels division 
of labor. Record of civilization begins with writing: all progress before 
it is prehistoric. Writing was independently invented in these two val- 
leys. The Nile and Euphrates valleys had important differences, though 
alike in climate and fertility. The Nile valley is accessible only at its 
lower end, protected on the sides by desert and at the upper end by 
cataracts. The Euphrates valley is easily attacked from the north to- 
wards Syria and Armenia, and from the east towards Elam, and was 
liable to be overrun by barbarous hordes. The composite Euphrates and 
Tigris valley differs from the Nile valley in the nature of its floods. The 
Tigris flood comes first, and the flood is not so much welcomed as guarded 
against. Irrigation by canals is of first importance. Babylonia is a land 
of natural swamps, where the mounds of old cities and the banks of great 
canals are the chief feature of the landscape. As soon as irrigation ceases 
all returns to desolation. The valley has advanced more than a hundred 
miles into the Persian gulf since its first cities were built. 


2 


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


In the Nile valley the date palm was first cultivated, while wheat and 
barley came probably from the Euphrates region. Very ancient monu- 
ments show gods adorned with grain and honored with the plow. The 
native fauna included the buffalo, the wild ox, the ass, the sheep, and 
the goat, all domesticated in the earliest times and providing an un- 
equaled basis for incipient civilization. 

These natural advantages allowed a dense population, but the danger 
of invasion, especially from Elam, compelled the population, which from 
the beginning had had to fight lions, leopards, and wild oxen, also to 
fight their neighbors. This developed a more warlike race than inhabited 
Egypt. Barbaric invasions also gave a more composite population, and 
necessitated civil wars. From the beginning of history we find Baby- 
lonia attacking Elam on the east and reaching, to the north and west, as 
far as the Mediterranean. Before the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty 
Egyptian influence had hardly entered Asia, while Babylonia ruled as 
far as Cyprus, and it was Babylonian culture which controlled Asia Minor 
and all the coast, created the Assyrian and Hittite people, and through 
these and the Pheenician trade gave the chief impulse to Greek civiliza- 
tion. 


March 15. Syria, by Rev. Dr. THomas J. SHAMAN, of the Catholic 
University of America. 


Syria: Its human interest; from time immemorial a battlefield; the 
scene of West Asiatic conquest and defeat. The empires of Egypt and 
Africa. The Lombardy of the Orient. The forum of eastern and west- 
ern civilizations. The converging point of far Eastern trade. Emporium 
for other Mediterranean nations and the far West. The Phcenician era. 
Tyre and Sidon. Colonies. The place of ancient Syria in letters, art, 
and politics. 

Orographical formation: Rivers; Table-lands ; The Great Steppe. Vege- 
tation. 

Geological formation: Cretaceous limestone of the plateaux. Basaltic 
peaks. Alluvial lands. Clay soils of the Steppe. 

Political geography: Pre-Egyptian inhabitants. Egyptian conquest. 
A subject state of Assyria, Babylonia, Persia. The inheritance of the 
Greek generals of Alexander. Armenian and Parthian masters. Be- 
comes part of the world-empire of Rome. Chief bazaar and art-museum 
of the empire. The causes of its decline and early conquest by Arab 
invaders. Islam and Syria. 


March 22. Tyre and Sidon, by Professor Tuomas Davripson, M. A., of 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 


The Pheenicians a branch of the Semites. The Semitic character and 
form of social union. Religion. Devotion to industry and trade. The 
extent of Semitic civilization. Homeric Greece and the civilization of 
Agamemnon Semitic. 

The Semitic character as affected by surroundings; by the desert 
(Arabs) ; by the fertile land (Babylonians, etc.); by mountains and sea 
(Phoenicians). Pheenicians unwarlike but enterprising. Nature-of their 
civilization, industry, and trade. 

3 


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


Two phases of Phcenician civilization, represented by Sidon and Tyre. 
In the west, we can trace the former by the deities Poseidon (7. e., Baal- 
Sidon) and Amphitrite (¢. e., Aphrodite); the latter Heraklés (Melcarth) 
and Pallas (i. e., Baalat) Athena’. The quarrel between Poseidon and 
Pallas: the Parthenon group. The Olympia metopes. 

The extent of the Phcenician trade, and its effect upon the countries 
visited. They double the Cape of Good. Hope. The Pheenician colo- 
nies, Carthage, etc., and their civilization: its strength and weakness. 
Want of idealism and political sense. The dangers of a merely industrial 
civilization. Why Carthage succumbed to Rome. 

The world’s debt to Phoenicia, as an example of industrial enterprise, 
unrelieved by art, literature, or science. 


March 29. Greece, by Professor BrensAmin Ipr WHeeEteEr, LL. D., of 
Cornell University. 

Greece: how its geography explains its history. 

Its position. The outpost of Europe; though removed from it by its 
peninsular form, not severed from connection with it. Greek ideas are 
representative occidental ideas. The contrast of occidentalism and orien- 
talism. Joined to Asia by a bridge of islands and by the navigable 
‘Zgean. Hence open to the reception of eastern ideas and motives, but 
secured in its capability of assimilating them. The extent and nature of 
eastern influence. Surrounded by the Mediterranean, hence a distribut- 
ing medium. Its primacy in Mediterranean civilization. Relations of 
this civilization to modern European civilization. 

Its geography. The irregularity of its coastline. Proximity of all its 
parts to the sea. Abundance of sheltered beach-harbors. Absence of 
great. rivers. Contrast with the great river civilization of Egypt and 
Mesopotamia. Partition into districts by mountains. Features of moun- 
tain chains: not impassable barriers. Plains of limited size: these en- 
courage particularism and a consciousness of the .power of individual 
initiative. Plains mostly accessible to the sea. Communication by sea 
rather than by land encouraged. Opened outward rather than inward, 
motive to union lessened. Variety in relative location of the plains pro- 
ductive of variety in conditions of life, and hence of social and political 
ideas.. Greece a mosaic. The islands so numerous as to set a standard of 
political and material existence. Extension of the analogy to the Athens 
of Themistocles and Pericles. Citadels treated as islands. 

Its size and the distances between its ports. Superficial area. Distance 
between important points. Routes and methods of communication: 
Effect of dimensions upon the Greek sense of proportion and upon the 
stimulation of individual energy. 

Climate and products. Temperature and contrast of seasons. Outdoor 
life. Sociability. Democracy. Interest in athletics. Winds. Effect on 
commerce. Rainfall and fertility. Products of soil. Bent toward com- 
merce rather than agriculture. Urban life and attitude toward farmers. 

Important sites. Cities: Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, Athens, and their 
geographical characteristics. Battlefields : Marathon, Mantinea, Cheero- 
nea, Salamis. Festal places: Olympia, Delphi. ; 


impressions of Greek scenery. 
4 


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


April 5. Rome, by Rey. Dr Atex: Mackay-Smirn, of Washington, 
D.C, 

The name: its significance in history. Differentiation from other world- 
forces. Its position. The people who founded it. Environment. Mix- 
ture of races. The resultant in terms of character. The opportunity of 
Rome. Clearing the way. The enlargement of power. What the sea 
did for Rome. What Rome did for man. Evolution and involution. Its 
growth in certain virtues. The vice of those virtues. The virtue of those 
vices. The wings and claws of the eagle. The culmination of glory. The 
sphere of influence. Why the Republic became an Empire, and the Em- 
pire waned. Roots and fungi.” The Imperial City: its splendor; what 
it stood for. The upheaval of new forces. Readjustment. The turning 
oversof Europe. Fresh foci. The barbarian at the gates. Medisyal 
Rome. Its influence. Its rationale. Its weakness and power. The re- 
naissance. Old foes with new faces. Its meaning in Art and Religion. 
Reverence and contempt. The dust-heap and ant-hill. The city of today. 
The “hiding of its power.’’ What it means to the scholar, to the artist, 
tothe traveler. Characteristics. The strength of ruins. The palimpsest 
of history. 


April 12. Constantinople, by Prof. Epwin A. Grosvenor, of Amherst 
College. 


Rome, though able to build up a universal empire, could no longer re- 
tain her place as the world’s capital under conditions existent at the end 
of the third century. A change of site was absolutely necessary. A new 
world-capital must be planted on some spot possessed of four requisites : 
the positional, the strategic, the material, and the sentimental. Former 
emperors had perceived this fact, but the undertaking was beyond their 
power. The name of Constantine is immortalized and his statesmanship 
demonstrated in that he took definite and decisive action. Only after 
years of disappointed examination did he recognize the one preéminent 
site. ‘*‘ No city chosen by the art of man has been so well chosen and so 
permanent.’’ The history and influence, the whole being of none other, 
has been so determined by physical causes, by environment. The spot 
once selected, the city was the creation of nature rather than the result 
of imperial decree. In the hands of its environment it was a passive and 
by means of its environment an active factor. It gave strength to the 
empire rather than derived strength from the empire. From 330 to 1204 
it was the queen-city of the world. During those tumultuous nine cen- 
turies, while every other continental city was captured more than once, 
Constantinople did not once succumb to foreign attack. 

The crowned heir of Rome and Italy, it was inevitably the heir of 
Athens and Greece. Hellenismos, deserting the Ilyssos and Kephissos, 
found its focal center on the banks of the Bosphorus, and under the name 
Byzantine was distinctly Greek. 

When the world’s front changed, Constantinople lost for a time its un- 
disputed preéminence, but has never descended to a lower rank than that 
of capital of anemfpire. During the last centuries its political importance, 
because of its political possibilities, has constantly increased. Today the 


0 


THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


most stupendous problem of statecraft is the ultimate fate of Constanti- 
nople in case of modifications in the east. Its transference from the 
hands of the Ottomans involves a reorganization and readjustment of 
European interests no less momentous than resulted from the wars of the 
Reformation or of the French Revolution. There are but three possible 
solutions of the problem, none of them satisfactory to all and each dis- 
tasteful to some one or more of the powers most directly concerned. 
Between these three time is to choose. 

The lecture will treat as fully as possible of the many-sided city, but the 
central thought will be its political pr: ominence and destiny. 


April 19. Venice and Genoa, by Prof. Wituias H. Goopykar, os the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 


The German precision and the Byzantine culture in western Suen 
The position of Italy in medizeval history as mediator for Byzantine influ- 
ence in Europe. The Italian towns which were active in this influence. 
Predecessors of Venice and Genoa. The monuments of Genoa. The 
monuments of Venice. The painters of Venice.’ 


April 26. America. Arrangements not completed. 


(These lectures will be delivered inthe Columbia theater, Washington, D. C., 
on nine successive Monday afternoons, commencing March 1. Hach lecture will 
be accompanied by lantern-slide illustrations. ) . 


ie CRariot oy 
... Of the Sun” 


S T LIMITED j is the Southern Pacific’s great train, running through 
- solid from New Orleans to the Pacific Coast. 


¢ 


| T LIMITED leaves New Orleans every Monday and Thursday, at 
ro o’clock in the morning. 


se 


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and the 2489 to San Francisco in 75 hours. 

By 

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SUNSE T LIMITED has a ladies’ parlor the full width and a third the 
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naterials, large easy chairs, etc. 


LIMITED has an equally commodious smoking and reading room 
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| LIMITED is accompanied by a maid whose services are at the 


Linrep is at your service, and any Southern Pacific Agent 
Il be glad to tell you all about it, or if you want to know more 

send ‘Io cents in stamps to the General Passenger Agent, and a 
beautiful book of 205 pages, that will tell you all about the route, 


ll be sent you. 
Ss. F. B. MORSE, 


General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 
NEW ORLEANS. 


a 


Among the 


| ee BE THE FOLLOWING; 


A Winter Voyage through the Straits of | 


By ADMIRAL R. W. MEADE, U. S. N. 


Weather Forecasts and Storm Wari 
By PROF. WILLIS is MOORE, — 


CHIEF | OF THE Wearier BUREAU 5 


A ‘Summer Voyage to the Arctic, p 
BY Ge RE PUTNAM ; 


BY GENERAL A. W.. GREELY, 


CHIEF SIGNAL. Ornicer, U. SF Aun, 
se 


BY PROF. FREDERIC W. TAYLOR. 


‘ 


JUDD & DETWHILER, PRINTERS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 


>? 
fh 
J 
+ x 
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AN ILLUSTRATED. MONTHLY 


Pi 
ss 
j 
0 Sor i 
Honorary Editor: JOHN HYDE 
ad er 
Honorary: Associate I Editors 3 
. GREELY WJMcGEE  “~ HENRY GANNETT 
C. HART MERRIAM ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE f D 
: hy she ~i 
x CONTENTS | j ~~ , 
4 — a eee e PAGE ‘ 
1D Ww x ‘HER RECASTS. by Wirns.t, MOORE. 65 | 
7 arts, ; y ‘ ‘ 
FORESTS oF NICAE AGUA AND SIERRA LEONE, | 
‘ \ ‘GEN. A. W. GREELY: 33 | 
' ONS IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA. ‘Ss 

\ ‘) |B. DB’SASSEVILLE. 88 | 
; Saag arth p. 91; GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS, p. 92; " 
BEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, ; 
GnOqRart NOTES, p95. 


~ Pas 
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MAP OF THE KOOTENAI 


¢+/~ HE most complete map of the rich mining region of the Kootenai 
and adjacent territory in Washington and British Columbia 
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It is just what is needed by those going to that country or who desire to 
study and know about it. 


The map is made in relief, is 25 by 18 inches in size between borders, 
and has in connection with it—on the same page—two smaller maps 
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The principal 
drainage of the 
country is laid 
down in blue, the 
trails and roads are 
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the topography is 
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a Be At i general way by red 
SMELTER, TRAIL, B. C. lettering. 


The country shown upon the map includes particularly the Slocan, 
Kootenai Lake, Cariboo Creek, Deer Park,, Nelson, Salmon River, 
Trail or Rossland, and the Boundary Creek regions. It also shows the 
Arrow Lakes and Lardeau country and some portion of the Okanogan 
region. 

The map is compiled from reliable and official data and shows the 
Mining District Subdivisions and the elevations of the mountains 
and lakes. 


The opposite side of the sheet contains an accurate statement and 
description of the country, showing its discovery and development to 
the present time. The folder will be sent to any address, together with 


f 
a copy of 
WONDERLAND, ’97, 


Sc ames ania Die Sn DEERE DERI SNE DNL DR A DS aaa Da DREN DERN DUNK DANN DRS DK Dn Det a ee ee a a Da a a a i a eae 


our new tourist book, upon receipt of six cents in stamps. 


CHAS. S. FEE, 
General Passenger Agent, St. Paul, Minn. 


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Write for Map Folders. 


R. D. CARPENTER, General Agent, 271 Broadway, New York City. 
L. S. BROWN, General Agent Passenger Department, Washington, 1). C. 
J. H. WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 


Ss. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 
Cc. A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
W. H. TAYLOK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


THE SHORTEST, 
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THE FLORIDA CENTRAL AND PENINSULAR RAILROAD 
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The ASHEVILLE ROUTE is the scenic route (over the Carolina mountains) between Cincin- 
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J. L. ADAMS, Genl. Eastern Agt., Ww. B. PENNINGTON, Genl. Western Agt., 
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WALTER G. COLEMAN, Genl. Trav. Agt., 353 Broadway, New York. 
N. S. PENNINGTON, Traffic Manager, A. O. MacDONELL, Genl. Pass. Agt., 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 
HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New Vork, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
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One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
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These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the Hast and the West. 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


National Geographic Monographs 


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students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - - - V 

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PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - j 

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Since Duplicate and Com- r r 
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COMPASS WHIST 


DUPLICATE WHIST 

The one thing needed to 
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Win 
y-7, 1896. 
W :N 


ip 


A Washington player has at 
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bring 24 little metal plates over 
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ounter, patented Jul 
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Whist players will at once see 
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fluenced by memory of the cards 
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The ‘Cosmos Score Card,’’ 
prepared for use with the 
counter, shows several new fea- 
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Copyright, 1895, by 


Cosmos Counters, with tablet 
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Ask to see samples at any 


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E. MORRISON PAPER CO., 1009 Penna. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 


National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. VIII MARCH, 1897 No. 3 


STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


By Proressor WILuis L. Moorr, 
Chief of the United States Weather Bureau 


While the practical application of meteorological science to the 
making of weather forecasts will never reach the degree of accu- 
racy attained by theoretical astronomy in predicting the date of 
an eclipse or the return of a comet, meteorology has made dur- 
ing the last century such substantial progress as to seriously 
engage the attention of thoughtful man and cause him to make 
special effort to apply the knowledge gained to the commerce 
and industry of the world. 

Comparing meteorology with astronomy, we may say that it 
passed through the Chaldean and Ptolemaic periods with the 
invention of the barometer and thermometer early in the 17th 
century ; that it reached the Copernican stage with the discovery 
of the rotary and progressive motion of storms, and that it now 
awaits the genius of a Kepler or the magic intuition of a Newton 
to unravel the mysteries that still baffle the student. 

But it is doubtful whether any other branch of science, unless 
it be electricity, has shown more wonderful progress during the 
past quarter-century. Where man but a few years ago, on ac- 
count of his limited range of vision, thought that chaos reigned 
supreme, we are now able, by the aid of daily meteorological 
observations and the wonderful telegraph joining our cities by 
an electrical touch, to trace out the harmonious operations of 
many physical laws that previously were unknown. 

Practical meteorology is to some extent a tentative work. It 
may be placed upon a plane with the theory and practice of 


5 


66 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


medicine and surgery. The forecaster is in a degree guided in 
his calculations by symptoms, and he is able to diagnose the 
atmospheric conditions with about the same degree of accuracy 
that the physician is able to determine the bodily condition of 
the patient. He is able to forecast changes in the weather with 
rather more certainty than the skilled physician can predict the 
course of a well-defined disease. 

As to the genesis of weather forecasting, it must be said that 
to the immortal Franklin belongs the credit of divining that 
storms have a rotary motion and that they progress in an easterly 
direction. To be sure, without the aid of the telegraph and of 
simultaneous observations his discovery was little more than a 
speculation; nevertheless it was one of those sagacious anticipa- 
tions of coming knowledge which mark the true scientific genius. 
Grand as a patriot, able as a statesman and diplomat, he was no 
less great as a student in the broad domain of science; he was 
one of the isolated figures that stand so far in advance of the 
knowledge of their day as often to be imperfectly understood. 
His idea of drawing the lightning from the clouds and identify- 
ing it with the electric currents of the earth was capable of 
physical demonstration, but his contemporaries did not appre- 
ciate his philosophy of storms, written in a fragmentary man- 
ner before 1750, and so it remained for Redfield, Espy, Henry, 
Loomis, Maury, and other Americans, 100 years later, to gather 
the data and completely establish that which the great Franklin 
so accurately had outlined. American meteorologists can justly 
take pride in the achievements of these their countrymen. 

In 1855 Professor Joseph Henry, of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, collected, by telegraph, observations from a number of 
stations and displayed a large map showing the meteorological 
conditions at these points, but the breaking out of the civil war 
caused him to suspend his reports. He made oral forecasts and 
used his charts for the purpose of demonstrating the utility of a 
government meteorological service and the feasibility of making 
forecasts from daily, telegraphic, synchronous observations. If 
there were no other achievements to the credit of this great insti- 
tution, the work of Professor Henry in connection with practical 
meteorology would alone be sufficient to command the admira- 
tion of all who love knowledge because of the benefits it confers 
uponman. As we glance into the past and hastily note the mile- 
posts along the highways of science, the lives and actions of those 
who gave new thoughts, or who by their discoveries opened up 


te 


a 


STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 67 


useful and diverging paths, stand like lofty beacon towers, mark- 
ing the rugged pathway pursued by advancing civilization. 


Professor Buys-Ballot, of Utrecht, induced Holland to estab- 
lish a weather service, with telegraphic reports and forecasts, in 
1860; England followed with a similar service in 1861, and 
France in 1863. The United States was the fourth government 
to establish a permanent weather service, although its scientists 
were the pioneers in discovering the progressive character of 
storms and in demonstrating the practicability of weather sery- 
ices. In 1869 Professor Cleveland Abbe published a weather 
bulletin and forecast at Cincinnati, based upon simultaneous 
observations ‘secured by telegraph from about 30 stations. 

From the introduction of the electro-magnetic telegraph in 
1844 down to 1869 intermittent and desultory advocations for a 
government weather service were made by many in this country. 
Finally Dr Increase A. Lapham, of Milwaukee, student, scientist, 
and philanthropist, so aroused the property and industrial in- 
terests of the country by the facts that he presented relative to 
the destruction of life and property by storms on Lake Michigan 
that Congress, under the provisions of a bill introduced by Gen- 
eral Halbert E. Paine, was induced to appropriate money to 
initiate such a service. To General Albert J. Myer, Chief Signal 
Officer of the United States Army, was intrusted the duty of in- 
augurating a tentative weather service by deploying over the 
country as observers the military signalmen of his command. 

The system by which the United States Weather Bureau col- 
lects meteorological observations and makes weather forecasts 
may be briefly described as follows. This morning at 8 o’clock, 
Washington time—which, by the way, is about 7 o’clock at 
Chicago, 6 o’clock at Denver, and 5 o'clock at San Francisco— 
the observers at about 150 stations scattered throughout the 
United States were taking their observations, and, from carefully 
tested and standardized instruments, noting all the elementary 
conditions of the air at the bottom of the great aerial ocean in 
which we live, and which, by its variations of heat and cold, sun- 
shine, cloud, and tempest, affects not only the health and happi- 
ness of man, but his commercial and industrial welfare. 

By 8.25 a. m. the necessary mathematical corrections have 
been made, the observations have been reduced to cipher, and 
each has been filed at the local telegraph office. During the 
next 30 or 40 minutes these observations, with the right of way 


68 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


- 


over all lines, are speeding to their destinations, each station 
contributing its own observations and receiving in return, by an 
ingenious system of telegraph circuits, such observations from 
other stations as it may require. ‘The observations from all 
stations are received at such centers as Washington, Chicago, 
New York, and other large cities, and nearly. all cities having a 
Weather Bureau station receive a sufficient number of reports 
from other cities to justify the issuing of a daily weather map- 

Before examining the accompanying charts, it may be well to 
glance at the Central Office in Washington, while the observa- 
tions are coming in, so as to get an idea of how the charts are 
made for the study of the forecast official. From these he gets 
a panoramic view, not only of the exact conditions of the air 
over the whole country at the moment of taking the observa- 
tions one hour before, but of the changes which have occurred 
in those conditions during the preceding 24 hours. As fast as 
the reports come from the wires they are passed to the Forecast 
Division, where a reader stands in the middle of the room and 
translates the cipher into figures and words of intelligible 
sequence. A force of clerks is engaged in making graphic rep- 
resentations of the geographical distribution of the different 
meteorological elements. On blank charts of the United States 
each clerk copies from the translator that part of each station’s 
report needed in the construction of his particular chart. One 
clerk constructs a chart showing the change in temperature 
during the preceding 24 hours. Broad, red lines separate the 
colder from the warmer regions, and narrow red lines inclose 
areas showing changes in temperature of more than 10 degrees. 
The narrow lines generally run in oval or circular form, indi- 
cating (as will be shown subsequently) that atmospheric dis- 
turbances move and operate in the form of great progressive 
eddies; that there are central points of intensity from which 
the force of the disturbance diminishes in all directions. 

A second clerk constructs a chart showing the change that 
has occurred in the barometer during the past 24 hours. Asin 
the construction of the temperature chart, broad, heavy lines of 
red separate the regions of rising barometer from those of falling 
barometer. Narrow lines inclose the areas over which the 
change in barometer has been greater than one-tenth, and so on. 

Here, for instance, throughout a great expanse of territory, 
all the barometers are rising—that is to say, the air cools, con- 
tracts, becomes denser, and presses with greater force upon the 


STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 69 


surface of the mercury in the cisterns of the instruments, thereby 
sustaining the columns of liquid metal at a greater height in 
the vacuum tubes. Over another considerable area the barom- 
eters are falling, as increasing temperature rarefies and expands 
the volume of the air, causing it to press upon the instruments 
with less force. This chart is extremely useful to the forecaster, 
since, in connection with the general weather chart, it indicates 
whether or not the storm centers are increasing or decreasing in 
intensity, and, what is of more importance, it gives in a great 
measure the first warning of the formation of storms. 

A third clerk constructs two charts, one showing the humidity 
of the air and the other the cloud areas, with the kind, amount, 
and direction of the clouds at each station. It is often interest- 
ing to observe at a station on the cloud chart high cirrus clouds 
composed of minute ice spiculee moving from one direction. lower 
cumulo-stratus composed of condensed water vapor moving from 
another direction. and the wind at the surface of the earth blow- 
ing from a third point of the compass. Such erratic movements 
of the air strata are only observed immediately before or during 
rain or wind storms. 

A fourth clerk constructs a chart called the general weather 
chart, showing for each station the air temperature and pressure, 
the velocity and direction of the wind, the rain or snow fall since 
the last report, and the amount of cloudiness. The readings of 
the barometer on this chart are reduced to sea-level, so that the 
variations in pressure due to local altitudes may not mask and 
obscure those due to storm formation. ‘Then lines, called isobars, 
are drawn through places having the same pressure. By draw- 
ing isobars for each difference in pressure of one-tenth of an inch 
the high- and the low-pressure areas are soon inclosed in their 
proper circles. ‘The word “high” is written at the center of the 
region of greatest air pressure and the word “low” at the center 
of the area of least pressure. Under the influence of gravity the 
air presses downward and outward in all directions, thus caus- 
ing it to flow from a region of great pressure toward one of less. 
The velocity with which the wind moves from the high toward 
the low will depend largely on the difference in air pressure. 
To better illustrate: If the barometer read 29.5 at Chicago and 
30.5 at Bismarck, North Dakota, the difference of one inch in 
pressure would cause the air to move from Bismarck toward 
Chicago so rapidly that after allowing for the resistance of the 
ground there would remain a wind at the surface of the earth of 


70 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


about 50 miles per hour, and Lake Michigan would experience a_ 
severe ‘“northwester.” 

The forecaster knows that high-pressure and low-pressure areas 
drift across the country from the west toward the east at the rate 
of about 600 miles daily, or about 387 miles per hour in winter 
and 22 miles per hour in summer; that the highs are attended 
by dry, clear, and cooler weather, and that they are drawing 
down, by a vortical action of their centers, the cold air from great 
altitudes above the clouds and causing it to flow away laterally 
along the surface of the earth in all directions from the center, 
and that the high-pressure areas sometimes become so intense in 
their vortical motion as to draw down such vast volumes of cold 
air that we call them cold waves. 

In the downward movement of the air in cold waves we must 
concede that the loss of heat by radiation through a cloudless 
atmosphere is much greater than that dynamically gained by 
compression, or else we must assume that the air possesses such 
intense cold at the elevation from which it is drawn that not- 
withstanding the heat gained by compression in its descent it is 
still far below the normal temperature of the air near the surface 
of the earth. 

The forecaster knows that although these intense high-pressure 
areas first appear in the extreme northwest, they do not depend 
on the land of their birth for the cold they bring to us, and that 
cold waves are not simply immense rivers of air which have 
been chilled by flowing over the great snow and ice fields of the 
Arctic regions, as was once thought. He is also familiar with the 
fact that in the low-pressure areas the conditions of the air and 
its various movements are exactly the reverse of what they are 
in the high; that the air is much warmer and moister, and that 
it is drawn spirally inward from all directions instead of being 
forced outward, as in the high; that it ascends as it approaches 
the center of the depression, sometimes causing rain or snow as 
it cools by expansion during its ascent, or as it encounters and 
mixes with air strata of lower temperature than its-own. 

We know that while our atmosphere expands upward to an 
altitude probably of 50 miles, it is so elastic and its expansion is 
so rapid as it recedes from the earth that half of its mass lies 
below the 3-mile level, and that our storms and cold waves are 
simply great swirls or eddies in the lower stratum of probably 
not more than 5 milesin thickness; that the air above the 6-mile 


ee LL KS  ——_-_-~=)6)6—l 


_- 


r 
- 
4 


STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 71 


level probably flows serenely eastward in these latitudes without 
being disturbed by our most severe storms. 

The forecaster is further aware of the fact that our high-press- 
ure and low-pressure areas alternately drift eastward in periods 
that average about 3 days each; that they are not in any sense 
the product of chance, but are part of that great divine economy 
that provides for seed-time and harvest, for by the action of the 
lows the warm, vapor-bearing currents are sucked inland from 
the Gulf and the ocean and carried far over the continent, so 
that their moisture is condensed and scattered over the plains, 
rendering them tillable and suitable for the habitation of man; 
that the highs, in drawing down the cool, pure air from above, 
scatter and diffuse the carbonic-acid gas exhaled by animal life 
and the fetid gases emanating from decaying organic matter ; 
that the cold waves created by these high-pressure areas are 
among the most beneficent gifts of nature, for their clear, dense 
air not only gives us more oxygen with each inspiration of the 
lungs, but the abnormally high electrification that always accom- 
panies such air invigorates man and all other animal life; that 
the cold, north wind, if it be dry, as it usually is, brings physical 
energy and mental buoyancy in its mighty breath; that four- 
sevenths of all our storms come from the north plateau region 
of the Rocky mountains and pass from this arid or subarid region 
easterly over the Lakes and New England, producing but scanty 
rainfall; that the greater part of the remaining three-sevenths 
have their inception in the arid region of our southwestern states, 
and that as they move northeastward they can nearly always be 
depended on to give bountiful rainfall, and that many of them 
cross the Atlantic and affect the continent of Europe; thata few, 
and by far the most severe, wind and rain storms that touch any 
portion of our country originate in the West Indies and travel in 
a northwesterly direction until they touch our Gulf or South 
Atlantic coast, when they recurve to the northeast and sweep 
along our Atlantic seaboard. 

During the prevalence of droughts in the great central valleys 
all the low-pressure or storm conditions form in the middle or 
north plateau region of the Rocky mountains. When such 
droughts are broken, it is usually accomplished by lows that 
form in Arizona, New Mexico, or Texas. 

From many years spent in daily watching the formation, pro- 
gression, and dissipation of storms, the forecaster well knows 
that at times, by an accretion of force not shown by observations 


72 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


taken at the bottom of the ocean of air, storms suddenly de- 
velop dangerous and unexpected energy or pursue courses not 
anticipated in his forecast, or that the barometer at the center 
of the storm rises without any premonition and gradually dis- 
sipates the energy of the cyclonic whirl. 

These are a few of the generalizations of which the forecaster 
takes cognizance and which guide him in his deductions. In 
brief, he carefully notes the developments and movements in 
the air conditions during the preceding 24 hours, and from the 
knowledge thus gained he makes an empirical estimate of what 
the weather will be in the different sections of the country the 
following day. By preserving the weather charts each day and 
noting the movements of the highs and the lows, any intelligent 
person can make an accurate forecast for himself, always re- 
membering that the lows, as they drift toward him from the west, 
bring warm weather and sometimes rain or snow, and that as 
they pass his place of observation the highs following in the 
tracks of the lows will bring cooler and probably fair weather. 


We will now examine the accompanying charts and, after a 
brief review of the Weather Bureau river service, will endeavor 
to trace the inception and progression of the different classes of 
storms. 

The stations from which the Weather Bureau issues and rap- 
idly distributes forecasts and flood warnings are shown on Chart I. 
Small radial lines are drawn to each central station from up- 
river points in the various watersheds ; from these points daily 
teleoraphic measurements of rainfall and temperature are sent 
to their respective centers, in addition to observations from 
many of the full meteorological stations of the Bureau not 
shown on this chart. 

With our many thousands of miles of navigable rivers flow- 
ing through one of the most extensive and fruitful regions of 
the world, daily forecasts of the height of water in the various — 
sections of each river are of enormous benefit to navigation, 
and the warnings issued when the precipitation is so heavy as 
to indicate the gathering, during the next two or three days, of 
flood volumes in the main streams, are often worth many mil- 
lions to navigators and to those having movable property on 
low grounds contiguous to the streams. 

The feasibility of making accurate forecasts as to the height 
of water several days in advance at any station of the system is 


VOL, VIII, 1897, PL. 2. 


NAT. GEOG, MAG, 


j 


& 


nt 


SMV 31N() MAN 


OSvqg TIA_ 


ANITIAY 


5 r ~ 
/ 
| . Stay -- —..) y 
4 “ ESivay | xIN3O4 \ 
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JO 199099 JO STU ONY UNIFIA WueIpenh yous | 
JO O1njvIsduie, UReUE MOS soandy esieT 

 “g1noy | 
@ 4sed SULINp WoNeiIdioo1d Jo suo1sea MOGs —\s 
SVaIe POPVYS “GUIMOTG Si puLA Oy) UOT | 
-O9d[p OT} Ui 7Olod SMOd1y ‘seurT poqOp Aq 
SMAICYIOS! -souly [[uZAq TMoys OLB S1BGOST | 
a 5 4 | a | ii 


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VOL, VIII, 1897, PL. 3. 


5 \ PP! boleh PD 
B “ o?. 


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6 


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(a e waanagy 


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Pe e Sa aes 
eeee HEB o contcowecce 244 


AuuW3 (aa Fs 


= y « , / eS a} 
r\ oe a 


NAT, GEOG. MAG, 


Tr Wweup 


ee ee ee ee eS eer 


ars 


STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 73 


no longer questioned. The forecaster at each river center con- 
siders the rainfall, the temperature, the melting of snow, if there 
be any, the area and slope of the watershed, and the permea- 
bility of the soil. From a study of floods in former years, he 
knows the time necessary for the flow of the water from the 
tributaries to the main stream and the time required for the 
passage of the flood-crests from one city to another. ‘The fore- 
casts are, of course, empirically made, but still they are sufli- 
ciently accurate to possess great value to the people of the river 
districts. Some idea of the vast destruction of property due to 
floods may be gathered from the statement that the floods of 
1881 and 1882 caused a loss of not less than $15,000,000 to the 
property interests of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. ‘There 
was aiso a loss of 138 hves. In 1884 the region about Cincinnati 
alone suffered a loss of over $10,0V0,000 in property. 

Chart No. II shows a winter storm central in Iowa at 8 a. m., 
December 15, 1893. The word “low” marks the storm center. 
It is the one place in all the United States where the barometer 
reading is the lowest. The heavy, black lines, oval and nearly 
concentric about the low, show the gradation of air-pressure as it 
increases quite uniformly in all directions from the storm center 
outward. 

The arrows fly with the wind, and, as will be seen, are almost 
without exception moving toward the low or storm center, 
clearly demonstrating the effect of gravity in causing the air to 
flow from the several regions marked high, where the air is ab- 
normally heavy, toward the low, where the air is lighter. As 
the velocity of water flowing down an inclined plane depends 
both on the slope of the plane and on the roughness of its sur- 
face, so the velocity of the wind as it blows along the surface 
of the earth toward the storm center depends on the amount of 
the depression of the barometer at the center and the resistance 
offered by surfaces of varying degrees of roughness. ‘The small 
figures placed at the end of the arrows indicate high wind 
velocities. At Chicago, where the wind is blowing at the rate of 
40 miles per hour, the anemometer is 270 feet high, while at 
Minneapolis, where the instrument is so low as to be in the 
stratum whose velocity is restricted by the resistance encountered 
in flowing over forests to the northward, the rate is not great 
enough to be marked by a special figure. 

Now picture in your mind the fact that all the air inside the 
isobar (heavy black line) marked 30.2 as it moves inward is ro- 


74 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


tating about the low in a direction contrary to the movement of 
the hands of a watch and you have a very fair conception of an 
immense atmospheric eddy. 

Have you ever watched the placid water of a deep running 
brook and observed that where it encountered a projecting crag 
little eddies formed and went spinning down the stream? Well, 
our storms are simply great eddies in the air which are carried 
along by the general easterly movement of the atmosphere in 
the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere. But they are 
not deep eddies, as was once supposed. The low marks the center 
of an atmospheric eddy of vast horizontal extent as compared 
with its thickness or extension in a vertical direction; thus a 
storm condition extends from Washington to Denver in a hori- 
zontal direction and yet extends upward but four or five miles. 
The whole disk of whirling air four or five miles thick and 1,500 
miles in diameter is called a cyclone or cyclonic system. It is 
important that a proper conception of this fundamental idea be 
had, since the weather sequences experienced from day to day 
depend almost wholly on the movement of these traveling eddies, 
cyclones, or areas of low pressure. 

The large figures in the four quarters of the cyclone show the 
average temperature of each quadrant. The greatest difference 
is between the southeast, and northwest sections. This is due in 
part to the fact that in the southeast quadrant the air is drawn 
northward from warmer latitudes, and in the northwest quadrant 
the air is drawn southward from colder latitudes. The shaded 
area shows the region of rain or snow fall during the preceding 
12 hours. Untortunately for the science of forecasting, precipi- 
tation does not show that relation to the configuration of the 
isobars that temperature, wind velocity, and wind direction do. 

Chart III, constructed from observations taken 12 hours later, 
shows that the storm or cyclonic center, as indicated by the word 
“low,” has moved from central Iowa since 8a. m.and is now, at 
8 p. m., central over the southern point of Lake Michigan. The 
shaded areas show that precipitation has occurred during the 
past 12 hours in nearly the entire region covered by the cyclone. 

Chart LV, 12 hours later, shows that the precipitation has been 
general throughout the entire area swept by the cyclonic whirl. 

Chart V is quite dissimilar, in the information it conveys, to 
any other of the charts accompanying this paper. From July 
28 to August 10, inclusive, 1896, there was a remarkable hot wave 
in the United States, extending from the Rocky mountains to the 


VOL. Vill, 1897, PL. 4. 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


we os on ue 


7 153M Aan? 


i POE 


pf 0 


37 1An05% 


H9O/H 


oon Zl 
oO 1. NOLS3A, 7. 9 
ad > Py say ke 
se . a, > L ~fe---  . 
i —~Ay OINOLNAZ NYS f 


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|" ae ee 


cor “om ou 


\ *m1.1048 

JO 10}U99 JO SOTIUI 009 UIA juet enb ove 
jo oinyeredule} UBOM MOUS Sollee OS1BT 

*sino0y 

ei sed Zatinp woO7V}djoord Jo SUOTIOI MOTS ~ vc 

SB0Is PEpPEYG ‘“SULMOTA Sf PULA ol} UI} 

-Odl[p OW UI FUJOd SMOIIY ‘SOIT poz30P 4q 
SULIOY AOS} ‘soul] [[NZAq UAOYS OLB SLEqos] 


"at ‘d g ‘S68 ‘GT Jequiesed ‘mII0}g 10qULM. 


— —— — 


eye ee ant 


Saad 


VOL. VIII, 1897, PL. 5. 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


ou 


LS3MAIN* 
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. *UL10}S 

JO 194199 JO SOT{Ul 009 TINA JuBIpENb yoRe 
JO 91n}Biedule} UBOU MOUS soindy oF1v'T 

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BI 4sed Zurmp uoy2ydloo01d Jo suoySea Aoys 

SB01B pepeyg ‘“AUIAOTG Sf PULA O43 UOIZ 

-OOl[p 04} Ul 4ulod sMOIIY ‘soul, poqop Aq 


_ SULIT JOST ‘seuyy [[nJAq UAOYS lB SIBQOST 


eatewe, 
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ie 


VOL. VIII, 1897, PL. 6. 


NAT. GEOG. MAG, 


Coecrcece erg | 


| 


#SAUP PT 94} JO YORE AO 


' 91ngviedure} [VulIOU OY} WLOIJ OunZIedeq 


——__._____ 


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Pury Feat 


STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 75 


Atlantic ocean. The mortality from this cause amounted to 
many thousands. The hottest region, as shown by the dark 
shading; was in the middle Mississippi and Ohio valleys and the 
Lake region, where the temperature averaged from six to nine 
degrees above the normal for each one of the 14 days. During this 
same period, strange as it may seem, the temperature over the 
vast Rocky Mountain plateau was markedly below the normal, 
and the cold was not due to altitude, for often we find these 
conditions geographically reversed. The weather charts show- 
ing the movements of highs and lows during the period of this 
abnormal heat are not shown in this paper. Chart V is simply 
intended to show grapnhically the area and degree of the heat. 

For some unexplained reason there come, in summer, periods 
of almost absolute stagnation in the drift of the highs and lows. 
At such times if a high rest over the southeastern part of the 
country and a low over the northern Rocky Mountain region, 
there will result what is popularly known as a warm wave, for 
the air, on account of its slightly greater specific gravity, will 
slowly and steadily flow from the southeast, where the pressure 
is greater, toward the northwest, where the pressure is less, and 
receiving constant accretions of heat from the hot, radiating sur- 
face of the earth, without any whirls or eddies to mix the upper 
and lower strata, will finally attain a temperature almost un- 
bearable to animallife. This superheated condition of the lower 
stratum in which we live continues until the low-pressure area 
in the northwest begins to actively gyrate as an eddy and move 
eastward, mixing in its course strata of unequal temperatures 
and precipitating the cool and welcome thunder-showers. 

It is a pertinent inquiry whether such adjacent areas of ab- 
normal heat and abnormal cold can possibly be due to cosmic 
influences. The only cosmic influences that meteorology is sure 
of are the radiation of heat from the sun to the earth and the 
reception, by space, of the heat that is radiated back by the 
earth and atmosphere. In the long run, these two balance each 
other. It is inconceivable that solar insolation, passing out- 
ward from the sun along true radial lines, could fall so un- 
equally upon the United States as to cause excessiye heat on 
one side and extreme cold on the other. It follows from the 
preceding that we must be slow to ascribe any of the local pecu- 
liarities that are observed in terrestrial weather to cosmic influ- 
ences. Weather variations, irregular, annual, and diurnal, all 
probably have their causes at the earth’s surface or in the earth’s 


76 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


atmosphere, and depend wholly on the mechanics of the latter. 
The problem, however, is so complex that it would be hazardous 
to undertake to explain the great differences in temperature 
shown on this map of departures for July and August, 1896. 

Think of the atmosphere as a mass of air about 50 miles deep, 
whose upper surface maintains nearly the same configuration 
and temperature and is almost entirely without motion relative 
to the earth’s surface. The solar radiation and the terrestrial 
radiation penetrate this upper region without appreciable ab- 
sorption, and the ascending and descending currents of air rarely 
or never disturb this region, but cease before they reach it. Our 
weather and climate depend on the changes going on in the 
middle and lower atmospheres, and among these changes that 
which affects our surface temperature most is the motion of the 
atmosphere. The great contrast in temperature between two 
regions lying close together, as shown by Chart V, is therefore 
probably not due to any special cosmic influence, but, to the flow 
of air as determined by the distribution ofair pressure day by day. 

Chart VI shows the beginning of a cold wave in the north- 
west on the morning of January 7, 1886. Observe that the 
heavy, black isobar passing through Montana is marked 30.8, 
while the isobar curving through southern Texas is marked 
29.8, a difference of one inch in the air-pressure between Mon- 
tana and Texas. The dotted isothermal line in Montana is 
marked 30 degrees below zero, while the isotherm on the Texas 
coast indicates a temperature of 50 degrees. 

Chart VII is auxiliary to Chart VI, and by varying degrees of 
shading shows the fall of temperature during the preceding 24 
hours attendant on the high-pressure area of the northwest. A 
considerable area covered by the darkest shade indicates a fall 
of 40 degrees in temperature during the past 24 hours. 

The people of the Gulf states, with a morning temperature of 
40 to 50 degrees, knew nothing of the great volume of extremely 
cold air to the northwest of them; but from the distribution of 
air pressure shown by Chart VI. the forecaster anticipated that 
the very cold air of the northwestern states would, on account of 
its great weight, be forced southward to the Gulf and eastward 
to the Atlantic ocean; or, more accurately speaking, that the 
conditions causing the cold in the northwest would drift south- 
ward and eastward. He therefore issued the proper warning to 
the threatened districts. 


VOL, VIII, 1897, PL. 7. 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


; \ “simoy 
wD. OF gp ased Surmnp mo0yze41d1oo1d Jo suojFo0r Moys 
2. 4 / SteIe POpByg “SULMO]G Si PUI oq} TOIZ 


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NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


lag7, PL. 9 


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GEOG 


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JO 109790 JO SOTIUI ONG) UNIA gueipenb yore 
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NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


VOL. VIII, 1897, PL. 


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+ Satins 


VOL. Vilt, 1897, PL. i. 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


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1897, F 


VOL. VIIS 


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VOL. VIII, 1897, PL. 14: 


NAT. GEOG, MAG. 


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STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 77 
Now turn to Charts VIII and IX of the following morning 
and it will be seen from the latter that the cold wave has coy- 
ered the entire Mississippi valley. The low shown on the preced- 
ing chart as being central in southern ‘Texas has moved northeast- 
ward to Alabama, and on Chart VIII appears as a fully developed 
storm. The difference in pressure between the central isobar of 
the low and the central isobar of the high is now 1.4 inches. 
Precipitation has occurred, as shown by the dark shading. 

Special attention is called to the large figures placed in the 
four quarters of the low-pressure area, about 300 miles from 
the center. They indicate the average temperatures of their re- 
spective quadrants, and strikingly illustrate how great may be 
‘the difference in temperature under cyclonic influence between 
regions separated by but short distances. It is certain that as 
the low or cyclonic whirl moves toward the northeast, along the 
track usually followed by storms in this locality, the cold of the 
northwest quadrant, by the action of the horizontally whirling 
disk of air, will be thrown southeastward toward Florida, lowering 
the temperature in the orange groves to below the freezing point. 

Chart X shows that the center of the cyclone or low-pressure 
system has moved during the preceding 24 hours northeast to 
the coast of New Jersey, with greatly increased energy, the 
barometer at the center showing the abnormally low reading of 
28.7 inches. Cold, northwest winds. as shown by the arrows, are 
now blowing systematically from the high-pressure area of the 
northwestern states southeast to Florida and the South Atlantic 
coast. The dotted isotherm of 30 degrees passes through the 
northern part of Florida, where, on the day before, the temper- 
ature was over 50 degrees. The cyclonic gyration of this storm 
extends 1,000 miles inland and probably to an equal distance 
out to sea. Heavy snow or rain has fallen throughout the area 
under its influence, seriously impeding railroad travel, and a 
gale of hurricane force has prevailed on the coast. But when, 
on the day preceding, the storm was central in Alabama all 
these conditions were foreseen and the necessary warnings issued. 

- Chart XI shows the temperature changes caused by the rapid 
movement of the storm center. 

Charts XII and XIII show the conditions 24 hours later. The 
storm center has been three days in passing from southern Texas 
to the mouth of the St Lawrence. The temperature has fallen 
still lower on the Atlantic coast and in Florida as the result of 
uninterrupted northwest winds, and no material rise in tempera- 


78 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


ture can occur until the high pressure of the northwest is replaced 
by a low pressure, and convectional currents are drawn toward 
the northwest instead of being forced southward from that region. 

To summarize in regard to cold wayes, it may be said that 
when the charts indicate the formation of a body of dense, cold 
air in the northwest, as shown by the barometer readings, the 
skilled forecaster is on the alert. He calls for special observa- 
tions every four hours from the stations within and directly in 
advance of the cold area, and as soon as he becomes conyinced 
that the cold wave will sweep across the country with its attend- 
ant damage to property, destruction to animal life, and discom- 
fort to humanity, the well-arranged system of disseminating 
warnings is brought into action, and by telegraph, telephone, 
flags, bulletins, maps, and other agencies the people in every 
city, town, and hamlet, and even in farming settlements, are 
usually notified of the advancing cold twelve, twenty-four, or 
perhaps even thirty-six hours before it reaches them. 

Charts XIV and XV show the cyclonic systems prevailing at 
8 p.m. on the days of the Louisville and St Louis tornadoes. 
Several tornadoes occurred on each day; their tracks are shown 
by rows of crosses in the southeast quadrants of each cyclone. 

Especially do I wish to emphasize the distinction between the 
cyclonic storm and the tornado. The press and nine out of ten 
people who should know better use these terms as synonymous. 
The cyclone shown on Chart XIV, which is fairly typical of all 
cyclones, is a horizontally revolving disk of air, covering the 
whole United States from the Atlantic ocean westward to and 
including the Mississippi valley, with the air currents from all 
points flowing spirally inward toward the center, while the tor- 
nado is a revolving mass of air of only 500 to 1,000 yards in 
diameter, and is simply an incident of the cyclone, nearly always 
occurring in its southeast quadrant. The cyclone may cause 
moderate or high winds through a vast expanse of territory, 
while the tornado, with a rotary motion almost unmeasurable, 
always leaves a trail of death and destruction in an area infini- 
tesimal in comparison to the area covered by the cyclone. 

The tornado is the most violent of all storms, and is more fre- 
quent in the central valleys of the United States than elsewhere. 
It has characteristics which distinguish it from the thunder- 
storm, viz.,a pendent, funnel-shaped cloud and a violent, rotary 
motion in a direction contrary to the movements of the hands 
of a watch, together with a violent updraught in the center. 

J 


1897, PL. t« 


VOL. VIII 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


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STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 79 


The three conditions essential to the formation of tornadoes 
are clearly as follows: (1) A cyclone or area of low pressure, the 
center of which is to the north or northwest, with a barometric 
pressure not necessarily much below the normal; (2) a tempera- 
ture of about 70 degrees on the morning map; (3) a great hu- 
midity, and (4) that the time of year be March 15 to June 15, 
These conditions may and often do exist separately ; one or two 
of them may be found coexisting; but so long as the third is ab- 
sent, tornadic formation is not likely to occur. 

I am satisfied that the number of these storms is not increas- 
ing; that the breaking of the virgin soil, the planting or cutting 
away of forests, the drainage of land surfaces by tiles, the string- 
ing of thousands of miles of wire, or the laying of iron or steel 
‘ails have not materially altered the climatic conditions or con- 
tributed to the frequency or intensity of tornadoes. As well 
might one by the casting of a pebble attempt to dam the mighty 
waters of the majestic Mississippi as attempt the modification 
or restriction by the feeble efforts of man of those tremendous 
forces of nature which surround our earth and control our storms 
and climate. To be sure, as towns become more numerous and 
population becomes more dense, greater destruction will ensue 
from the same number of storms. 

It is not possible with our present knowledge of the mechan- 
ism of storms to forewarn the exact cities and towns that will be 
visited by tornadoes without alarming some towns that will 
wholly escape injury; but we know that tornadoes are almost 
entirely confined to the southeastern quadrant of the cyclone, 
and that when the thermal, hygrometric, and other conditions are 
favorable, the spot 800 to 500 miles southeast from the cyclonic 
center is in the greatest danger. 

Chart XV shows the conditions on the evening of the St Louis 
tornado, two hours after its occurrence. The abnormal heat, 
humidity, and other conditions of the rather small and weak 
eyclonic system sh6wn by the morning chart were sufficient to 
justify the Weather Bureau in distributing at 10 a. m. danger 
warnings throughout the whole of Missouri and eastern Kansas. 
I am informed that the schools of St Louis were dismissed at 
once on the receipt of the warning forecast. What is urgently 
needed is a system by which weather signals may be sent simul- 
taneously from telephone headquarters to all subscribers by a 
stroke of a telegraph key ; then a whole city could be warned in 
a minute’s time. 


80 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


The writer visited St Louis the day after the storm, and was 
especially impressed with the fact that hundreds of buildings 
were burst outward at their upper stories, indicating that they 
were at the time of their destruction near the center of the rotat- 
ing mass of air, where centrifugal force instantly had reduced 
the air pressure on the outside to such an extent that the expan- 
sion of the air in the upper stories of the houses whose windows - 
and doors were closed had produced an explosion of the build- 
ing. In one case all the four walls of the upper story of a house 
were thrown outward, leaving the lower story intact and the roof 
resting in proper position one story lower than in the original 
building. Again, great structures seemed to have been crushed 
over or taken up bodily and scattered in all directions. 

The fact that this tornado traveled with destructive force 
through several miles of brick buildings and yet left the city 
with greater force than it possessed on entering it illustrates the 
futility of planting forests to the southwest of a city for the pur- 
pose of protection, as some have advocated. It is probable that 
the strongest trees would offer but little more resistance to this 
terrific force than would so many blades of grass. 

Whenever the forecast contains the statement that conditions 
are favorable for severe local storms, it is well for the residents 
of a city receiving such forecast to observe carefully the forma- 
tion of portentous clouds and be ready to seek places of safety 
in the cellars of frame buildings. We have no record of any 
person having been killed in the cellar of a frame building. 

Chart XVI shows a West India hurricane just making its ad- 
vent on the Florida coast. A number of stations in the West 
Indies report to Washington by cable whenever hurricanes pass 
over their region. Sometimes a hurricane composed of a rap- 
idly revolving eddy of air of only two or three hundred miles in 
diameter passes between the observation stations on the islands 
of the West Indies without getting near enough to affect their 
instruments. Then, if it move rapidly nofthwest toward our 
Gulf coast, it may reach our seaboard unannounced. Fortu- 
nately such cases are rare, and in case the storm does reach any 
ports unexpectedly danger signals will be displayed in advance 
of its coming throughout the remainder of its course until it 
leaves our shores. At times hurricanes remain several days in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and the only indication we have of their 
proximity is a strong suction drawing the air briskly over some 
of our coast stations toward the center of the Gulf. Again, a 


ol Pe ae 


“NAT, GEOG. MAG. 


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1897, PL, 


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STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 81 


heavy ocean swell may be caused by the friction of the rapidly 
gyrating air on the surface of the water, and when the hurricane 
has a slow progressive movement this swell may be propagated 
outward from the center of the storm faster than the storm is mov- 
ing and reach the coast several hours before either the barometer 
or the wind movement gives any indication of the coming storm. 

The tracks of West India hurricanes are always in the form 
ofa parabola. These storms come from the southeast, but on 
reaching the latitude of our Gulf coast recurve to the northeast 
along or off our coastline. An examination of the auxiliary chart 
on the adjoining page shows that the air pressure in the region 
of the storm has decreased .10 to .50 of an inch during the past 
12 hours, and the little bars on the arrows shown on Chart XVI, 
from Norfolk southward, indicate that the forecast official at 
Washington has ordered up the storm signals in anticipation 
that the storm will move up the coast and increase in energy. 

Chart XVIII, twelve hours later, shows that his warnings were 
timely, as the storm center has moved slowly northward to Jack- 
sonville, with greatly increased energy, the barometer at the 
center reading 29.1 inches, which is about .9 of an inch under 
the normal air pressure. The auxiliary chart shows that the air 
pressure has decreased more rapidly during the past 12 hours 
than during thesimilar period next preceding. The most potent 
force in accelerating the motion of the eddy or hurricane was the 
vast amount of heat energy liberated by condensation in the 
whirling mass. 

Danger signals have been carried northward to Norfolk, and 
ports north of the storm center have been warned that the dan- 
gerous winds will come from the northeast. I wish to make 
plain that the storm coming from the southwest causes northeast 
winds to flow in at its front. On the Georgia and Florida coasts 
the signals have indicated that the wind will blow from the 
northwest for a few hours, as the air whirls in behind the reced- 
ing storm center. It will now be seen how it is possible for 
storms to progress against the wind. 

In thiinder-storms this rule does not hold, as there is a horizon- 
tal rolling of the atmosphere, caused by cold and heavy air from 
above breaking through into a light and superheated stratum 
next theearth. This rolling motion throws forward the cool air 
in the direction in which the cloud is moving. 

Chart XX shows a slight aberration in the northeast course of 


6 


82 STORMS AND WEATHER FORECASTS 


the storm, which places the center inland, so that the whole eddy 
can be charted. 

West India hurricanes are cyclonic in character, but on account 
of the fact that the diameter of the whirling eddy is much less 
and the velocity of rotation much greater than in the average 
cyclone, it is customary to designate them as hurricanes. In other 
words, the hurricane is a cyclone of small area but of powerful 
vortical action, and consequently of great destructive force. To 
get a rough idea of the difference between storms, we might 
classify them according to the diameter of the revolving mass of 
air under their influence as follows: 

Cyclones, 1,000 to 2,000 miles; hurricanes, 200 to 500 miles, 
and tornadoes one-half mile to one mile. Then if a great quan- 
tity of heat energy is liberated by profuse condensation of aque- 
ous vapor near the storm centers, we might imagine their vortical 
action and their destructive force to increase as their diameters 
of rotation decrease. 

Charts XX to XXV show the progress, in twelve-hour inter- 
vals, of the hurricane northeastward to New England. It will 
probably leave the American continent at Nova Scotia and in 
three or four days cross the Atlantic and make its appearance 
on the northwest coast of Hurope. 

Twenty-five years ago mariners depended on their own weather 
loretto warn them of coming storms; then, although the num- 
ber of boats plying the seas was much less than it is now, every 
severe storm that swept across them left death and destruc- 
tion in its wake, and for days afterward the dead were cast up 
by the subsiding waters and the shores were lined with wreckage. 
Happily this is not now the case; the angry waters and the 
howling winds vent their fury the one upon the other, while the 
great mass of shipping, so long the prey of the winds and waves, 
rides safely at anchor in convenient harbors. 

The United States has the most extensive weather service in 
the world, and its enormous practical utility is now universally 
recognized. Careful estimates based on reports from interested 
parties indicate that cold-wave signals effectively displayed in 
advance of one severe cold wave sweeping across our country re- 
sult in a saving of over $38,500,000, while responsible marine 
representatives declare that each West India hurricane passing 
up the Atlantic seaboard would destroy not less than $2,000,000 
worth of property and many lives if danger signals were not dis- 
played well in advance of its coming. 


RUBBER FORESTS OF NICARAGUA AND SIERRA 
LEONE 


By Genera A. W. GREELY, 
Chief Signal Officer, United States Army 


The increasing commercial demands for raw rubber and the 
steady diminution of caoutchoue produced by existing rubber 
forests give special interest to any information bearing on future 
supplies of caoutchouc pending the discovery of compounds that 
shall supplantit. In 1892 the Department of State published a 
Special Consular Report on rubber and rubber manufactures, 
which has lately been supplemented by additional information. 

The india-rubber trees, of which there are several profitable 
varieties, will produce annually from 10 to 40 pounds of caout- 
chouc for many years. if they are tapped judiciously. It is, 
however, an almost universal complaint, from Africa, America, 
and Asia, that the greed and carelessness of the native collectors, 
who seek to obtain the greatest immediate quantity by the least 
laborious methods, are rapidly destroying the rubber-bearing 
plants. Trees are either felled or so deeply and roughly incised 
as to speedily die. 

The fresh rubber juice, resembling cream in color and con- 
sistency, has an ammoniacal odor, which rapidly disappears, 
leaving the caoutchouc odorless and tasteless. Trees yield the 
milk copiously for several months each year, and the coagulated 
rubber averages about 80 per cent of the original juice, two 
pounds of caoutchoue to the gallon. 

Brazil is the principal source of raw rubber, and that from 
Para is the best. In 1890 the receipts of caoutchoue at Para 
reached 16,570 tons, according to the report of Consul J. O. 
Kerbey, whose account of rubber-gathering may be of interest: 


“The rubber-gatherer rolls out of his hammock as soon as it 
is light in the morning, and takes his gulp of rum and his cala- 
bash of coffee and starts out to visit his rubber trees. He wears 
a short pair of breeches. and sometimes a shirt. He goes bare- 
foot, for he must wade through the swamp mud and ooze of the 
tide up to his knees, and often up to his waist in water. He 


83 


84 RUBBER FORESTS OF NICARAGUA AND SIERRA LEONE 


takes a basketful of earthenware gill cups, a hunk of adhesive 
clay, and a little, narrow-bladed hatchet. 

“Tf he adopts the most approved method of tapping the trees, 
he reaches as high as he can with his hatchet, making an incision 
in the bark, but not reaching through to the wood. The milk 
immediately begins to issue in rapid drops or little streams. 
With a spat of the adhesive clay he immediately fastens one of 
his little gill clay cups just below the bleeding gash, and molds 
the clay so as to make all the rubber milk flow into the cup. 
Three such gashes, at equal distances around the tree and at 
equal height, is the rule. The next day he will make three more 
gashes in the same way, just a little below these three, and so 
continue, until by the end of the season he will have reached the 
level of the ground. Each of his 100 or 150 trees is treated in 
the same way, and he returns home, after having traveled from 
3 to 5 miles, barefoot and almost naked, through thorny thicket 
and malarial, steaming swamp. 

‘When he reaches his hut, he again takes another gulp from 
the demijohn, snatches a breakfast of salt fish and mandioca 
meal, which are often moldy from the reeking damp of the 
swamp, and then he starts out again with his calabash buckets 
to gather the milk, which by this time has ceased to flow. His 
gill cups are full, or nearly so, and when he reaches home he 
has milk enough to make four kilos of rubber, on an average. 
The next task is the coagulation of the milk. For this purpose 
he has a jug-shaped furnace, made of earthenware, called a 
boido, open at bottom and top, and with a small aperture at the 
side to admit the air for the combustion. In this piece of fur- 
niture he builds a fire, or rather a smudge, with the nuts of the 
inija or urucury palm. The dense, black smoke which rolls 
from the open top of the boido is the reagent whieh coagulates 
the milk. For this purpose the rubber-gatherer has a circular- 
bladed paddle, like the paddle of a canoe, which he smears over 
with clay, so that the rubber will not adhere to it. This is sus- 
pended by means of a cord from the limb of a tree just above 
the smudge, the milk is poured over the blade of the paddle, 
which is then turned over and around about in the smoke; and 
in a few moments the film of rubber is coagulated. The same 
process is repeated of wetting with milk and smoking the grow- 
ing lump until it reaches the weight of from 5 to 25 kilos or 
more. Then it is slipped off from the paddle as a mitten is 
pulled off from one’s hand. This ball is the crude rubber.” 


RUBBER FORESTS OF NICARAGUA AND SIERRA LEONE 85 


RUBBER PROSPECTS IN NICARAGUA 


A later report from Consul J. Crawfords contains the following 
information. Recently, many persons in western Nicaragua have 
declared their intention to plant and cultivate elastie rubber- 
yielding (some varieties of the juno are but slightly elastic) trees 
and vines in the eastern part of the state. Such estates are 
locally named haciendas de hule. These persons are inquiring 
concerning the localities having the most suitable lands and 
climate, the species and varieties of trees and vines that annually 
or biennially yield the largest quantity of good rubber, the proper 
distance apart for planting the trees and vines, the best modes of 
cultivation, and how many years must elapse before it is proper 
to commence the annual or biennial collection of rubber, ete. 
Many of the valleys in central and northeastern Nicaragua 
contain all the natural conditions for a full yield of an excellent 
quality of elastic rubber. They are localities supporting numer- 
ous groves of large-sized trees yielding rubber until about fifteen 
years ago, when nearly all the trees had been killed by too severe 
searifying by irresponsible collectors. Localities in Nicaragua 
south of latitude 15° north, and in low valleys where the soil is 
alluvial or vegetable humus and sand, capable of being rapidly 
drained. and in a climate that is uniformly warm and humid, 
suit the largest rubber-yielding varieties of trees and vines. 
Some varieties, giving an excellent quality of very elastic rub- 
ber, are indigenous to a higher, drier climate and soil. 

There are several of the natural orders— Urticaceae, Sapotaceae, 
Moraceae, Apocynaceae, and Euphorbiaceae—indigenous in Nica- 
ragua, which, when scarified deeply, exude a milk-like sap from 
which rubber of various degrees of elasticity is separated. The 
annual quantity and the quality in elasticity differ usually with 
the species and with different conditioned localities. Some prefer 
the low alluvial lands under a humid atmosphere, while other 
varieties flourish best in more elevated, sandy, and decomposed 
vegetable matter—lands rich in potash, as the volcanic valley dis- 
tricts south of Lake Nicaragua. The most desirable varieties for 
quantity per annum and quality of rubber are the Siphonia elastica 
and Castilloa elastica, habitants of well-drained, low, alluvial val- 
leys, kept warm by a humid atmosphere. The second best rub- 
ber-producers are of the ficus family, a variety locally known as 
matapala, an epyphite having numerous bodies from aerial roots 
(like the‘banyan tree). It is also an inhabitant of low, fertile, 


86 RUBBER FORESTS OF NICARAGUA AND SIERRA LEONE | 


well-drained lands. By cultivation this tree would probably 
equal the other low-valley varieties in quality and annual out- 
put of rubber. It has the advantage that if one of its trunks is 
deadened by excessive drainage of the sap, it has several other 
live trunks from which to obtain supplhes of rubber. Another 
good variety is the manihot balano, locally known as the “arbolde 
vaca ” (cow-milk tree), a large, hardy, indigenous kind found at 
altitudes of 1,000 to 2,000 feet above the ocean. 

The annual yield of elastic material depends on the bulk of 
the bast or lactiferous tissues that exist or that can be developed. 
Some trees of 2 or 3 feet diameter and 35 to 50 feet tall will give 
annually 20 to 40 pounds of good rubber. The quality of rub- 
ber depends largely upon the form of the cells composing the 
bast, and in part in the process used to separate the elastic ma- 
terial from the emulsion-like sap. Quality and quantity are 
responsive to cultivation. 

According to very recent reports from Nicaragua, the leaves 
yield a purer juice, and more copiously, than the bast. If this 
proves true. the supply of rubber can be largely increased with- 
~ out permanent injury to the tree. 

The shoots should be transplanted to a nursery when one 
year old, and thence removed to their permanent place when 
3 years of age, in rows—say, 64 Matapala, 81 Siphonia, and 100 
Castilloa trees per acre. 

Cultivation consists in ditching the land so as to drain it at 
will, keeping it moist without permitting water to stand. Keep 
all undergrowth cut down and the land “ hilled up” around the 
trees. Fell other varieties of trees and vines until they shade 
but a very small part of the land. Commence during the sixth 
or seventh year to collect rubber by small area incisions through 
the bast, taking, if the trees have matured properly, 8 to 12 
pounds of rubber from each tree biennially, but after the tree 
is 12 years of age a sufficient quantity of sap could be annually 
extracted to yield 10 to 15 pounds of good elastic rubber. 

The two following modes of incision are preferable to other 
processes: (1) Cut with a curved, sharp instrument channels 
through the lactiferous tissues similar to those made in pine 
trees in turpentine orchards in the United States; (2) drive 
tubes cut from the internodes of bamboo (abundant in. Nica- 
ragua) through the bast, first making a slanting cut of a part of 
the circumference of the tube, and drive the sharpened end, 12 
to 2 inches long, into the tree; then, when the collecting season 


RUBBER FORESTS OF NICARAGUA AND SIERRA LEONE — 87 


is passed. “ plug up” the tubes of that season with wood that 
has been dipped in some liquid insecticide and saw off the tube 
and its wooden core even with the thin exterior bark of the tree. 
The coagulation of the milk-like exudation and the separation 
from it of the elastic material can be effected by heating to 167 
to 175 degrees F. and stirring in a hot decoction of some species 
of convolvulaceae, as morning glory, or stirring into the emulsion, 
when fresh and hot, the smoke from burning palm or other oleag- 
inous nuts, which are abundant in rubber-yielding districts. 
Secondary crops, planted between the rows of rubber-produc- 
ing trees, could be the Liberia coffee tree, bananas, or such fibrous 
plants as hennequen, sisal, etc., of the agave family; also, the 
vanilla bean, one vine to each rubber tree, which would yield an 


annual crop equal in value to the rubber product. While the 


vanilla vine needs trees of this class for sustenance, yet it is 
probable that the vanilla would not materially reduce the flow 
of sap or the quantity of elastic material from the tree. 

A comparative estimate of the annual value per acre in Nica- 
ragua of coffee trees and rubber trees at nine years of age and 
thereafter, at present (1896) prices, gives $192 net profit from an 
acre in rubber trees. 


RUBBER FORESTS OF SIERRA LEONE 


The following information concerning the undeveloped rubber 
forests of Sierra Leone is drawn from the address of His Excel- 
lency Colonel Cardew to the legislative council of Sierra Leone 
on his journeys, aggregating 1,500 miles, in the hinterland and 
protectorate of Sierra Leone in 1894-95. 

There are large forests with abundance of rubber awaiting ex- 
ploitation by intelligent and systematic methods and that will 


‘yield wealth to the first enterprising comer. An extensive rub- 


ber forest lies between Makali and Kruto, covering the greater 
part of the district between the Seli and Bagwee rivers. This 
area comprises portions of the Kuniki and Koranko districts, 
and the extent of the rubber forests is estimated at 600 square 
miles. The portion of the forests seen is composed of rubber 
trees about ten years old, called “ Kewatia.’ These trees grow 
rapidly, and in ten years attain a girth of two or three feet, but 
under present methods they are felled by the rubber-gatherer. 
Two vines, the “ nofe” and the “ lilibue,” yield rubber, the latter 
of the choicest quality. The “nofe” is invariably cut up and 
destroyed for its rubber, and the “lilibue” generally so. 


88 RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA 


The native processes of rubber-gathering are crude and waste- 
ful in the extreme. If intelligent and economical methods were 
adopted, there would be far greater yields than formerly, and 
the west African rubber would command a higher price. Unless 
better methods of extracting rubber are introduced, it is safe to 
predict that under the increasing demand for rubber one of the 
most thriving industries of Sierra Leone will be ruined by the 
extinction of the plant. At present, for the purpose of extract- 
ing a few pounds of rubber, large trees are totally destroyed. 

The forests in the Kuniki and Koranko districts are quite ac- 
cessible, it being about seven days’ march to Makah, where the 
woods are entered. Water carriage for light canoes is possible 
down the Rokel river from Benkia, two marches from Makali. 

These forests, however, are small compared to those on the 
Anglo-Liberian frontier along the Morro and Mano rivers, which 
extend nearly a thousand miles. The exploitation of these 
forests has been impracticable for the last twenty years, owing to 
border raids, but under present conditions of peacefulness it is 
now possible to open up these forests, which abound in rubber 
and elephants, and the southern portions of which are within 
two days’ journey of Sulina. 

A protectorate will shortly be proclaimed over the British 
sphere of influence in the interior, and under the proposed ar- 
rangement of five districts, each to be under a competent com- 
missioner, it is hoped there will be a rapid development of the 
interior, especially in the way of opening up communications 
and fostering trade. 


RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA* 


Africa is fast losing its title of the Dark Continent, and if explorations 
continue at their recent rate for a few years longer it will be as well 
known as other parts of the globe. Three young men recently crossed 
it from east to west, following, in the main, the route taken by Stanley, 
and correcting a few of the slight mistakes made by that explorer, as the 


*In studying the geography of the Dark Continent it should be borne in mind that 
owing to the interchangeability of the letters r, 1, and d in many of the African dia- 
lects.and to the fact that explorers of various nationalities have applied to the names 
of the different tribes and geographic features of the regions they have visited the 
orthographic forms peculiar to their own languages, the geographic nomenclature, even 
of such portions of the interior as are now mapned in more or less detail, is far from 
being definitely established. In some cases the variation in spelling is so great as 
almost to preclude identification, and not even in the ease of names of European origin 
is there that uniformity of orthography which is so much to be desired. J. H. 


: 
e 
2 
: 
, 


a 


‘ 


i Pore: 


RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA 89 


result, probably, of his rapid marching. These travelers were M. Mau- 
rice Versepuy, who has since died of fever, the Baron de Romans, and 
M. Sporck, an artist, accompanied by an escort of 20 riflemen and 130 
carriers engaged at Zanzibar. They secured a large collection of weapons 
from different tribes, of indigenous seeds, flowers, and timber, of skins 
of various mammalia ; also a live leopard and a Jarge number of photo- 
graphs, and of water-color and other drawings. They traveled 4,000 
kilometers on foot and 2,000 by boat, and their very complete itinerary 
‘of their travels contains much interesting geographical information. 

The explorers left Zanzibar on July 6, 1895, sailing thence for Mombasa. 
Thence they crossed a barren, rocky country and reached Lake Jipé, where 
they hunteda while. They ascended the slope of the Kilimanjaro to the 
German post of Moshi, at an elevation of 1,200 meters. The Kilimanjaro 
is an imposing mass, nearly 6,000 meters high and covered with eternal 
snows. The confluence of the rivers Tsavo and Useri was located and 
the party crossed to the north of Kilimanjaro, a volcanic country en- 


_tirely uninhabited, and passed by Lake Ngiri. Taking an entirely new 


route, they made for the English post of Kikuyu, across the plains of 
Kapotei, where they successfully hunted elephants, rhinoceros, zebras, 
and antelope. These plains were entirely devoid of vegetation and their 
rivers were dried up. Kikuyu was reached in November, at which 
time the Masai were in open rebellion. This brave and fearless tribe is 
known and feared from the Kenia to German East Africa. They are 
tall and well-built, are mostly naked, wear their hair long, and smear 
their faces and shoulders with grease and red clay. They wear war feath- 
ers about the head and carry spears and shields, but while warlike and 
nomadic they raise some cattle. It was at this time that an English 
caravan, composed of 1,200 Wakikovus, was attacked by the Masai, 
who killed 700 of them. A Scotchman, named Dick, who was traveling 
with another caravan, left Kikuyu the day before the three French 
travelers, but hearing of the massacre he fell back and sent a letter to 
Kikuyu for assistance, which was refused. The Frenchmen joined forces 
with him and they were furiously attacked by the Masai in the Kedong 
valley. The attack was repelled, but Dick was killed. 

Leaving the Kedong valley, the party passed to the east of the small 
lakes Naivasha, Nakuro, and Elmeteita, and on December 5 reached 
the English fort of Ravine. The next day they crossed the deep ravine 
of the Eldoma river, passed the Mau foothills to the country of the 
Wanandis, across the north of the Kavirondo country, to the Nzoia river, 
from the banks of which the Victoria Nyanza could be seen. The Usoga, 
a rich and thickly inhabited country, was next passed and the Nile was 
reached. The Ripon falls, about 800 meters wide and 10 meters high, 
were greatly admired. Crossing the Bay of Napoleon brought the travel- 
ers to Uganda, where the natives are sufficiently civilized to have built 
roads and bridges. Their capital is Mengo, which the.travelers left on 
February 22, 1896. Passing by Lake Mitiana, which is more of a swamp 
than a lake, Lake Ruherou was reached. Itlies to the northeast of Lake 
Albert Edward, which is itself to the southwest of Mount Ruwenzori. 


hy 


90 RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA 


According to Stanley, there is a high peak, which he named Gordon Ben- 
nett, to the north of this lake, but the travelers were unable to discover 
it. Mount Ruwenzori is about 5,000 meters high, and at night numerous 
lights were seen on its slopes. On April 11 the explorers were at Kasa- 
gama, whence they started for Katoné, to the north of Lake Albert Ed- 
ward, and on the frontier between British territory and the Kongo Free 
State. During this march they noticed that Lake Ruherou is not con- 
nected with Lake Albert Edward by a large bay, as Stanley says, but by 


asmall stream. The two lakes are 40 kilometers apart and have a differ- 


ence of 200 meters in elevation. 

On April 17 Katoné was left behind, the thirtieth meridian was crossed, 
and the caravan camped right under the equator for the third time since 
leaving: Mombasa. Continuing westward, they entered the Kongo Free 
State and crossed the foothills of the Ruwenzori, visited by Captain Lu- 
gard a few years ago, and entered the Semliki valley. The Semliki river 
is about 200 meters wide and has a very swift current. The next halt 
was made at the village of Mbéné, where Stokes was captured. From 
this place to Leopoldville the country is covered with an almost impene- 
trable forest, on the edge of which is the Arab village of Kissangué, an 
auxiliary post of the Kongo State. It is the duty of the chief of the vil- 
lage to warn the Kongolese authorities of the presence of strangers on 
their territory. After a ten days’ march through the forest Kuamkubi 
was reached. In this part of the country traces of Arab civilization are 
everywhere apparent; these Arabs speak the Zanzibar dialect. Leaving 
this post, the Kongo basin was next entered. The march through the 
forest was exceedingly difficult, compass and ax being alike indispensable. 
Finally the Ibina, a branch of the Ituri river, wasreached. Twenty days 
more along the banks of the Ibina brought the travelers to the Ituri 
itself, which they crossed in canoes, and then took a guide, who con- 
ducted them to the Kongolese military post of Kilongalonga. They were 
well received by the Belgian officers, the first Europeans they had met 
for several weeks, and after a short rest and the laying in of supplies they 
left for the next post. Recrossing the Ituri, they followed its left bank 
as far as Moussa, a small village opposite the mouth of the Ipulo. Here 
the Ituri is swift and narrow. Eight days more through the forest 
brought the travelers to Avakubi, where for the fourth time the Ituri 
had to be crossed. Avakubi is a post and market of some importance. 
Here the travelers saw a few specimens of the race of pygmies whose ex- 
istence has by many writers been doubted. The stature of these pygmies 
is about 1 m. 20, they are absolutely naked, their noses are very flat, and 
their looks somewhat ferocious. Their weapons are spears and arrows, 
which are proportionate to their stature. They hunt a great deal and 
attack even the elephant. They build no huts, but live scattered about 
the forest, and their habitations are holes. Their suspicious nature ren- 
ders them very difficult to meet, and it is only once in a while that a 
few of the least wild among them venture to go to the nearest post to ex- 
change the products of their hunt for bananas or sweet potatoes. 

From Avakubi the travelers proceeded in canoes as far as Stanley Falls. 


ae 


EK Oe 


cd 
GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 91 


Here they embarked on a small steamboat and descended the Kongo, 
which at Bumba has a width of 30 kilometers. On August 3 they sailed 
for Europe, and M. Versepuy died shortly after his return to France. 

ErNEst DE SASSEVILLE. 
Paris, January 22, 1897. 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Laboratory Practice for Beginners in Botany. By William <A. Setchell, 


Ph. D., Professor of Botany in the University of California. Pp. xtv 
+199. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1897. 90 cents. 


That school instruction in botany is emerging from the dilettanteism 
and dry terminologyism of ‘‘manuals”? on the one hand, and the proud 
but narrow microscopism of the usual ‘‘ laboratory guides” on the other, 
is evidenced by the appearance of Professor Setchell’s Laboratory Prac- 
tice for Beginners in Botany. It is a book in which technical names for 
the parts of plants and machinery for handling and examining specimens 
are given a subordinate place, while the gross structure of plants is ex- 

amined with the question constantly in mind, ‘‘ How does the plant make 

use of the organs, and in what way are the modifications in different 
; plants adapted to their snecial requirements?’’ The book contains 16 

chapters on the anatomy of seeds, seedlings, roots, stems, leaves, buds, 

flowers, inflorescence, and fruits, and interspersed chapters on protective 
j structires, storage of food, climbing and insectivorous plants, vegetative 
{ reproduction, pollination, seed dispersion, and other similar subjects. 
! The book cannot fail to go a long way toward placing the student—and, 
we may add, the teacher also—in the attitude of keenly observing the 
) relation of structure to function, a kind of observation in which Charles 
Darwin and Sir John Lubbock have been our chief masters, and which 
will ultimately give the science of botany the acute scientific interest and 

real educational value in secondary schools to which it is so well adapted 
| and so fully entitled. ees 6 § 


An Introduction to Geology. By W. B. Scott, Blair Professor of Geology 
and Paleontology in Princeton University. Pp. xxvit + 573, with 
numerous illustrations. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1897. 

| $1.90. 

Students and teachers are to be congratulated on the appearance of 
another elementary work on geology. As explained by the author, the 
treatise ‘‘ had its origin in the attempt to write an introductory work, 
dealing principally with American geology, upon the lines of Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie’s excellent little ‘Class Book.’ * * * The book is intended 
to serve as an introduction to the science of Geology, both for students 
who desire to pursue the subject exhaustively, and also for the much 
larger class of those who wish merely to obtain an outline of the methods 
and principal results of the science.’”’ The contents suggest that the 
treatise, is an expansion of Professor Scott’s lectures on geology in Prince- 

ton University. 


& 
92 GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The book has the attractive air due to the excellent editing, clear typog- 
raphy, and photo-mechanical illustrating adopted of late by The Mac- 
millan Company. In matter it iseminently conventional, and in manner 
of presentation thoroughly conscientious. It must appeal strongly to the 
honest student of earth-making. In general, the author has abstracted 
and condensed in admirable fashion the substance of the geologic litera- 
ture of the last quarter-century ; thus there is nothing of the sensational, 
and except in vertebrate paleontology little of the novel, between title- 
page and index. Perhaps the chief weakness of the work—if weakness 
it can be called—grows out of the author’s desire to avoid extremes. On 
mooted points both or all sides are stated judicially, and this even when 
one interpretation is old or speculative and the other new or more directly 
observational, so that many of the chapters smack of class-room rather 
than field. An example will suffice: In discussing the distribution of 
earthquakes it is noted that ‘‘The great earthquakes which shook the 
Mississippi valley in 1811-12 are among the very few instances of violent 
and long-continued shocks in a region far from any volcano,” and the 
obsolete Humboldtian notion of connection with West Indian volcanoes 
is quoted approvingly, while the notable shocks that have devastated both 
sides of the Indian peninsula far from volcanoes, though about the deposit- 
ing grounds of great rivers, and even our own Charleston earthquake— 
which, through the studies of Dutton, threw more light on seismism than 
any other recorded in history—are ignored! It is chiefly on the dynamic 
side, or the side of agency, that the old and the new are thus confused. 
On the descriptive side the chapters are generally up to date, while in 
paleontology, especially in connection with vertebrate fossils, the work 
stands in the van of modern knowledge. On this ground alone it will be 
invaluable to both classes for whom it is designed, since it is the first 
general work to really vivify fossil skeletons and to compel readers to con- 
ceive them as of living things. 

The main divisions are (1) Dynamical Geology, (2) Structural Geology, 
(3) Physiographical Geology, and (4) Historical Geology. The classifica-. 
tion is one of the conventional features suggesting that the author’s plat- 
form is built of planks carefully selected from platforms of a dozen prede- 
cessors. To escape consequent difficulties an excellent introduction, with 
a chapter on-rock-forming minerals, is prefixed. A useful classification 
of animals and plants is appended, and the value of the book is multiplied 
by an excellent index. Asis usual in recent works, the author has drawn 
freely on the common stock of current knowledge, and gives credit to a 
score of contemporary geologists. W JM. 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


In “ The Journal of School Geography ” we welcome a new periodical in 
the field of geographic literature. This journal, which is addressed par- 
ticularly to teachers, is edited by Mr R. E. Dodge, Associate Professor of 
Natural Science in the Teachers College, New York, with, as associates, 
Prof. W. M. Davis, of Harvard; C. W. Hayes, of the U. S. Geological 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 93 
Survey ; H. B. Kummel, of the Lewis Institute, Chicago; FP. M. MeMurry, 
Dean of the School of Pedagogy, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y., 
and R. DeC. Ward, of Harvard. Ten numbers will be published a year, 
price $1.00, or 15 cents a number, 

Two numbers have thus far been issued, the leading contents of which 
are as follows: In the January number, ‘‘ Home Geography,” by W. M. 
Davis; “Some Things About Africa,’’ by Cyrus C. Adaims; “ Geographic 
Instruction in Germany,” by W. 8. Monroe; ‘‘ Some Suggestions Regard- 
ing Geography in Grade Schools,” by R. E. Dodge. The February num- 
ber contains thé following articles: ‘*The Influence of the Appalachian 
Barrier upon Colonial History,’”’ by Ellen C. Semple. It appears to us 
that Miss Semple exaggerates the influence of this geographic feature in 
delaying the settlement of the interior of the country. ‘‘ Meteorological 


_ Observations in Schools,’’ by Robert DeC. Ward; ‘ The Causal Notion 


in Geography,” by F. M. McMurry; ‘‘ Geographic Aids,’ by R. E. Dodge. 

This is a much-needed publication, and we welcome it with the pre- 
diction that it will be successful. 

Another periodical of somewhat similar character which has just been 
added to our list of exchanges is “ The Inland Educator,” edited by Francis 
M. Stalker and Charles M. Curry, and published at Terre Haute, Indiana, 
price $1.00 a year, monthly. The opening article of the February num- 
ber, which lies before us, is entitled ‘‘ The New Geography,’’ written by 
Prof. Charles R. Dryer. 

From time immemorial the teaching of geography in the schools has 
consisted in memorizing isolated facts regarding the earth, its products 
and inhabitants, with little attempt to show relations. It is only in re- 
cent years that educators have become dissatisfied with this condition of 
things, and it is only in recent years, moreover, that geography has ad- 
vanced from what might be termed an art to the dignity of a science— 
i. e., that it has become recognized that the class of facts grouped under 
the name of geography have causal relations among themselves. The 
unrest among educators regarding the teaching of geography, which at 
first was merely aimless dissatisfaction with existing methods, is gradually 
leading toward definite lines of improvement. Gradually teachers are 
learning that geography is a logical science, and must be taught as such, 
and the text-books are beginning to adapt themselves to this view. The 
introduction of physiography into text-books is but one step in this direc- 
tion. Physiography explains the origin of relief and drainage forms, 
and when to this are added the relations between the earth’s surface and 
its climate, on the one hand, and the distribution of life and of man’s 
industries and products, on the other, in our text-books, the improvement 
will be a well-rounded one. Then geography in its broad sense can be 
taught as a science. These are some of the ideas which are brought out 
in Professor Dryer’s admirable article. Other articles in ‘*The Inland 
Educator” relate especially to other branches of education and require 
no special mention here. 

“‘The Geographical Journal” for February seems to be especially de- 
voted to African exploration. It opens with “‘A Journey in the Marotse 
and Mashikolumbwe Countries,” by Capt. A. St H. Gibbons, Other arti- 


94 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


cles are ‘‘A Journey up the Machili,” by Perey C. Reid, ‘* From the Ma- 
chili to Lialui,’’? by Capt. Alfred Bertrand; ‘‘ Noteson a Journey Around 
Mount Masawa,” by C. W. Hobley. nicer ning Asia, there are “ Explora- 
tions in Mysia,’’ by J. A. R. Munro and H. M. Anthony; ‘Journey of 
Captain Wellby and Lieutenant Malcolm Across Tibet,” and ‘‘ Captain 
Deasy’s Journey in Western Tibet.’”? Mr J. Bartalhareis contributes an 
article entitled ‘‘ The Supposed Discovery of South America Before 1448 
and the Critical Methods of the Historians of Geographical Discovery.” 
‘«The Scottish Geographical Magazine” for February contains an ac- 
count of ‘‘ Recent Explorations in the Patagonian Andé& South of 41° 
South Latitude,’’ by Dr Hans Steffen, and ‘‘ Notes upon the Geography 
of the Argentine Republic,” by H. D. Hoskold, Director-General of the 


National Department of Mines and Geology, Buenos Aires. 
BGs 


PROCEEDINGS OF | THE NATIONAL . GEOGRAPHIG 


SOCGIELY “SESSION #1806-707 


Regular Meeting, February 19, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
Mr J. E. Spurr read a paper, with lantern-slide illustrations, on the 
_Forty-Mile Creek Gold-Mining District, Alaska. 


- Special Meeting, February 20, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. 
Mr George Kennan lectured on Vagabond Life in Eastern Europe, with 
lantern-slide illustrations. 


Special Meeting, February 26, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair.” 


Mr Frank Hamilton Cushing addressed the Society on the Ancient Sea- 
Dwellersand Key-Builders of Florida, illustrating his subject with lantern 
slides. 


Special Meeting, March 1, 1897.—First lecture of the course of Monday 
afternoon illustrated lectures and annual address of the President of the 
National Geographic Society, under the auspices of the Joint Commission 
of the Scientific Societies of Washington. Surgeon-General George M. 
Sternberg, U. 8. Army, Vice-President of the Joint Commission, in the 
chair. The subject of President Hubbard’s address was the Effects of 
Geographic Environment in the Development of Civilization in Pre- 
historic Man. 

Regular Meeting, March 5, 1897.—Secretary Hayden in the chair. Mr 
F. H. Newell delivered an address, illustrated by lantern slides, on the 
Distribution and Mining of Petroleum. 


Special Meeting, March 8, 1897.—Second Monday afternoon illustrated - 


lecture. President Hubbard in the chair. Rev. W. Hayes Ward, D. D., 
LL. D., of the New York Independent, lectured on Babylonia. 


Special Meeting, March 12, 1897.—Vice-President Greely in the chair. 
Miss Annie 8. Peck lectured on Mountaineering in the Tyrol and Switzer- 
land, including an Ascent of pe Matterhorn, with lantern-slide illustra- 


tions. 
\ 


ee 


a 


GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 95 


Execrions.—New members have been elected as follows: 
February 26.—Miss H. J. Baird-Huey, Judge George 8. Batcheller, Mrs 


Diaz-Albertini, Alex. Everett Frye, George B. Hollister, Mark S. W. 
Jefferson, Albert M. Lewers, Robert H. Paxson, Mrs Altha Gibbs Powell, 


Miss Mattie Scott, Mrs George Westinghouse, Rey. R. P. Williams. 


Dratus.—The Society has recently lost by death the following-named 
members: 


Mr J. M. Cunningham, of San Francisco; Mr Joseph Macfarland, of the 
U.S. Geological Survey; Hon. J. Randolph Tucker, of Lexington, Va.; 
General Alfred Pleasanton, U.S. A.; Mr Lewis Clephane, of Washington, 
D. C., and Mr L. P. Smith, of the U. 8. Department of Agriculture, 


GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 


CENTRAL AMERICA 


Nicaracua. Concessions have been granted to United States citizens 
for a street railway to be operated by steam between the town of Blue- 
fields and the Bluefields custom-house, situated at the mouth of the har- 
bor, and also for a railway between Rama and San Ubaldo. The United 
States consul, however, makes the significant statement that ‘so little 
has ever been done in Nicaragua under any government concessions, big 
or little, that it seems a waste of time to enter into the details of any 
concession without positive proof that it is to be pushed.” 

A contract has been let for the construction of a canal to connect Pearl 
and Bluefields lagoons, which will afford an inside channel with a depth 
of 4.5 feet for a distance of 55 miles north of Bluefields. 


EUROPE 


Russra. On September 13 the total length of railways in operation in 
Russia was 36,861 versts, or about 24,400 miles. Of these lines, 21,158 
versts were operated by the government. 

The development of the mineral and manufacturing industries of Russia 
is progressing with astonishing rapidity. The production of coal has 
trebled in the last 15 years and the progress in the textile industries is 
marvelous. The empire, however, is still largely dependent upon other 
countries for its machinery and upon foreigners for the more responsible 
positions in its factories and ironworks. 

There has been an enormous increase in the shipping industry of the 
Caspian sea, owing to the development of the oil wells of Baku, one of 
which recently discharged 300,000 tons of oil, valued at $750,000, within 
a period of two months. Several of the Russian railways and most of the 
steamship companies on the Volga, as well as the manufacturing centers 
along that great waterway, are using oil for fuel. 


ASIA 


SipertA. By consent of the Russian authorities the peninsula discoy- 
ered by Dr Nansen is to be named for King Oscar of Sweden. 


96 GEOGRAPHIC NOTES 


Over 200,000 Russian peasants migrated to Siberia in 1896, but some 
25,000 were forced to tramp back to their miserable homes, owing to the 
land set apart for colonization being insufficient to meet the demand. 


Syrra. Asteamer isnow making regular trips from Jericho to Tiberias— 
i. e., from the Dead Sea to the Sea of Galilee—in five hours. Several 
Jewish families recently settled in Jericho and are preparing to irrigate 
extensive fruit farms. 


Japan. The Russo-Japanese convention has been published in St Pe- 
tersburg. It provides that Korea shall retain full liberty of action as 
regards both domestic and foreign policy. Russia and Japan will each 
keep a small force of troops in Korea until such time as the government 
can maintain order. 


Inpra. It is estimated that the present famine in India would have 
reduced the population of that country by 10,000,000 if it had been allowed 
to run its course unchecked. Over 3,000,000 persons are employed on 
government relief works, and hundreds of thousands more are being 
succored out of the fund (now amounting to the equivalent of nearly 
$3,000,000) contributed in the British Islands. 


AFRICA 


Transvaau. The total output of gold for November was 201,113 ounces, 
- as compared with an output of 195,218 ounces in November, 1895. 


Mapaqascar. The French Colonial Minister has announced the inten- 
tion of the government to maintain the equality of all religions in the 
island of Madagascar. He has forbidden, by telegraph, the proposed 
confiscation of Protestant churches. 


Avcrrta. According to the recent census, the city of Algiers contains 
96,000 inhabitants, 46,000 being French by birth or naturalization, 9,600 
Jews, 25,000 Arabs or belonging to other native races, 9,800 Spaniards, 
3,500 Italians, 1,100 Maltese, and 235 English. 


Centrat Arrica. Mr Poulett Weatherley, an Englishman, who recently 
visited Old Chitambo, where Livingstone’s heart is buried, calls attention 
to the decay of the tree that marks the spot, and suggests the necessity of 
the immediate erection of a more enduring monument. 


Ecypr. During the recent Sudan expedition the number of all ranks 
of the Egyptian army killed in action was 47; the wounded numbered 
122; 235 of all ranks died of cholera, and 126 died of other diseases. The 


Egyptian troops are said to have displayed great powers of endurance and 
a remarkable capacity for hard and continuous work. 


West Arrica. Wherever British influence predominates, railroad 
building is in progress. A line is in operation from Dakar, the chief port 
of Senegal, to St Louis, 175 miles north. Another line runs from Kayes 
up the valley of the Senegal toward Timbuctu, which it will soon reach. 
A line from Conakry to the Niger is also in contemplation. Dr Karl 
Peters recently stated in London that the whole African question was 
one of communication. 


barber shop and buffet—luxuries 


LIMITED has bath room, 
a will [ees 


LIMITED traverses a road where snow never falls and blockades 
d blizzards are unknown, and through a region of marvelous 


LIMITED is at your service, and any Southern Pacific Agent 
1 be glad to tell you all about it, or if you want to know more, 
1 1b cents in stamps to the General Passenger Agent, and a 

autiful book of 205 pages, that will tell you all about the route, 


be sent you. 
S. F. B. MORSE, 


General Passenger and Ticket Agent, 
NEW ORLEANS. 


Among he Cones ae o 


ae 


N umbers. of 


By PROF. B. E FERNOW., Pu. De 


CHIEF OF THE Division OF FORESTRY, Ws: DEPARTMENT OF Ac 


. A Summer Voyage to the Aroti, 
pe By G. R, PUTNAM, 


U. S. Coast anpD GEODETIC SuRVEY ; 


By GENERAL A. W. GREELY, 


Cuier Signal Orricer, U. S. Army, 


A) a 


4 Se 


JUDD & DETWEHILER, PRINTERS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 


AS 


7 ay A 


| ILLUSTRATED M ONTH RY oe 


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\ 

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| ; 

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potas Editor: JOHN HYDE ff off 

Honorary £ Associate Bditors . 4 

R r- | WI McGEE HENRY GANNETT i 
[ART ‘RIAD ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE i 
3g Bes 

CONTENTS | pt : 3 

ened ag PAGE Vs 

ae TO ane AgOTIC. ~.) J@-R. PUTNAM. 97 | 
an and illustrations, { fi 
AN D ) DRAINAGE BASIN. OF LAKE SUPERIOR. [a 
ee | MARK W. HARRINGTON. 111 | 7 

LN PRanscontienTat RAILROAD. ao. 
ay \ . GEN. A. W.GREELY. 1210 — 
} LITERATURE, p. 124: GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS, p. 127; : 
DI NGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, | 
2 ‘ va o f + r: 


ey, ee St WASHINGTON 

ISHED BY. THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC soc Ils J his 
Pol os 

AGENTS IN/t THE Unrrep Srares Anp CANADA 


oy CAN News Company, 39°ANp 41 CHampers Srreer, New York 
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ibe ai $2.50 a Year 


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Tn as NY ait OS Ey ih Ty Us: ae 


PRESIDENT 
GARDINER G. HUBBARD 
Reine “Vice- PRESIDENTS G 
MARCUS BAKER 3 ae GREELY - 
WILLIAM H. DALL . 
G. K. GILBERT 


Ee 


| TREASURER ‘ 
"CHARLES J. ‘BELL 


b f, 
_ REcorDING SECRETARY 


EVERETT HAYDEN 


oe hal - Managers oie 4 
H. F. BLOUNT Renee | J | MeGEE 
0. W. DABNEY, Je. eS ai “NEWELL 
DAVID T. DAY. . 
JOHN HYDE > 


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active members, $5.00 per annum ; for ila anes 52.00 per annt 
- members pay also an entrance fee of $2.00 on election. Tae Narronan 
Magazine is sent regularly to all members, both active and corresponding. — 


x 


a atie te for the founding oe Prize Medals aaah: Scholars 
ECAP eR Ry, sO GHrea 


rote ete. ote note rote ete etenoteote note rete mete wgte wate tenets ote ty ote note. cte ote ..steacte. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


teeta ate ote 


MAP OF THE KOOTENAL 


+/S~ HE most complete map of the rich mining region of the Kootenai 
( and adjacent territory in Washington and British Columbia 
has just been published by the 


NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY. 


It is just what is needed by those going to that country or who desire to 
study and know about it. 


The map is made in relief, is 25 by 18 inches in size between borders, 
and has in connection with it—on the same page—smaller maps that 
show the relation of the region to the world at large. 


The principal 
drainage of the 
country is laid 
down in blue, the 
trails and roads are 
shown, the rail- 
ways plainly indi- 
cated, the names 
of important towns 
printed in large 
black letters, and 
the topography is 
represented in 
brown. As far as 
the ore deposits 
are known, they 
are indicated in a 
‘cia ee ae general way by red 
SMELTER, TRAIL, B. C. lettering. 


The country shown upon the map includes particularly the Slocan, 
Kootenai Lake, Cariboo Creek, Deer Park, Nelson, Salmon River, 
Trail or Rossland, and the Boundary Creek regions. It also shows the 
Arrow Lakes and Lardeau country and some portion of the Okanogan 
and Fort Steele regions. 

The map is compiled from reliable and official data and shows the 
Mining District Subdivisions and the elevations of the mountains 
and lakes. 

The opposite side of the sheet contains an accurate statement and 
description of the country, showing its discovery and development to 
the present time. The folder will be sent to any address, together with 


a copy of 
WONDERLAND ’97, 


our new tourist book, upon receipt of six cents in stamps. 


CHAS. S. FEE, 
Genera/ Passenger Agent, St. Pau/, Minn. 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE * 


SOUTHERN RAILWAY 


GCREATEST 


#* ee 4a SGOUTHERN SYSTEM. 


Penetrates with its main line or branches eight States 
South of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and in con- 
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Write for Map Folders. 


R. D. CARPENTER, General Agent, 271 Broadway, New York City. 
lL. S. BROWN, General Agent Passenger Department, Washington, 1D. C. 
J. H. WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. 


S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 
C. A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


THE SHORTEST, 
QUICKEST, 
MOST ATTRACTIVE 
ROUTE 


IS BY THE LINES OPERATED OVER THE 


Florida Central & Peninsular R. R. 


HE FLORIDA CENTRAL AND PENINSULAR RAILROAD 
begins on the north at Columbia, runs through Savannah, 
Jacksonville, Ocala, ‘Tampa, Fernandina, Gainesville, Orlando, 
and Tallahassee. 

It is the direct route to take for St. Augustine, Lake Worth, 
and all Hast Coast points; for Miami, Key West, and Nassau; 
also for points on the Gulf of Mexico and Havana and for all 
the principal interior points in Mlorida. Three trains daily 
from New York during the tourist season, passing through 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington. 


One of the finest trains in the country is the NEW YORK AND FLORIDA LIMITED, with 
Compartment Cars, Pullman Sleepers, Observation Cars, Dining Cars, and Passenger Coaches. This 
pain leaves New York at 12.10 noon and arrives at Jacksonville at 3.30 p. m. next day, St. Augustine 
at 4. p. m. 

The CINCINNATI AND FLORIDA LIMITED, another very elegant vestibuled train, makes 
ae sue in about 24 hours between Cincinnati and Jacksonville, via Chattanooga, Atlanta, Macon, and 

verett. 

The ASHEVILLE ROUTE is the scenic route (over the Carolina mountains) between Cincin- 
nati and Jacksonville, via Knoxville, the Mountain Resorts, Columbia, and Savannah. 

The KANSAS CITY through car route is by this road, via Fort Scott, Memphis, Holly Springs, 
Birmingham, Atlanta and Hverett. 

The NEW ORLEANS ‘through sleeper route runs from New Orleans by, Pensacola on this 
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Remember that the FLORIDA CENTRAL AND PENINSULAR does not only go to Jack- 
sonville, but distributes passengers by close connections all over the State. 

Get THE BEST INDEXED MAP OF FLORIDA from any of our agents or from the 
General Passenger Agent. i 


J. L. ADAMS, Genl. Eastern Agt., W. B. PENNINGTON, Genl. Western Agt., 
353 Broadway, New York. 417 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, O. 
WALTER G. COLEMAN, Genl. Trav. Agt., 353 Broadway, New York. 
N. 8S. PENNINGTON, Traffic Manager, A. O. MacDONELL, Genl. Pass. Agt., 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


' wa dilly GROG: gael MAGAZINE 


ee 69000060 DOOSS GE SOOE e JOSS S600 


A “a 


_, The Great Hotels | » KEY WEST AND MIAMI 


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AT @ ae 
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oR @ ORTIOND, © MIAMI AND NASSAU 
as of agridaaah . STEAMSHIP SERVICE 
TUAS til. BETWEEN 
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(Bahama Islands), 


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. Will be inaugurated about JANUARY 15th 
for the WINTER TOURIST SEASON 


OF 1897 


- 
gaceecestes: See advertisements for sailing dates 
& For map of Florida and book Florida East Coast, address— 
J. D. RAHNER, 
J. R: nee ROT ite J. P. BECKWITH, Ass’t General Pass'r Agent. 


tce-Pre »sident. Traffic Manager. St. Augustine, Fla. 


oeeo ease SOOOS SS SSS O0SSSSE8S 


i H E MAPLE L 
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ETWEEN CHICAGO, DUBUQUE. 
Wa ST. PAUL.MINNEAPOLIS DES MOINES. 
LA le: ee JOSEPH eee COry: 


GOOSOGS OO 288008 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other ; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to, the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 3 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


TH Mutual Life Insurance Company 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


National Geographic Monographs 


On the PHysIcAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - - - ) 

GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - + - - - . 7j. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES = gee s 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - -  ¢. Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - -— - - J. S. Diller 

THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND ITS HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


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THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL RAILWAY 


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Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains between Chicago, Mil- 
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Catalogues and Information at Washington Office, No. 1416 F Street. 


Since Duplicate and Com- 
pass Whist have come into 
fashion there has been an 
unprecedented revival of in- 
terest in the game, due to 
the fact that mere /uck is to 
a large extent eliminated by 
a comparison of the scores 
made in the play of the same 
hands by different players. 


COMPasSS WHIST 


DUPLICATE WHHIST 
scone [ cain | trump | Gain | score 


The one thing needed to 
perfect the new method has 
been a convenient device 
by means of which the score 
tmnade on the first round can 
be concealed until after the 
replay of the hands, as a 
knowledge of the first score 
often enables a good player 
to make a decisive gain, and 
matches are lost and won on 
just such little chances. 


Win 
A: ni: B:iWw:d 


A Washington player has at 
length invented and put upon 
the market at a very low price a 
little device which admirably 
answers the purpose, and at the 
same time serves as a pretty 
and useful table ornament, 
marker, and pencil rest. It is 
called the ‘‘Cosmos COUNTER,”’ 
and consists of a little polished 
wood tablet with a metal key- 
board that can be clamped down 
on the score in such a way as to 
bring 24 little metal plates over 
the 24 spaces in the ‘‘score”’ 
column of the card, for use in 
concealing each first score as 
soon as recorded and until the 
hand is replayed (in duplicate 
whist) or the entire series fin- 
ished (in compass whist). 


Oo: ois 


. 
@ 
a 
a 
al 
ba 
a 
: e) 
5 
re 
an 
iS) 
1S) 
a 
> 
a 
= 


For use 
& 3 bo 


Whist players will at once see 
the advantage of this new 
method of keeping the score, as 
it effectually prevents their op- 
ponents at the same or another 
table from taking advantage, 
either by accident or design, of 
a knowledge of what the hand 
is capable. The trouble with 
duplicate whist, especially, is 
that the replay is liable to be in- 
fluenced by memory of the cards 
and score, and anything that 
helps to confuse such recollec- 
tion is a great gain to fait play. 


ip 


10 :@ 


The ‘‘Cosmos Score Card,”’ 
prepared for use with the 
counter, shows several new fea- 
tures, such as a heading for both 
Duplicate and Compass Whist 
and (on the reverse) for Straight 
Whist, Euchre, &c., thus ena- 
bling the same counter and score 
to be used for any game of cards. 


1895, by 


Copyright 


Cosmos Counters, with tablet 
of quartered oak, maple, or 
birch, and metal in either gold 
or silver finish, 50 cts. apiece ; 6 
for $2.75; 12 for $5; by mail, 4 
cts. apiece extra. Cosmos Score 
Cards, 25 cts. per package of 50; 
12 packages for $2.50; by mail 
free of postage. 


Ask to see samples at any 


stationer’s, or order direct from 
the General Agents. 


E. MORRISON PAPER CO., 1009 Penna. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 


ia 
National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. VIII APRIL, 1897 No. 4 


A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


By G. R. Purnam, 


United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 


Among the scientific parties that assembled at Sydney, Cape 
Breton, in July last, for the purpose of paying a brief visit to 
the Arctic under the leadership of Lieutenant Robert E. Peary, 
U.S. N., was one organized by Professor A. E. Burton, of the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology. Of this party I became a 
member, having been granted leave of absence by the Superin- 
tendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, with the use of the 
necessary instruments to carry on magnetic and pendulum ob- 
servations. ‘The destination of our party was Umanak fiord, in 
the northern part of Danish Greenland and several hundred 
miles within the Arctic circle. This fiord, although of consider- 
able interest, has seldom been visited by exploring expeditions. 
It is oneof the largest on the Greenland coast and contains some 
of the finest mountain scenery, being the outlet of a group of 
glaciers of unusual magnitude. It is also the home of the most 
prosperous of the Greenland Eskimo communities, 

Our voyage was but a summer trip to moderate latitudes, de- 
void of the conventional Arctic hardships; and yet such a trip 
to Greenland has the peculiar advantage that many of the most 
striking of Arctic phenomena are either actually encountered or 
are easily accessible. We sailed from Sydney on July 16 on the 
steamer Hope, under the command of Captain John Bartlett, an 
experienced Arctic navigator. The Hope is one of the best of the 
Newfoundland sealing and whaling fleet, which is composed of 
strongly built ships, heavily timbered and sheathed for work in 

7 


x 


98 A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


the ice, and manned by hardy Newfoundland sailors. Our course 
lay north along the east coast of Cape Breton and the west coast 
of Newfoundland, and then through the straits of Belle Isle, where 
on the third day out we saw the first icebergs. From this time 
on for over two months these Arctic wanderers formed a part of 
every scene. At first they were a constant source of interest, 
because of their enormous bulk, their varied outhnes, and their 
beautiful coloring, changing from a marble white to a sky blue 
or a delicate pink, with an emerald green just below the surface 
of the water. Weamused ourselves by idealizing them, turreted 
castles, vast amphitheaters, triumphal arches, obelisks, ships, and 
animals being all represented in the magnificent procession of 
bergs which we passed. Some which I measured had a height 
of 160 feet above the water and a length of 800 feet. 

Soon after leaving the straits we began to encounter floe-ice, 
through which we continued to steam for about 700 miles, along 
the Labrador coast, which we closely followed. This was a 
great stream of ice brought south by the Labrador current, and 
consisted of ‘‘ pans” from a few feet to several hundred feet in 
diameter, but generally so separated that the steamer could 
push her way through without difficulty. In places, however, 
the effect of the wind had been to drive the pans close together, 
and then our progress was extremely slow, and indeed sometimes 
the ship was entirely stopped until a change in wind or tide 
caused the ice to loosen. ‘To break through barriers across our 
way it was sometimes necessary to back the ship and then go 
ahead at full speed, using the prow asa ram. The sensation of 
a ship striking and pushing these ice pans was a little startling 
at first, but we soon saw what the vessel could stand, so that 
only an unusual bump, that would rattle the dishes on ithe table 
and perhaps throw us off our feet, would cause remark. It took 
us a long time, however, to become used to the grinding of the 
ice against the sides of the vessel as we lay in our bunks at night. 

While in this ice we had some extremely beautiful effects of 
the mirage. One day when steaming along with ‘only loose 
cakes about us we appeared to be surrounded by a perpendicular 
ice-wall, apparently cutting orf all hope of progress, but as we 
proceeded this phantom ice-wall ever kept at the same distance 
from us. Near sunset the coloring on this mirage made an 
especially beautiful sight. We sometimes saw three and even 
four perfect images of distant icebergs and islands, one suspended 
above another. Some of these effects were fantastic beyond 


Sasi aioe 


A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 99 


ee 
| 


JoAn B. we Ne fay | 


40 Mf 


ROUTE OF THE ‘‘HOPE”’’ AS FAR AS UMANAK, SHOWING MAGNETIC STATIONS 


description, frequently changing even while we were gazing on 
them. Although the ice impeded the progress of the ship, it 
proved a blessing in disguise to those who were not good sailors, 
as it had the effect of destroying the ocean swell. Thousands 
of Newfoundlanders gather on the Labrador coast each summer 
to fish. Many of their vessels we saw, and at Turnavik, one of 
their little settlements, we stopped a few hours. 

It was while in the ice off Cape Chudleigh that we first saw 
polar bears in their native habitat. A large white bear and two 


100 A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


cubs were one day seen running over the pans not far distant 
from the ship, and their curiosity caused them to come nearer 
and gaze at us. They were nearly the color of the ice and, run- 
ning nimbly over the pans or swimming rapidly across the water 
spaces, were a pretty sight. A number of rifles were brought out, 
and the large bear was killed after a desperate effort to escape. 
A long chase followed for the cubs, the injunction being to take 
them alive. They were followed by boats and on foot over the 
ice and finally were taken. The one captured first was left in 
charge of one of the Cornell party to hold until the return of the 
boat. As the cub, although but a few weeks old, would not have 
been a pleasant companion for one man on a small ice-cake, our 
comrade, holding to the line about the bear’s neck, kept him in 
the water and at a safe distance with a boat-hook, and the strug- 
gles of the bear to get on the ice and of the man to keep him off 
furnished considerable amusement to those members of the party 
who remained on the ship. The cubs were finally caged on 
the deck of the Hope and remained our companions during the 
remainder of the voyage, growing greatly in size but not the 
least in affection either for their captors or for each other. They 
‘may now be seen in the National.Zoological Park at Washington. 

The scenery along the Labrador coast became more striking 
as we proceeded northward. It is mostly a rocky, bleak-looking 
shore, treeless and barren, indented with deep bays and fringed 
with islands. In the southern portion the topography is low 
and its rounded outlines give every indication of the smoothing 
effect of glacial action. Just south of Cape Chudleigh, however, 
the mountains fringing the shore attain a height of 6,000 feet, 
and in many cases have sharp, rugged outlines. 

Passing into Hudson strait, the Hope was soon clear of the ice. 
After steaming over 200 miles along the north shore, we reached 
Ashe inlet on July 24. Here and on the mainland opposite two 
days were spent in exploration and investigation. At Ashe 
inlet there was located some ten years ago one of a number of 
meteorological stations established by the Canadian government 
for the study of the Hudson bay and strait climate in connection 
with the practicability of regular navigation in this region. A 
portion of the frame house was found standing, and it was the 
only sign of human habitation, with the exception of a few traces 
of Eskimo encampments. A more bleak and desolate-looking 
region it would be difficult to imagine; where the rock was not 
bare, the scanty vegetation was not over a few inches high. In 


i 


A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 101 


this vicinity one of the ship’s anchors was lost, the chain being 
parted by a moving pan of ice, and a whale-boat was injured by 
a southeasterly gale driving it on the rocks. There is a tremen- 
dous tidal action in Hudson strait, the rise and fall at Ashe inlet 
being some 30 feet. On this account the strait does not freeze 
solid in winter, but becomes filled with an enormous ice-pack, 
which moves back and forth and forms an impenetrable barrier 
to navigation the greater part of the year. 

On the way out of Hudson strait we had our first good view 
of the Eskimo, although we had seen a few of the race at Turn- 
avik, in Labrador. Our first warning of their approach was a 
peculiar shrill call, which travels over the water long distances. 
It was some minutes before the uninitiated could discern the dis- 
tant specks on the water, which we were told were the Eskimo 
men in their kayaks. They rapidly approached and were taken’ 
on board—boats and all. The kayakers were soon followed by 
an umiak, or large skin boat, filled with the remainder of the set- 
tlement, including women, children, and dogs, as well as nearly 
all their earthly possessions. Although their wealth seemed 
very meager, they appeared to be among the happiest of peoples; 
their round, fat faces simply beamed with good nature. They 
were very anxious to trade, the objects most highly prized being 
plugs of tobacco, knives, guns, and copper coins. The last men- 
tioned they took in preference to silver, their only use for either 
apparently being to sew on to the women’s blouses as ornaments. 
They were dressed in furs, the men and women much alike, ex- 
cept that the women’s blouses had a long tail behind and a large 
hood or sack on the back, in which the baby was carried. Their 
peculiar appetite was shown by the relish with which they drank 
the contents of some cans of bear oil which the boys had been 
saving to grease their shoes with. 

After passing out of Hudson strait, an attempt was made to 
enter Cumbeyland sound, but the entrance was completely 
blocked with ice, and our course was shaped for Greenland. In 
crossing Davis strait we also crossed the Arctic Circle. This 
event was celebrated by the firing of cannon and the hoisting of 
flags. Neptune came aboard in the person of one of the sailors, 
who attempted to shave the uninitiated, using a lather of engine 
grease, and a ship’s scraping iron for a razor. 

Our first view of the Greenland coast was obtained near mid- 
night on August 1, the high, ice-capped mountains in the vicinity 
of Holstenborg forming a beautiful scene in the Arctic twilight. 


102 A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


The following day we landed at Godhavn, the capital of the 
Danish inspectorate of North Greenland, and were cordially re- 
ceived by the government officials. The interior of the island of 
Disko, on which Godhavyn is situated, is an elevated plateau 
averaging three or four thousand feet in height and covered with 
an ice-cap. The passage through the remarkable channel east 
of Disko, called the Vaigat, was a continual panorama of fine 
scenery. High mountains rose directly from the water on either 
side, with glaciers coming down between them and glimpses of 
the interior ice-cap presenting themselves at intervals. The 
Vaigat itself was so filled with enormous bergs that the ship had 
to wind its course among them. Entering Umanak fiord on the 
night of August 4, a most beautiful Arctic midnight scene was 
spread out before us. The sun dipped only about two degrees 
below the horizon at midnight, so that after about an hour of 
glowing sunset there was bright sunshine again. Lying along 
the northern border of the fiord were the highest mountains in 
this part of Greenland, sharp, cragged peaks of over 6,000 feet. 
To the eastward were groups of mountainous islands, and _ be- 
tween them could be seen the smooth, white swell of the great 
interior ice-cap of Greenland. To thesouth were the mountains, 
glaciers, and green foothills of Nugsuak peninsula, and to the 


A SETTLEMENT ON UMANAK FIORD 


A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 103 


west stretched the open water of Baffin bay, while all around 
were the stately icebergs proceeding from the great glaciers at 
the head of the fiord. 

The Hope left our party at Umanak, the principal settlement 
of the district, which was to be our headquarters for several 
weeks, and where the vessel was again to return for us after its 
trip further north. The village is situated on an island, which 
though only about three miles in length, has in its center a moun- 
tain nearly 4,000 feet in height, a most remarkable shaft of rock, 
from which the name Umanak, being the Eskimo for “ heart- 
shaped,” is derived. The village consists of about 150 Eskimos 
and three Danish families. We found these Danish officials and 
their families most intelligent and hospitable people.’ They are 
almost entirely cut off from the rest of the world, only receiving 
news from Europe two or three times during the short summer. 
During ten months they are completely isolated, and for two 
months they do not see the sun. 

In the management of their possessions in Greenland and of 
the native races, the Danes have followed a plan unique in the 
world’s history. Between Cape Farewell and Upernivik, said to 
be the most northern civilized settlement in the world, there live 
about 10,000 Eskimos, scattered in villages along the coast. They 
are divided into twelve districts, of which Umanak is commer- 
cially the most important. In each district there are usually a goy- 
ernor, an assistant governor, having charge of commercial affairs, 
anda Lutheran pastor, in care of religious and educational mat- 
ters, but beyond these and a few minor officials in charge of sub- 
settlements, no Danes or other foreigners are allowed to settle in 
Greenland. The whole is under the direction of the Royal Green- 
land Board of Trade, a government bureau in Copenhagen which 
has a monopoly of the trade of Greenland. Supplies are sent 
out annually in nine ships, which bring back the products of 
the region to. Denmark. European goods are furnished to the 
Eskimos at but a slight advance over cost price, and they are 
paid amounts fixed in advance, once in five years, for the furs, 
oil, ivory, ete., which they bring in. All other trade along this 
coast is prohibited, and vessels are not allowed to even enter the 
Greenland ports, except by special permission or in distress. 
The idea has been to protect the natives in their rights and pur- 
Suits as well as in their morals. The arrangement is not a prof- 
itable one to the Danish government, the loss on the Greenland 
trade during recent years being said to have been as much as 


104 A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


$100,000 annually. Almost every village is provided with a 
church and a school, and the language taught is not the Danish, 
but that spoken by the natives themselves. The great majority 
of the Eskimos can read and write and are nominally, if not 
actually, christianized. Such a policy could hardly have been 
carried out in any region less isolated than Greenland. Whether 
or not their contact with civilization has been beneficial to the 
Greenlanders, it is probable that the continuance of the Danish 
system is their only salvation, for if the Danes were to withdraw, 
the wealth of this region in fisheries and hunting would soon 
attract a population that would so far interfere with the life and 
pursuits of the Eskimos as to cause their early extinction. 
These Greenland Eskimos, although they have been in contact 
with civilization for 250 years and are largely intermixed with 
foreign blood, have retained many of their original modes of Iife- 
The more pure-blooded are an intelligent-looking people, with 
smooth, round features and frank, open countenances ; they are 
short in stature and have straight, black hair. They ordinarily 
live in flat-roofed houses, built of rocks and turf, often contain- 
ing but a single room, with a sleeping-bench at one end and a 
long, low entrance for keeping out the cold in winter. In sum- 
mer they often live in tents, moving from place to place. They 


A GREENLAND FAMILY 


A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 105 


KAYAKER IN UMANAK FIORD 


hunt the seal, walrus, narwhal, reindeer, bear, and smaller game— 
birds and fish—with which the region is stocked. By far the 
most important of these, to them, is the hair-seal, called by them 
“ puisse,” many varieties of which are found on this coast. The 
skin is used for clothing, boat covering, and tents, the blubber 
for fuel and illuminating oil, and the flesh for food. The highest 
ambition of a young Eskimo is to become a successful seal- 
catcher. For this pursuit they have developed some of the most 
ingenious appliances ever invented by a primitive people. In 
the summer they use the kayak, a skin boat which is a model of 
ingenuity, lightness, and gracefulness. With these small, frail 
boats, sometimes not over 18 inches wide, they do not hesitate 
to go out into open water and to attack large animals, such as the 
seal or walrus. The more expert can perform remarkable feats, 
the most astonishing of which is for the kayaker to turn com- 
pletely over, boat and all, and right himself again without get- 
ting out of the kayak, and without getting a drop of water into 
it. He wears a waterproof shirt tied closely about the small 


106 A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


opening in the deck in which he sits, and rights himself with a 
dexterous use of his double-bladed paddle. In addition to the 
rifle, which is now generally used, his main weapon is a harpoon 
having a detachable point which remains in the seal after it is 
struck, Attached to this point by a long line is an air-bag, which — 
floats on the surface, and enables the kayaker to follow the seal 
in its struggles. In winter the northern Greenlander depends 
on his dogs and sled for transportation. The Eskimo dogs are 
his only domestic animals, and every village is filled with them. 
On smooth ice great distances can be traversed in a single day, 
speeds of 16 miles an hour being attained. In Umanak fiord the 
sledging lasts more than half the year, the season in 1896 not 
ending until July. 

The Eskimos are a childlike, gentle race. They are honest 
and remarkably free from brawls and disputes. Jails and con- 
stables are entirely lacking in Danish Greenland. The very 
simple local affairs are regulated by district councils, composed 
of the leading natives and the Danish officials. who meet twice a 
year. The language is most peculiar and difficult for a stranger 
to master. It is composed almost entirely of nouns and verbs, 
and by suffixes and affixes to these the other parts of speech are 
formed. It is possible to express the meaning of a long English 
sentence in a single word, but some of these are forty letters in 
length. The investigations of Rink have shown that the more 
familiar words are common to all the Eskimo peoples, thus prov- 
ing their common origin. He estimates that there are about 
30,000 Eskimos, of whom one-third live in Danish Greenland, 
one-third in Alaska, and the remainder in northeastern Siberia, 
the northern portions of North America, and a few in Greenland 
beyond the Danish dominions. 

From Umanak several trips were made in small boats to the 
great glaciers at the head of the fiord. The largest of thesé is the 
Karajak. The face of this glacier, from which the bergs break 
off into salt water, has a width of about four miles, a height 
above the water of over 250 feet, and in the center moves with a 
velocity of from 20 to 35 feet per day. A single iceberg breaking 
off from this glacier has been estimated to contain 24 million 
cubic vards of ice. At the price usually paid for ice for domestic 
purposes in the United States, the ice in such a berg as this 
would be worth over $100,000,000. At another glacier, the Itivd- 
harsuk, we saw a great mass, 300 feet long, break from the face ; 
the crashing and thundering noise that resulted, the surging of 


A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 107 


the berg until it found its equilibrium in the water, and the 
dashing of the waves on the beach, with spray in places 100 feet 
high or more, made an impressive scene. In the narrower fiords 
the calving of a large berg will sometimes cause a tidal swell that 
will raise the water 20 feet. The surface of a glacier near its 
front is usually a mass of jagged pinnacles with deep crevasses 
between. Looking up the slope of the great ice-river the surface 
becomes smoother, and finally back on the distant horizon one 
sees the apparently smooth white plain of the ice-cap. A climb 
to the summit of a 3,000-foot mountain near the Itivdliarsuk 
glacier gave us some idea of this great ice-cap and the glacial 


FACE OF ITIVDLIARSUK GLACIER 


work along its edge. As far as the eye could reach to the north, 
south, and east extended this smooth, white field of ice sloping 
up from the seacoast and with an horizon line as level as that 
of the ocean. At regular intervals along its edge could be seen 
the crevassing at the heads of the glaciers, which were themselves 
cut off from view by the intervening mountains. At our feet 
the course of the ice-river was spread out before us, winding 
through the mountain valleys and around the nunataks or peaks 
projecting through the ice, from each of which it drew out a long 
moraine of rock debris. The interior ice-sheet covers the whole 
of Greenland with the exception of a narrow fringe along the 
coast. It rises to elevations of from 8,000 to 10,000 feet in the 


108 A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


center, and the enormous pressure of the accumulating snow 
presses out the giaciers through every opening in the bordering 
mountains. That this ice-sheet was once more extensive than 
. it is now is proved by the rounded outlines and glacial scratches 
found on nearly all the coast mountains. On the other hand, 
the climate of Greenland must at one time have been very much 
warmer. In the vicinity of Umanak fiord coal deposits are,found 
and fossils of such semi-tropical trees as the fig and magnolia. 
Notwithstanding the nearness of the ice-cap, the present climate 
of Greenland is much milder than that of the opposite side of 
Davis strait. In the fiords the summer climate is moderate and 


THE ‘‘HOPE”’’ IN THE ICE OFF CAPE MERCY 


pleasant; we found light winter clothing comfortable, but noth- 
ing more was needed. Wherever there is soil, there is an abun- 
dance of wild flowers and grasses, but we found no trees. A 
curious meteorological fact is that the Féhn wind, which blows 
directly off the ice-cap, always brings the warmest weather; the 
usual explanation being that this heating of the wind is due to 
its sudden descent from the elevated interior to the low coast. 
The Hope called for us at Umanak on September 9, and our 
homeward voyage followed much the same course as our out- 
ward one. The only severe storm we encountered was in cross- 
ing Davis strait. Off Cape Mercy the Hope was caught in an 


A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


1090 


ice-pack, in which she was held for three days. With a change 
of wind the ice loosened and the ship was slowly extricated, 
reaching open water in Cumberland sound. Two days were 
spent in the vicinity of Blacklead island. Thisis a Seoteh whal- 
ing station, and the settlement consists of three or four Europeans 
and a large number of Eskimos. The system obtaining here is 
a sort of feudal one, without government control. The natives 
work for the management, in return for which they receive 
Kuropean supplies, no money being used. From this point two 
passengers were brought back to America, one an English mis- 
sionary, who had been working among the Eskimos, and the 
other a Dane, who had charge of an American whaling station 
farther south. The latter brought with him the whalebone taken 
from a single whale, the whalebone weighing something over a 
ton and being valued at more than $10,000. Both of these men, 
who had spent years in this bleak, cold country, expressed re- 
gret at leaving it and the hope of soon returning. 

The voyage from Cumberland sound was without incident, 
save some beautiful auroral displays at night, and we landed at 


CUMBERLAND SOUND ESKIMOS 


110 A SUMMER VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC 


Sydney on September 26, all the 48 persons constituting the 
passengers and crew returning well and without accident. 

Some investigations in two lines of terrestrial physics were 
carried out by the writer in connection with the work of Pro- 
fessor Burton’s party. At each of the stopping places where 
time permitted, magnetic observations were made, determining 
the deviation of the compass needle from true north, the dip of 
the dipping needle, and the force of the earth’s magnetism. Two 
of the stations were near enough to the magnetic North Pole of 
the earth to cause the dipping needle to stand within six degrees 
of the vertical. The Greenland stations were so well to the east 
of the magnetic pole that the compass needle pointed more 
nearly west than north. The horizontal magnetic force in these 
regions is very weak on account of the great dip, so that mag- 
netic disturbances caused considerable changes in the needle, a 
change of over four degrees being noted in a single day at one 
point. For the same reason the ship’s compasses were irregular. 
A comparison of these results with earlier magnetic observations 
made in these regions clearly indicates the direction of change 
at present going on. At all the stations from Halifax, Nova 
Scotia. to Umanak, Greenland, the westerly declination, the dip, 
and the total magnetic force are all diminishing. At several 
points also pendulum observations for the measurement of the 
force of gravity were made. This force increases from the equator 
to the poles, and, following the theorem of the French mathema- 
tician, Clairaut, the amount of flattening at the poles of the earth 
may be computed by comparing the force of gravity at different 
latitudes. By a well-known law, the time of oscillation of a 
pendulum will be proportional to the square root of the force of 
gravity ; so that by comparing the time of oscillation of the same 
pendulum at different places the relation of the force of gravity 
may be obtained. Comparatively few such observations have 
been made in high latitudes, where they have great weight in 
the problem of the figure of the earth. 


[The illustrations accompanying the foregoing article are from photographs by Pro- 
fessor A. E. Burton and other members of the party.] 


AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 


By Dr Mark W. Harrinarton, 


President of the University of the State of Washington 


Lake Superior is the largest and one of the deepest, not only 
of the Great Lakes of the St Lawrence basin, but of all the 
bodies of fresh water on the earth, and it possesses some other 
remarkable characteristics of its own; yet, though it has been 
so long known that it was roughly mapped 250 years ago under 
its present name, and charted several times with fair accuracy 
in details for the time before the end of the 17th century, and 
though it was charted with minute accuracy by the United 
States engineers 50 years ago, there has even yet been but little 
discussion of its more interesting and peculiar features. This is 
all the more remarkable because its extraordinary wealth in 
minerals and fish has been recognized from the beginning and 
has for half a century formed an important item of our national 
wealth and commerce, and more recent developments ‘have 
shown agricultural possibilities which are by no means con- 
temptible. It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to 
some of the peculiar and noteworthy features of the lake, more 
especially those which relate to its climate and weather and 
have a bearing on its commerce and agriculture. 

The statistics of Lake Superior, as to coast line and area, vary 
so much in geographic publications that | have had new meas- 
urements made with a planimeter by Mr R. F. De Grain, of the 
Weather Bureau, the coast line being carefully meandered. The 
following are the results: 


Coast Line 


MPATHONICAIMAICG.. ete cic swe ae we vale Rema ee iit 
MUA PTR ANSLTTESICLO 5 «aM gd .dbiaicles os 9 ate a cine cn gla ha vis re ee PR 
PROPAICCOMSHAAINGs ib... ccs secre se a Se RS, Se 1,872 miles, 


112 AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 
Areas of Lake Superior 
Total, including ali bays and islands............... 32,166 square miles. 


Deduct islands: 


LES ud Oni RE Geel ega bole cca eusirne 223 square miles. 

Si lonacennra sis ana ek etme 112 te 

MuGhipleOteIy Sate tas) yee nese 3 us 

SHUM OSM Aner wetoeehooegdasagee 36 fe 

GRAM brah s a ack ee rapes ate Ola ere 26 ef 

PTS Sie ape moo tata ake aoe te ewes Ae 22 oe 

STAG ide eis raler sie tele erty sal enoeatarayeaees 14 i 

Clepoycevea pajoe Souap esa sdoe sac ae ne 

Apostle islands.s:.2i52 262. <l.. 82 SY 
No bela cesie acetate iste gate eae ae tie Orbs Shayials tee Sates * 660 square miles. 
“Noell MNS SWUNEC waka baocndenesbucacsouce 31,506 square miles. 


It is customary on the lake to look on cer- 
tain nearly inclosed bays as distinct from the 
lake. Deducting these: 


Wilhitesshe paiva sete es eye aneiaters 353 square miles. 

ISyensorn WAN geucchoSocsaabcHoon: 310 i 

IBIBO eI LOe WM Ree hel Un ott Me nips PIS ee 

“Ronee lO een Hon deine Donne 165 ue 
fhotaluamead @ islayswe eerie ss a4 aaa eeen ees 1,041 square miles. 
Resulting open-lake water surface........... 30,465 square miles. 


Of the 32,166 square miles of the total surface of the lake, there 
are on the American side 23,359 square miles and on the Cana- 
dian side 8,807 square miles. 

The boundary line across the lake between the Dominion and 
the United States is 289 miles long. 

With a surface area of 32,166 square miles, Lake Superior is 
the largest lake in the world. Next comes probably Victoria 
Nyanza or Ukerewe, in equatorial Africa, with an estimated 
area of 25,000 to 30,000 square miles. Lake Superior is a half 
larger than Lake Michigan (22,000 square miles) or Lake Huron 
(24,000 square miles) and nearly twice as large as Lake Erie 
(10,000 square miles) and Lake Ontario (7,000 square miles) 
combined. The combined area of the Great Lakes of the St 
Lawrence as given by Schermerhornt is 95,275 square miles, 
and a third of this is formed by Lake Superior. 


* Including 50 square miles for smailer islands not enumerated. 
+L. Y. Schermerhorn: Am. Jour. of Science, 3d series, vol. xxxlil, 1887, p. 278. 


tae 


AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 113 


Of the islands the largest and most remarkable is the one to 
which the early Jesuit visitors gave the name of Isle Royale, or 
Regal island. As seen from the north shore, it appeared to the 
natives like a sleeping Manitou lying prone, but for some reason 
unknown they chose to consider it an evil spirit and called it 
Windigo. The natives never ventured on the island, and I was 
told in the summer of 1894 that they are still very loth to do so. 
Judging by the amount of money which has been expended on 
it within the last half century, with no adequate return, it has 
proved a “hoodoo ” island to the whites also. Copper indica- 
tions abound, and so, also, do the deserted shafts and drifts where 
somebody has tried following a vein or reaching it from one side. 
Probably a million and a half or two million dollars have been 
expended in mining on Isle Royal with inappreciable return. 
The chlorastrolites or greenstones of Isle Royal have probably 
given and may continue to give more income than the copper. 
The island consists of a series of ridges running parallel to its 
length, reaching at times a height of 400 or 500 feet above the 
lake, generally smoothed and rounded on top, terminating to the 
northeast in the most interesting illustration of fiord structures 
to be found on the continent. Finger-shaped alternations of 
slender bays and equally slender peninsulas, the latter extend- 
ing or breaking up into parallel lines of islands, afford a complex 
of land and water, the former steep and rocky, but generally coy- 
ered with a dense growth of dark green spruce and fir trees, the 
latter very deep, very blue, and very clear, the whole very pictur- 
esque in bright weather, but extremely confusing when the 
weather is smoky or foggy. The population of the island is gen- 
erally small and never permanent. It belongs to Michigan and 
brings the western point of this state only 12 miles from the 
eastern point of Minnesota. It was at one time a county by 
itself, but there were not enough permanent residents to fill the 
offices, and it was attached to Houghton county of the mainland. 
It has no post-office. There is abundant water, the soil is excel- 
lent, though small in quantity, and the usual vegetables and 
cereals can be raised. The native animals on the island included 
nothing larger than the lynx or wild-cat until a few years ago, 
when a small drove of caribou came over on the ice from the 
north shore. The passage between Isle Royal and the north 
shore, though only 12 to 18 miles broad, has so deep water and 
so strong currents that it does not long remain frozen, and the 
caribou still remain on the island, where, not being hunted, they 
8 


114. AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 


had become in 1894 a drove of a score or more and were quite 
tame. They are said to be sometimes found standing and look- 
ing with longing eyes toward the north shore, as if anxious to 
return to their fellows, with the expanse of the continent before 
them. The very deep soundings which can be made on all sides 
of Isle Royal and almost off its banks and the form and surface 
of the island show that it is an isolated and nearly submerged 
mountain ridge, rising from 1,000 to 1,500 feet from the bottom 
of the lake. It is the only island of this sort in the Great Lakes, 
and for its parallel we must look to the isolated and volcanic 
islands of the great oceans. 

The island next in size is St Ignace, or, with Anglo-Saxon love 
of brevity, simply Ignace. It is one of the series of islands which 
close the three great bays (Thunder, Black, and Nipigon) of the 
extreme north of the lake, and with the projecting ends of the 
two peninsulas between these bays they form a remarkable series 
of escarpments extending from Pigeon river on the west nearly 
to Slate islands on the east, all belonging to Ontario. Beginning 
at the west, the first great island, and the “stopper” to Thunder 
bay, is Pie island, so named from its resemblance to a British 
pie—a structure which has a much greater altitude than its 
American namesake. This island has an area of 22 square miles, 
and consists of two tabled hills or mountains separated by a large 
space so low as to make the tables appear to be separate islands. 
The western or smaller table is 850 feet above sea-level. Its es- 
carpments are very abrupt on all sides, and the top is nearly 
inaccessible. On it, however, is a large pond or small lake with- 
out outlet, but stocked with brook-trout. The other table, the 
“nie” proper, is much larger, but only 700 feet high and rela- 
tively accessible. Next, going eastward, is Thunder cape, the 
extreme point of the peninsula between Thunder bay and Black 
bay, precipitous and rising directly from the lake to an elevation 
of 1,250 feet from itssurface. Itis the highest point immediately 
on Lake Superior, and is of tabular form. The precipitous sides 
are carved into curious forms, especially on the west side, and 
are bare of trees. The assumed daily thunder about this point 
in summer is the alleged origin of the name of the cape as well 
as of the bay over which it stands sentinel. The “stopper” for 
Black bay is Edward island (6 square miles), and Nipigon bay 
is closed by St Ignace, Simpson (or Sampson), and Copper islands 
in their order from west to east. These islands are very similar 
in general characteristics, and a description of St Ignace will 


AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 115 


4 


apply to all. It is of a general quadrangular form and is sepa- 
rated from the peninsula to the west and Simpson to the east by 
narrow rivers or fiord-like straits only a mile or so broad, though 
many miles long, and several to many fathoms deep. Like the 
preceding, it is of basaltic character, but the tabular formation 
so abundantly represented about Thunder bay is here modified 
by lower altitudes and by rounded hills, which replace the flat 
surface. On St Ignace island the highest hill attains an eleva- 
tion of about 850 feet. 

In Lake Superior there is but one archipelago proper—that is, 
a cluster of islands in which no one greatly surpasses all the 
others. This is the archipelago of the Apostle islands, or, more 
briefly, “The Apostles,” so called by the early Jesuit Fathers, 
because there were twelve principal islands. The individual 
islands, however, have received anything but apostolic names, 
being, in order of size, Madeline (23 square miles), Stockton 
(16 square miles), Outer (12), Oak (8), Sand (4), Bear, Bass- 
wood, and Michigan (each 3 square miles), Rocky, Otter, Mani- 
tou, and Cat (each 2 square miles). Then comes the thirteenth 
apostle, or Devil’s island; then the south and north Twins. The 
total area-of the archipelago is eighty-two square miles. The 
larger of these islands are somewhat hilly and are covered with 
spruce trees of some size. The smaller are sandy and level. 
They were settled early in the history of the colonization of the 
lake, but the population has since dwindled until it is almost 
nil. ‘There is no post-office on the islands. 
. The drainage basin of Lake Superior is relatively small. Its 
outlines have not been so definitely mapped that it can be meas- 
ured with the same accuracy as that of the lake surface, but the 
total area may be put at 82,800 square miles.* Of this the area 
of the lake itself makes 39 per cent, and of the land 39 per cent 
is Canadian and 22 per cent American. The margin of the 
watershed is low in all directions, and it is in general ill-defined. 
Along it, throughout almost its entire length, are found innu- 
merable small bodies of water, isolated and without drainage, 
except at seasons of high water, showing that this watershed is 
indefinite. The lowest points of the watershed are on the south- 
east, near the St Marys river, where it reaches but a few score 
feet above the lake. It gradually rises toward the west, and at 
a point about fifty miles southeast of Marquette first reaches an 
altitude of 400 feet above the lake surface. South of Keweenaw 


* Schermerhorn, |. ¢. 


116 AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 


point it reaches 900 or 1,000 feet and continues at this elevation 
to the mountains of northeast Minnesota with so slight fall in 
either direction that it forms a distinct area of independent lakes, 
generally small in size, but extremely numerous, both in north- 
ern Wisconsin and northern Minnesota. The separation of the 
waters of the St Louis and the Mississippi where they come 
closest together is but a few feet. The highest known point of 
the watershed is in the Mesabi mountains in northeastern Min- 
nesota, where it reaches 1,500 feet above the lake, and isolated 
points are higher. To the north of the lake the watershed is 
more distant from the lake and not so well known. The topo- 
graphic features on the south side are low-rolling and well 
rounded. On the northwest they are sharper, but still preserve 
the ordinary mountain form, though sharply serrated. This is 
especially true of the regular indentations of the “Sawtooth 
mountains,” which follow the northwest shore of the lake and 
in some places form the watershed. As soon as the Canadian 
border is passed in the west, the escarpment structure becomes 
marked—that is, an elevated plateau, relatively flat. Through 
this the streams have cut down 500 or even 1,000 feet, forming 
a broad, level valley or narrow ravine, but leaving generally 
nearly vertical walls. This structure is very characteristic of 
the Thunder bay region and extends eastward to the Nipigon 
valley, but farther eastward it appears to run out, until to the 
east of Lake Superior the basin is similar in topography and 
vegetation to that about the river St Mary. The drainage area 
on the south shore is narrow, often not more than 20 miles wide, 
and seldom more than twice that. The tributaries to the lake 
are here very numerous but small. There are about fourscore 
that are 20 miles or more long, but few of them exceed 50 
miles. They usually descend rapidly from their source to the 
lake. In some cases, as in that of the streams at the Pictured 
Rocks, they have a considerable fall at or near the shore, and 
the streams that enter at the same level as the lake are usually 
barred by the combined action of their sediment and the waves. 
The longest stream on the south shore is the Ontonagon, which 
enters at Ontonagon, and hasa length of 100 miles, with a basin 
of 250 square miles. 

At the extreme western angle of the lake enters the St Louis 
river, considered the mother-stream of the lake and the source 
of the St Lawrence. It is 200 miles long and has a basin con- 
taining 4,370 square miles. The basin adjoins the remarkable 


AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR \17 


lacustrine region of Rainy lake, from which it is separated 
toward the east by the Iron or Mesabi range. Elsewhere its 
separation from this region, and in the west and south from the 
basin of the upper Mississippi, is low and ill-defined, character- 
ized by the presence of lakes, ponds, and swamps. Its source is 
in Otter lake, 30 miles from the northwest shore of Lake Supe- 
rior and 1,650 feet above sea-level, or 1,050 feet above the lake 
aurface. It flows southwest until about 25 miles from the Missis- 
sippi river, when it turns sharply southeast, soon descends nearly 
all its 1,050 feet of fall, and enters Lake Superior through a long 
estuary. Its minimum flow, of water is nil, for it is sometimes 
frozen solid. Its average contribution to the lake is estimated 
by Greenleaf* at 1,242 cubic feet per second, but it is probably 
considerably larger. The rapids are at the Dalles, below the 
mouth of its tributary, the Cloquet, and but a few miles above 
Duluth. The presence of a considerable stream with a large 
fall within a short distance of two such prosperous towns as 
Superior and Duluth, has suggested to enterprisng engineers the 
scheme of damming the St Louis above the Dalles and bringing 


_ its waters to these cities under a head of 650 feet, as an enormous 


source of cheap power. Ex-Representative M. R. Baldwin, of that 
Congressional district, makes the following report on this plan: 


“This company has discovered that by putting a dam just above Cloquet 
it can make a reservoir which will not only be the largest in the world, 
but will lie entirely within the bluffs of the natural streams ; that from 
the level to which the river will be raised by the proposed dam the water 
can be taken in a straight line through a canal or pipe, only twelve miles 
long, to the bluffs back of Duluth, at an elevation of 650 feet above Lake 
Superior, and that by the storage in this great reservoir of the flood 
waters, which now go to waste, a supply of water will be available for 
use under that head, which will create the greatest water-power in the 
world.” 


One curious difficulty is found in the fact that if the dam is 
made too high the reservoir will empty into the Mississippi river 
and thus contribute to the water-power of Minneapolis instead 
of to that of Duluth. 

Reference has been made to the estuary at the mouth of the 
St Louis. This has so many features of interest that it deserves a 
fuller treatment than space will here permit. Suffice it to say, that 
Lake Superior has been robbed of the extremity of her horn by 
the combined action of the water of the river and the waves of the 


* Report on the Water-Power of the Northwest; Census of 1880, vol. xvii, p. 73. 


118 AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 


lake. Formerly the lake extended up to Fond du Lac, so named 
because the fact of the termination of the lake here was recognized 
when the settlement was first established. From here to Duluth 
is eight miles and to Superior City seven miles. From Duluth 
to Superior is five miles. The triangle thus inclosed by sides of 
seven, eight, and five miles is the area of which the lake has been 
robbed. All this has been done within times geologically recent, 
but before settlements were made, and the later stages of the 
operation are still in progress. 

Lake Superior has not submitted tamely to this highway rob- 
bery. She has resisted it continually, and at several points the 
topography shows that her resistance was successful in staying 
for a time the progress of the encroachment. The operation is 
this: Along the line where the motion of the current is stayed 
by the contact with the lake water a sandbar is formed and the 
waves soon develop this into a bar rising above the surface, 
stretching in an easy curve from one side of the bay to the other, 
thus making an inner bay separate from the lake. The sediment 
of the river then proceeds to fill up this bay until it is dry land, 
with possibly a little lake or two left behind. When this is com- 
pleted the current is again directed into the lake, another sand- 
bar is formed, the whole process is repeated, and the river has 
encroached another step. Three such steps are easily recognized 
by the topography, and the fourth is made probable. The fourth 
is the earliest, and the remnant is found in Spirit lake. The 
next in order of time is represented by Grassy point, the next 
by Rices point, and the latest by Minnesota point. 

It will be interesting to go into detail for the last, now in 
progress of development. The bar in this case is called Min- 
nesota point; it is about five miles long, is from 200 to 1,200 
feet wide, and sweeps in a free curve from the Minnesota to the 
Wisconsin shore. It is interrupted for the passage of the river 
close to the Wisconsin shore. Its average height is 12 to 15 feet, 
but toward the Wisconsin side the wind has built up a pyramid 
of from 20 to 25 feet above the surface of the water. It is made 
of sand and gravel, is covered with smal] trees and brush, and 
is a favorite picnic ground for the citizens of Duluth. Behind 
it is Superior bay, about five miles long and one mile wide, and 
this is the bay which the river is now filling up. To keep it avail- 
able for commerce requires the constant efforts of the engineers. 

In order to make accessible to commerce the several interior 
bays of Duluth, a canal 300 feet wide was cut through Minne- 


AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 119 


sota point at the Duluth end. The port of Superior is entered 
by the natural outlet—the passage maintained by the river. 
When the canal was cut by Duluth, in order that this city might 
not obtain too great an advantage over its rival, Superior had a 
dyke erected across Superior bay, on the Duluth side of the 
mouth of the river. It was expected that the river would not 
waste its energies on the interests of Duluth, but proceed to 
scour out the channel for Superior. With that freakiness so 
characteristic of rivers (perhaps the occasion of our personifying 
them as “she”), the stream did what was unexpected and pro- 
ceeded to fill up the Superior channel. Shortly thereafter the 
dyke disappeared on a dark night by the aid of explosives. 

The northwest shore, from the St Louis to Thunder bay, is 
very abrupt and rocky, backed for about half its length by the 
“Sawtooth ” or “ Devil’s Tracks” mountains. Along this coast, 
a distance of 200 miles, there are only a dozen streams that de- 
serve any better name than creek. These drain a strip along 
the coast only a few miles wide, while behind them comes the 
basin of the St Louis or that of the Rainy lake district. These 
streams are all so small that the heavy surf of the coast.succeeds 
in damming their mouths with lofty beaches through which the 
water seeps. Into Thunder bay enters the beautiful Kaminis- 
tiquia, 150 miles long, with a basin of 750 square miles. It is a 
picturesque stream, well known to the French voyageurs, for 
whom it was the usual route from Lake Superior to Winnipeg in 
the good old times of the undisputed sway of the fur companies. 
In its lower course about Fort William, its deep brown waters 
flow lazily through a broad, flat, low delta which is still grow- 
ing and which is bounded by distant escarpments of flat-topped 
mountains. Higher up it has numerous rapids, and few streams 
along which it was the fate of the hardy voyageur to labor are 
marked by more numerous portages. The sources are in Lac 
des Isles and Muskeg lake, from the latter of which it passes as 
the unpretentious Dog river until Dog lake is reached. It is 
only below this lake that it receives the harmonious name of 
Kaministiquia, meaning “ that which goes far around.” 

At the head of Nipigon bay and at the extreme northernmost 
point of Lake Superior enters the Nipigon river, for which the 
claim is sometimes seriously made that it is the mother stream 
of the St Lawrence system. The claim is based on the fact that 
this stream is the outlet of Nipigon lake, just as the St Marys is 
of Lake Superior, and that the Great Lakes consist not of five or 


120 AREA AND DRAINAGE BASIN OF LAKE SUPERIOR 


of six (when St Clair is included), but of seven, and Nipigon is 
the seventh and most distant, Nipigon lake is about 40 miles 
north of Lake Superior and is 850 feet above sea-level. Nipigon 
river, about 50 miles long, has therefore a fall of 250 feet. It is 
a picturesque stream, full of rapids and full of fish. The bay, 
stream, and lake which bear the name of Nipigon (meaning 
“dirty water”) are said to furnish the best fishing in the Lake 
Superior basin. Lake Nipigon is oval in form, about 60 miles 
long, north and south, and 50 miles broad, with a surface area of 
2,900 square miles. Its coasts are very much indented, and it 
contains several hundred islands and islets. The greatest depth 
so far reported is 540 feet, which would bring its bottom below 
that of Lake Erie, and only 310 feet above sea-level. The 
erosion at the outlet is strong, and the fall is reported to be 
wearing away at the rate of 10 feet per century, in which case 
Lake Nipigon will at no very distant day dwindle to more mod- 
est proportions. The lake occupies a small drainage basin, the 
land area of which hardly surpasses the water area. Its princi- 
pal feeder is the Ombalika river, which rises in Summit lake, 40 
or 50 miles to the north of Lake Nipigon. This lake is said to 
lie on the “ Height of Land” or watershed between Hudson bay 
and the St Lawrence basin, and its waters are reputed to flow 
both ways, part into Nipigon and part, by way of the Albany 
river, into James bay. 

There are several other streams on the north shore which are 
100 miles or more long, namely, the Pic, the White, and the 
Magpie, while the Michipicoten does not fall far below this length. 
The last mentioned was well known to the voyageurs, as it was 
a part of the regular route from Lake Superior to James bay. 
At its mouth was the Michipicoten house, which, with Fort 
William, on Thunder bay, formed trading centers on the north 
shore a century or more ago, when the western states were an 
almost unbroken wilderness. Indeed, the north shore of Lake 
Superior echoed to the busy hum of a considerable commerce a 
century before the south shore began to attract attention. The 
history of these two old stations of the Hudson’s Bay Company 
goes back to a time so distant that Agassiz’s visit to Lake Superior 
in 1848 is relatively a recent event. 


THE SIBERIAN TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 


By GrenerRAL A. W. GREELY, 
Chief Signal Officer, United States Army 


Recent advices from the East point to the early completion of 
the great Siberian railroad, which will be the next strong link 
to bind indissolubly together the commercial interests of the 
world. It therefore seems an opportune moment to present to 
the readers of THe NatTionaL GroGRAPHIC MAGAZINE a résumé of 
the advices lately forwarded to the Department of State by our 
consular officials, Messrs Karel, Monaghan, and Stephan. 

The Russian budget for 1897 assigns 65,000,000 rubles to the 
continuation of the Trans-Siberian railway, and its opening will 
be an event scarcely less important than the completion of the 
Suez canal. Five thousand miles of steel rails have been laid 
already at a cost of 350,000,000 rubles, and in 1898 trains are 
to run to the Amur river. Passengers, post parcels, and freight 
will be pushed on by fast steamer to Chaborowka, and thence 
over the South Russian section of the Siberian road to Vladivos- 
tok, making the distance from London to the Japan sea in 17} 
days. After the first few years, when high rates of speed across 
Siberia are attainable, the trip will be made in nine days. 
Travelers toand from the East will prefer to make the journey 
in eleven days overland to making it, as now, over seas in thirty 
days. ‘Tickets from Warsaw to Vladivostok are to cost only 120 
rubles, first class; from London to Warsaw costs now 150 marks 
($35.70). The ticket from London to Vladivostok is to cost 
about 500 marks ($119), first class; second class is to cost con- 
siderably less. A ticket to Japan today via Brindisi and Suez 
costs 1,800 marks ($428). 

That the world is so soon to enjoy trans-Asiatic travel is due 
to the energetic and successful negotiations of Russian diplomats 
with the Chinese government. At the beginning of the work 
the Trans-Baikal and Amur section was planned to extend 
from Chita, through Sretensk, to Pokrovskaia; thence along the 
river Amur to Khabarovsk to join the Ussuri rm ailroad, running 
south to Vladivostok. The construction of this line involved 
such technical difficulties as would greatly increase the cost of 
: 121 


122 THE SIBERIAN TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 


the undertaking. On investigation it was found that building 
through Manchuria would not only cheapen and shorten the 
construction of the road, but would present other advantages. 
Negotiations were begun, and the Chinese government granted 
a concession. The Eastern Chinese Railway Company was 
formed to construct and operate the railway.. The articles of 
association were sanctioned by the Czar, and. an imperial ordi- 
nance was issued in December, 1896. 

The association organized under the convention of August 27, 
1896, by the Chinese government ,with the Russo-Chinese Govy- 
ernment Bank, is to construct and operate a railroad from the 
western frontier of the province of Heilung Chang to the eastern 
frontier of Kirin, which is to connect with the Trans-Siberian 
railway. The company may, with the permission of the Chinese 
government, engage in coal and other mining, industrial, and 
commercial enterprises in China. The Russo-Chinese Bank 
takes upon itself the duty of organizing this company, which 
acquires the rights and duties. granted by the above-mentioned 
convention. Shares can be held only by Russian and Chinese 
subjects, and the company will own the Chinese Eastern Rail- — 
way during eighty years after the opening of the whole line. 

The Russian government guarantees the resources of the com- 
pany to the extent of making obligatory the payment of shares. 
The company takes upon itself on the part of the Russian gov- 
ernment the following obligations: (1) The Chinese Eastern 
Railway must be always kept in full order to satisfy all the re- 
quirements in relation to safety, cohvenience, and movement of 
passengers and freights; (2) the traffic on the Chinese Eastern 
Railway to be kept up in conformity with the traffic on the con- 
necting Russian railroads; (8) all trains of the Russian Trans- 
Baikal and Ussurirailroads are to be met and forwarded without 
delay ; (4) the company must transmit, with speed not less than 
that used on the Siberian railway, all passenger and freight trains 
in direct communication ; (5) the company binds itself to con- 
struct along its road a telegraph line connecting with the tele- 
graph lines of the Russian railroads, and to promptly receive 
and send through dispatches to and from Russia and China; 
(6) if its technical arrangements shall not insure uninterrupted 
traffic of passengers and freights, then, as the Russian railways 
require, the Chinese Eastern Railway must take suitable meas- 
ures to improve its technical arrangements. In case of misun- 


ee et es i ee 


THE SIBERIAN TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 123 


derstandings the Chinese Eastern Railway agrees to submit to 
the decision of the Russian Minister of Finance. If the means 
of the Chinese Eastern Railway shall not be sufficient to carry 
out the necessary improvements, the road can apply for pecuni- 
ary assistance to the Russian Minister of Finance; (7) maxi- 
mum passenger, freight, and telegraph tariffs shall be established 
by agreement between the company and the Russian govern- 
ment, which cannot be raised during the whole period of the 
concession without the consent of the Russian government; (8) 
Russian mail packages and officials accompanying the same 
are to be carried free of charge. For this purpose the com- 
pany assigns to each passenger train a part of one car. The 
Russian post-office department may furnish post-cars constructed 
at its own expense, but the repairing, keeping, and switching 
of them must be done by the railway company free of charge. 
After the eighty years’ concession has expired the road will pass 
free to the Chinese government. A sale of the railway does not 
in any way change the obligations. 

The following rights are given by the Chinese government to 
the railroad company: (1) The passenger baggage and mer- 
chandise in transit from one Russian station to another are 
exempt from all Chinese customs duties, interior taxes, and reve- 
nues ; (2) the tariffs for passengers, freights, telegraphs, ete., are 
to be free from all Chinese dues and taxes; (3) merchandise 
imported and exported to and from China and Russia will pay 
one-third less than the regular export and import Chinese duty 


paid at Chinese sea custom-houses; (4) goods imported by rail 


for the interior shall pay transit duty to the amount of one-half 
of the import duty, and are free from additional duties. 

The company is at liberty to buy its construction materials 
wherever it sees fit, and materials not purchased in Russia will 
be free from Russian customs duties. The stock capital is fixed 
at 5,000,000 paper rubles ($2,570,000), and is divided into 1,000 
shares, issued at par. The Russian government does not guar- 
antee these shares. Bonds will be issued in proportion to require- 
ments, subject to the approval of the Russian Minister of Finance. 
The income and liquidation of these bonds will be guaranteed 
by the Russian government. 

The company is to begin work in August, 1897, and the line 
is to be completed in six years. The new line will begin at 
Onon, on the Trans-Baikal Railroad, cross the frontier near Staro- 


124 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Zurukhait, ran in Manchuria toward the towns of Cicikar (Tsit- 
sikar), Khu-lan-Chen, and Ning-tu, and connect with the Nikolsk 
station of the South Ussuri Railroad. The total length of the 
Manchuria railway will be 1,920 versts (1,273 miles), of which 
1,425 versts (945 miles) will be in Chinese territory. According 
to the original survey of the Siberian line, the course through 
Manchuria will shorten the Siberian railroad 514 versts (841 
miles). The Manchuria line traverses a country of better climate 
and more productive soil. The fruitful valley of the Sungari 
suppliés the Amur region with bread, and northern Manchuria 
possesses natural wealth, to some extent already worked. 

In a recent number of Jahrbiicher fiir Nationalékonamic und 
Stulistik there appeared an article by Dr Ballod ‘‘ Concerning the 
importance of the husbandry of Siberia.” He arrives at the con- 
clusion that the Siberian railway will at first only open up the 
country for the export of the more valuable classes of goods and 
facilitate wholesale immigration. It will be of enormous impor- 
tance as a transit route for goods of high value from China and 
Japan, and also for passenger traffic from and to these countries, 
but it will be serviceable to the development of grain export only 
in a very limited degree. Careful estimates of production and 
freights convince him that an increased output of grain cannot 
be expected so long as low prices rule. It would be necessary 
for the Siberian peasant to export at a lower price than has hith- 
erto been paid for his grain in the home markets. Should prices 
rise materially, profitable cultivation of wheat in middle Siberia 
would become a possibility, and this would probably bring about 
an important increase in exports. 


GEOGRAPHIC: LITERATURE 


Glaciers of North America: A Reading Lesson for Students of Geography 
and Geology. By Israel C. Russell, Professor of Geology in the 
University of Michigan. Pp. x + 210, with maps and illustrations. 
Boston: Ginn & Company. 1897. $1.90. 


Professor Russell’s prefatory ‘‘To the Reader” is a stalwart message. 
“Strange as it may appear,” he says, ‘‘in the face of the overshadowing 
popular interest that centers in the glaciers of the Alps, North America 
offers more favorable conditions for the study of existing glaciers and of 
the records of ancient ice sheets than any other continent,’’ for in North 
America the three great types of glacier—alpine, piedmont, and conti- 
nental—are magnificently exemplified, while the glaciers of other con- 
tinents (save little-known Antarctica) are limited to the poor little alpine 


a 
; 
, 
: 
; 
j 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 125 


type. The type specimen of the piedmont glacier is the Malaspina ice 
sheet of Alaska, while the type for the vast continental glaciers of the 
ice age is found in Greenland. ‘‘ The magnificence of the field for glacial 
study in North America has only been appreciated within recent years, 
and is still unrecognized outside of a limited circle of special students,” 
but the recognition must extend under this forcible presentation. 

A student of the European Alps and the Southern Alps of New Zealand, 
both famed for glaciers; the explorer of several glaciers of the high Sierra ; 
the discoverer of Malaspina glacier and the sole student of the ice-fields 
high on the slopes of Mount St Elias; an experienced investigator of the 
glacial deposits and glacial history of United States from Atlantic to Pa- 
cific, Professor Russell is well qualified to prepare a reading lesson on 
glaciers, and his experience crops out between the lines on every page. 
Perhaps half of his admirable pictures are from photographs of his own 
making, and although the pronoun in the first person seldom appears, a 
third or a half of the descriptive paragraphs—and these make up most of 


_ the book—represent personal work. Thus the chapters have an attractive 


air of freshness and realness. This strong personal element, which gives 
the treatise its greatest value, has apparently affected the arrangement of 
contents, giving the work the form of a narrative rather than the sym- 
metry of amonograph. The first chapter is an introduction, in which 
definitions and general features are set forth. After enumerating the 
“leading characteristics of glaciers,’ the author proceeds thus to answer 
the question, ‘‘ What is a glacier?” ‘‘Asa provisional definition, it may 
be said that a glacier is an ice body originating from the consolidation of 
snow in regions where secular accumulation exceeds melting and eyapo- 
ration, i. e., above the snow line, and flowing to regions where waste 
exceeds supply, i. e., below the snow line” (page 16). He then describes 
glacial abrasion, smoothed and striated surfaces not produced by glaciers, 
special features of glaciated surfaces, glacial deposits, glacial sediments, 
and changes in topography produced by glaciers, all with less repetition 
in treatment than in titles. The second chapter relates to the general 
distribution of the glaciers of North America, and then follow five chap- 
ters devoted respectively to the glaciers of the Sierra Nevada, the glaciers 

of northern California and the Cascade mountains, the glaciers of Canada, 
the glaciers of Alaska, and the glaciers in the Greenland region, these 
chapters containing more than half the volume and most of the value of 
the book. There is a chapter on the climatic changes indicated by the 
glaciers of the Ice Age and another on the movement of glaciers, while 
the tenth and last chapter is a suggestive and attractive discussion of the 
life history of a glacier, in which the extended observations and reflec- 
tions of the author are summarized. 

The strong points of the work are its vividness and trustworthiness ; 
the arrangement might have been improved, a few trifling errors in the 
orthography of names might have been corrected, and the general scien- 
tific discussion might have been strengthened, but teachers and others 
are to be congratulated on having at last—and for the first—a thoroughly 


reliable popular account of the glaciers of North America. — 


126 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


A Treatise on Rocks, Rock- Weathering, and Soils. By George P. Merrill, 
Curator of Geology in the National Museum, ete. Pp. xx + 411, 
with numerous illustrations. New York: The Macmillan Company. 
1897. $4.00, net. 


During the present generation a score of students in this and other 
countries have turned attention to the soil; and, while it may be ques- 
tioned whether they have yet succeeded in organizing a science of the 
soil, it may be affirmed that they have made substantial contributions 
toward such a science. Hitherto most of the publications pertaining to 
the subject have been technical or at least special, and confined to official 
documents ; but now comes Professor Merrill, already favorably known 
through professorial work and general writing, with a popular work on 
soils adapted to both class work and general reading. His apology for 
the publication—“‘ It is believed that no apology is necessary even in this 
day of many books for bringing out the present work’’—emphasizes the 
importance of the subject: Human life and the ancillary animal and vege- 
tal life of the land depends on the soil; the fullness of the earth is its 
wealth in soil; and the worthiest science—albeit in very infancy yet—is 
that pertaining to this richest of all natural resources. Every student, 
every teacher, every citizen, every statesman, ought to welcome such a 
contribution to human progress as this useful treatise. 

The work is arranged in five parts, each divided into several chapter- 
lets. In the first part rocks are discussed as to their constituents, their 
physical and chemical properties, and their modes of occurrence, and in 
the second they are classified as (1) igneous, (2) aqueous, (3) zeolian, and 
(4) metamorphic; thus this part of the work deals with rock-making, 
and sets forth the laws involved in the development of the fundamental 
constituents of the external earth. The next two parts are devoted, re- 
spectively, to the weathering of rocks and to the transportation and 
redeposition of rock debris, and in them the unmaking and remaking of 
rocks are admirably though briefly expounded. Part V, in which the 
originality of the work is concentrated, is entitled ‘‘The Regolith;”’ 
under this new term (derived from Greek words for blanket and stone) the 
unconsolidated material mantling the hard rocks is discussed in detail. 
The warrant for introducing a new word for the soils, subsoils, and other 
superficial materials of the earth arises in daily need ; several terms have 
already been employed—‘‘ soil,’’ ‘‘ earth,’’ etc., in general, ‘ drift,” ‘‘ dilu- 
vium,’’ “‘alluvium,” etc., for transported material, and ‘‘ residua,’’ ‘‘ terra 
rossa,’’ ‘‘gruss,” ‘‘geest,” ‘‘saprodite,” etc., for the products of rock de- 
cay —among laymen and scholars, but none has thus far proved satisfac- 
tory. Merrill’s suggestion is better than any that has gone before, but it 
remains to be seen whether his term will survive or fall into the ever- 
yawning grave of desuetude. The author proceeds to classify the regolith 
as (1) sedentary and (2) transported; the former is subclassed as (a) re- 
sidual deposits and (b) cumulose deposits, while the latter is divided into 
(a) colluvial deposits, (6) alluvial deposits, (¢) seolian deposits, and (d) 
glacial deposits. In addition, the soil proper is described, as a product 
rather than a deposit, with respect to chemical composition, mineral con- 
stitution, and physical condition, as well as with respect to weight, color, 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 127 


and age. The great complexity of the soil is adequately recognized, and 
the multifarious interactions between the chemical, physical, and vital, 
by which the soil is produced and modified, are set forth appreciatively. 

In treatment as in subject, Professor Merrill’s work is notable. It is 
strictly up-to-date, embracing the results of the latest researches, and duly 
recognizing the work of contemporary investigators; also it is made ad- 
mirable mechanically by clear typography, good paper, excellent illustra- 
tions (many of them photomechanical reproductions), and a full index. 

ica ese 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The Geographical Journal for March opens with the minutes of the 
Nansen meeting in London. Messrs Munro and Anthony continue the 
narrative of their explorations in Mysia. Dr Dawson summarizes the 
progress of the geographical work of the Geological Survey of Canada 
for the past year. Mr Vaughan Cornish furnishes an exhaustive article 
on the Formation of Sand-dunes, and Professor Leo Reinisch an article on 
Egypt and Abyssinia. 

The Scottish Geographical Magazine for March opens with an article en- 
titled ‘‘ Cape Juby,”’ by Mr Fred S. Zaytoun, which contains a quite full 
description of the northwestern part of the Sahara. Mr John Murray has 
an article on the Balfour Shoal, a submarine formation in the Coral sea, 
in the southwestern Pacific. This is accompanied by a chart and profile 
showing temperatures of the sea water. The Nansen expedition receives 
further notice in the form of a review of Dr Nansen’s book. 

The Royal Colonial Institute, of London, is an organization for the in- 
crease and diffusion of knowledge relating to Great Britain and her 
dependencies. Its purpose, as stated in its by-laws, is ‘‘to provide a 
place of meeting for all gentlemen connected with the Colonies and 
British India, and others taking an interest in Colonial and Indian affairs; 
to establish a reading-room and library, in which recent and authentic 
intelligence upon Colonial and Indian subjects may be constantly avail- 
able, and a museum for the collection and exhibition of Colonial and 
Indian productions; to facilitate interchange of experiences among per- 
sons representing all the dependencies of Great Britain; to afford oppor- 
tunity for the reading of papers and for holding discussions upon Colonial 
and Indian subjects generally, and to undertake scientific, literary, and 
statistical investigations in connection with the British empire.” 

The Institute publishes a journal, which has already reached its twenty- 
eighth volume, the first four numbers of which have been issued. The 
character of its work may perhaps be illustrated by an enumeration of 
the principal papers contained in these recent numbers of the journal. 
Part I contains ‘“‘Inter-British Trade,” by Mr John Lowles, and ‘‘ The 
Colony of Victoria; Some of its Industries,’’ by E. Gerome Dyer. Part 
II contains an article by Sir Henry H. Johnston, entitled *‘ England’s 
Work in Central Africa,’’ in which the recent progress of civilization in 
Great Britain’s share of that continent is admirably summarized. Mr 


128 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


E. Burney Young has an article entitled ‘‘ The Colonial Producer.” Part 
III contains an article by Sir Sidney Shippard on the Administration of 
Justice in South Africa, and one entitled ‘‘ Cyprus and Its Possibilities,” 
by Charles Christian. Part IV pictures the economic condition of Aus- 
tralia at the present time, under the title ‘‘ Studies in Australia in 1896,” 
by Hon. T. A. Brassey. © HG, 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY, SESSION 1896-97 


Special Meeting, March 15, 1897.—Third Monday afternoon illustrated 
lecture. Vice-President Greely in the chair. Rev. Thomas J. Shahan, 
LL. D., Professor in the Catholic University of America, lectured on 
Syria. 

Regular Meeting, March 19, 1897.—Vice-President Merriam in the chair. 
Mr Arthur P. Davis, of the U. S. Geological Survey, read a paper on “* The 
Deserts of Southern Arizona and How They Are Redeemed by Irriga- 
tion,’”’ illustrating his subject with lantern slides. 


Special Meeting, March 22, 1897.—Fourth Monday afternoon illustrated 
lecture. President Hubbard in the chair. Prof. Thomas Davidson, M. A., 
of Aberdeen, Scotland, lectured on Tyre and Sidon. : 


Annual Reception, March 25, 1897.—The Annual Reception of the Society 
was held at the Arlington Hotel, from 9 to 12 0’clock p.m. President 
Hubbard, with the ladies of the Reception Committee, received the mem- 
bers and guests of the Society, to the number of 300. The Society was 
honored with the presence of the President of the United States and 
several members of the Cabinet. 


Special Meeting, March 26, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. Hon. 
John W. Foster read a paper on the Hawaiian islands. A number of 
maps were shown on the screen at the commencement of the lecture, and 
at its close Mr E. D. Preston, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
exhibited a series of lantern-slide views of scenery in the islands. 


Execrrions.—New members have been elected as follows: 


March 19.—D. Q. Abbot, Mrs Emily E. Briggs, Paul Brockett, Rey. 8. 
Bayard Dod, Prof. L. M. Drake, A. F. Dunnington, Miss C. L. Freethey, 
Prof. H. G. Hipp, 8. B. Laird, Col. J. R. Lewis, U. S. A., George B. 
Magrath, V. F. Marsters, Miss Hester MecNully, Miss Annie 8. Peck, Dr 
Fred L. Ransome, Miss Olive R. Seward, J. C. Stanton, C. E. 


At a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society held in London on 
March 22 Dr Nansen expressed his conviction that a properly equipped — 
expedition could now reach the Pole in a single summer. He stated, 
however, that from a scientific point of view the results of such an expe- 
dition would be of far less value than those of some other explorations 
that might be undertaken in the less known parts of the Arctic regions. 


,. er ed ee 


“a 
se of es el 


ax aS covers ae 2006 miles to Los Angeles in 58 hours, 
a. ae to San Francisco in 75 hours. 


le Neth ‘of a car, equipped with fine bea: escritoire and writing 
a large easy chairs, etc. 


‘LWUTED has a car containing seven drawing rooms, which can 
a separately or en suite, each having private lavatory and 


LIMITED has a sumptuous diner, which goes through with it 


oa which meals are served @ a carte. 


LIMUTED traverses a road where snow never falls and blockades 
id blizzards are unknown, and through a region of marvelous 


rev 
ot 10 cents in stamps to the General ‘Passenger Agent, ant 
ul book of 205 pages, that will tell you all about the route, 


‘will be sent you. 
S. F. B. MORSE, 


General- Passenger and Ticket Agent, 
NEW ORLEANS. 


The Deserts and Forests of Arizona, 


By PROF, B. E. FERNOW, Pu. D2 


o " - 
CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF Forestry, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 


Costa Rica, 
ne GENERAL RICHARD VILLAFRANCA, 


CONSUL-GENERAL OF Ca Rica AY SAN JOSE, GUATEMALA, Ex- -ComMIssi0} 
TO THE WoRLD’s COLUMBIAN pe een : 


Prehistoric Man the Product of Geographia 
Environment, 
By HON, GARDINER G, HUBBARD, LL. D., 


PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 


Te D Nonerinaniel 


ae the Volga, from Nijni Novgorod to Kazan ‘ 
CP IO Te FREDERIC W. eege oe 


JUDD & DETWEILER, PRINTERS; WASHINGTON, D. Cc. 


Editor: JOHN HYDE | 


eS = Associate Editors ~ ; 
-REEL ¥ | W J McGEE | HENRY GANNETT 
IART coeiad ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE 


A ‘CONTENTS. 

OY AGE THROUGH THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN. 

: THE LATE ADMIRAL R. W. MEADE, U.S.N. 129 
7. . MEADE, U. Ss. N., with portrait. ; 142 
SENOR RICARDO VILLAFPRANCA. 143 


PAGE 


; ¥SIOGRAPHY IN SOUTH CAROLINA. L. C. GLENN. 152 
. ERNEST DE SASSEVILLE. 155 


¢ LITERATURE, p..156: GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS, p. 157; 
Se aeiscin OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 
te ei p. 160. 


. WASHINGTON 
SHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


ao AGENTS | IN THE Unive Srates AND CANADA 


} “0 RT a 
ee RICAN News ComMPANY, 39 AND 41 Crameers Srreer, New York 
Paris: Brentanos, 37 AveNnve DE 1 ‘OPERA 


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Recorpine Seckwrary aa i me ane 
EVERETT HAYDEN — “A 


MANAGERS | 


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DAW EED SE BVACY he git SiG aay Ww. B ‘POWELL 
JORIN GIN DEG eee Uc ade 2B. WIGHT 


Donations for the Roinaine of Prize Medals and ee 
{PERE S TaN, solicited. 


™~ 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. VOL. VIII, 1897, PL. 27 


Photo-engraved by Electro-Tint Eng. Co., 


THE 
National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. VIII MAY, 1897 No. 5 


Peewintek VYOYAGE THROUGH THE STRAITS OF 
MAGELLAN * 


By THE LATE ApmiraL R. W. Means, U. §S. N. 


Some twenty-six years ago I received peremptory orders to 
assume command of the Narragansett and sail forthwith to the 
Pacific station. We left Sandy Hook on the first blast of a 
nor’wester which followed on the heels of a March equinoctial, 
being the first steamer of the navy to leave the port of New York 
with stunsails set alow and aloft and no steam up. Whether it 
was this tribute to Boreas that brought us good fortune I do not 
know, but we made a famous run to the Line, where, Neptune 
having come on board and duly shaved and ducked several score 
greenhorns, our luck for the time deserted us, and for the next 
two or three weeks the ship fanned along with light airs and 
tedious calms, until the fortieth day out saw us safely in the 
beautiful harbor of Rio de Janeiro, tinkering away at a wretched 
old pair of engines which had broken down when we tried to use 
them to steam into harbor. 

Resuming our cruise, we were favored by a sea as smooth as 
glass and with the most charming weather imaginable. But 
there is a ery of ‘Land ho!” from aloft, and what we see proves 
to be Mount Wood, a solitary peak of moderate elevation on the 
coast of Patagonia, and in the vicinity of the very Port San Ju- 
lian where Magellan wintered his ships, about 200 miles north 
of the straits. As we approach the land it seems a pleasanter- 
looking coast than many I have seen; and though, no doubt, we 

*Abstract of a lecture delivered before the National Geographic Society, December 
4, 1896, 
9 


130 WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 


see it under most favorable circumstances of wind and weather, 
I incline to the belief that the popular idea in regard to the 
dreariness and forbidding character of the shores of Patagonia 
is a delusion which the commerce of the future will dispel. The 
day after we made Mount Wood the weather became thick and 
the wind squally, and, not being able to see the land, we ran by 
the lead. When near Cape Virgins by our reckoning the barom- 
eter commenced to rise. Now a rise in\the glass in this lati- 
tude (50° south), the barometer having previously stood low, is 
an almost certain indication of a change of wind, if not bad 
weather; so all hands were called to reef topsails. Scarcely 
had the second reef been taken in when the wind shifted in a 
moment from the north landward (N.N.E. to W.S.W.) and blew 
in furious gusts, the horizon suddenly cleared, the mists were 
dispelled, the air became cold and raw, and by the rays of the 
setting sun (it was now 3 o'clock of a June day) we saw in the 
distance Cape Virgins, with its abrupt. cliff-like shore, 16 miles 
dead to windward of us. Thus far we had made the voyage 
from New York entirely under sail, ships of war not being ex- 
pected to steam unless necessary. We managed, with the aid 
of fore-and-aft canvas, to crawl slowly to windward, and, there 
being a bright, full moon, crossed the great Sarmiento bank, 
south of Cape Virgins, where the rise of the tide is 48 feet, and 
by 11 o’clock that night were safely at anchor in the straits, 
some four miles west of Magellan’s landfall. 

To make our voyage intelligible it will here be necessary to 
describe the general character of the strait. It is safe to say that 
there is no other part of the world where, as a rule, the weather 
is so tempestuous and dangerous as it is off Cape Horn. There 
old Ocean exerts his full sovereignty, and the winds and the 
waves are almost ceaselessly raging and surging in wild tumult 
against a bleak, forbidding, iron-bound coast. The climate of 
Cape Horn is the most wretched on earth. Fierce storms of rain, 
hail, and snow drift in from the Atlantic, Antarctic, and Pacific 
oceans in everlasting succession, broken only by the furious willi- 
waws or Cape Horn squalls. 

The real difficulties of the voyage commence at Cape Froward, 
the southern extremity of our continent, which is 175 miles from 
Cape Virgins. Here the weather undergoes an entire change, and 
no matter how pleasant it has been before, the mariner may ex- 
pect to don his “ sow’wester ” the moment he doubles this pre- 
cipitous headland, worthy of terminating so grand a continent. 


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MAGELLAN 


AGE THROUGH STRAITS OF 


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132 WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 


For steamers and smart sailing schooners the voyage through is 
merely one of ordinary care and prudence, but for square-rigged 
sailing craft the difficulties are almost insuperable; yet one large: 
sailing ship, the frigate Fisgard, went through in the astonishing 
time of 17 days! 

From Cape Virgins to Cape Pillar the distance by the usual 
route is 315 nautical miles, and to traverse this from the eastward 
every course between W.N.W. and §.8.E. must, at one time or 
other, be steered, and as the wind is persistently west or southwest 
(or always dead ahead), the difficulties to the sailing ship are 
readily seen. Moreover, the character of the strait changes ma- 
terially as the voyager goes west, for to the eastward of Cape 
Froward, as a rule, the weather is better, the sun shines brighter, 
anchorages are more convenient, and the dangers of navigation 
fewer in number. 

The strait may be geographically divided as follows: (1) From 
Cape Virgins to Elizabeth island, the termination of the second 
narrows, 95 miles, where the tides are very strong, the rise and 
fall extraordinary (48 feet), the land comparatively low and en- 
tirely destitute of timber, the weather generally good, and an- 
chorages safe and convenient. (2) From Elizabeth island, where 
trees first make their appearance and the land commences to rise, 
to Cape Froward, 80 miles. Here anchorages are frequent and 
safe, timber is plentiful, the tides are weak (not exceeding 5 feet), 
and the weather is comparatively pleasant. (8) From Cape Fro- 
ward to Cape Quod, 50 miles, with anchorages few and far be- 
tween, currents strong and in places dangerous, weather almost 
constantly tempestuous, mountains of great height and bare of 
vegetation, their peaks covered with snow or ice, natives savage 
and dangerous, and voyaging even in steamers attended with 
risk. Lastly, from Cape Quod to the Pacific, 90 miles, where 
there are few anchorages, and some of these, as Port Mercy, 
dangerous in the extreme, there is very little tide, the weather is 
stormy nearly all the year, and the high mountains are covered 
with eternal snow—the land aptly termed by Sir John Narbo- 
rough “ Ye Land of Desolation.” 

When daylight came on the morning after our arrival we found 
ourselves anchored off a long, low spit of shingle called by the 
English navigators ‘‘ Dungeness,” from some fancied resemblance 
to the headland of that name in the English channel. To 
the eastward was Cape Virgins, not unlike the chalk cliffs of 
England. To the westward loomed Cape Possession, a bold, 


— —_— a 


WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 133 


dark-looking headland, while to the south, dimly visible in the 
gray of the morning, was Magellan’s Land of Fire—a low, in- 
dented coast just rising above the distant horizon. The straits 
are 16 miles wide at this point. Following the usual rule of the 
mariner in these parts, we had prepared beforehand our tables 
for tides, sunrise, and sunset, the light yards and topgallant masts 
were struck, all stunsails and booms sent on deck, and ‘every- 
thing made snug aloft for steaming against the strong westerly 
winds we expected toencounter. But our apprehensions of bad 
weather proved groundless. The southwester had died out, and 
the day broke calm and comparatively clear. The sun shone 
out of a leaden-hued sky with just warmth enough to be pleas- 
ant, and, weighing our anchor, with a favorable flood-tide we 
were soon passing the land at the rate of 13 knots an hour, 
though the engineer would have gone wild if anyone had sug- 
gested to him the possibility of the Narragansett’s engines driv- 
ing her over 8 knots. The rise and fall of the tide in this part 
of the strait is very great. It is no less than 43 feet, and a sin- 
gular circumstance attends the changes of the tidal stream. The 
flood, which runs with great velocity to the westward, com- 
mences about three hours before it is low water by the beach, 
and so here we were rapidly going west with the flood-tide while 
apparently the water was everywhere ebbing by theshore. An- 
other feature in the tides east of Cape Froward is that the time 
of high water grows later as the ship proceeds to the westward, 
so that it is possible in a fast steamer, starting from Cape Virgins 
with a favorable flood, to reach the Chilean settlement at Sandy 
Point (110 miles) in a daylight run in June, which corresponds 
to our December. 

As we pass Cape Possession the wind draws in fresh gusts 
from the northward and westward, and we set the fore-and-att 
sails, which increases the vessel’s speed to 14 knots. We rap- 
idly approach the first narrows, for the low, cliff-like shores on 
each side are now plainly visible, and all hands are on deck to 
witness the terrific tide race we have heard so much about. By 
10 o’clock we are fairly in the narrow pass, which is a perfectly 
straight “reach” of perpendicular wall-like shore, miles long 
by 2 miles broad, with very deep water, precipitous beach at low 
tide, and a straight, rapid current of 8 knots an hour. We are 
fairly flying along the land, and by noon have made over 60 
nautical miles since we started. We are clear of the narrows, 
dimly visible astern, and skirting the southern shore of Philip 


134 WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 


bay. By 2 o’clock we are nearly up with the second narrows, 
but now the flood-tide is done, and it would be the merest folly 
to attempt to force the Narragansett through against the ebb, so 
we give up all hope of reaching Sandy Point this evening, and 
steam slowly in for the anchorage under Gregory Summit. 

On the cliff abreast of the ship we observe a native camp and 
see some animals grazing on the downs. Soon there are other 
signs of life,and a dozen Indians come sweeping along on horse- 
back. They are splendidly mounted and seem a fine, athletic 
race. Now they are on the edge of the bluff making signals to 
us, but it is too late to communicate with the shore, and, more- 
over, the character of “ye native ” hereabouts is open to suspi- 
cion, though to do the Indians simple justice they have been 
rendered hostile to all white men by two centuries of brutality 
at the hands of the Spaniards and their descendants. Asa people 
these Patagonians are less savage and intractable than the Fue- 
gians or natives of the southern and western shores. There are 
in truth some very striking differences between these two races, 
and it may be well to allude to them here. In the first place, 
the term Patagonian, unless explained, is apt to mislead, for the 
whole of the continent south of the parallel of 40 degrees is 
known as Patagonia, and is geographically divided by the moun- 
tains into Eastern and Western Patagonia, inhabited, as far as 
we know, by two very different races, though Dr Darwin in his 
narrative of the Beagle’s voyage in 18381 declares his conviction 
that they are the same race and that the present difference is 
caused by environment. This is probable, as food, climate, and 
environment are doubtless responsible for most racial differences ; 
but, strictly speaking, the Patagonians are the natives of Hastern 
Patagonia, for the inhabitants of the islands along the Smyth 
channel (north of Magellan straits) and Western Patagonia as 
far as the Gulf of Pefias are of the same family as the natives 
of Tierra del Fuego, and are invariably designated as Fuegians. 
The Patagonians then inhabit the northern side of the strait east 
of Cape Froward and the chain of mountains known as the 
Southern Andes, and are probably of the same family as the 
Araucanians, so justly celebrated for their prowess in their en- 
counters with the steel-clad warriors of Spain in the sixteenth 
century. Of these Patagonians, one explorer who passed some 
time with them says: 


‘“They are very tall, finely formed, and athletic, with jet black eyes, 
black, coarse hair, thick lips, and a skin of reddish-brown color. They 


WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 135 


often paint themselves in a hideous manner and then grease themselves 
all over. They approve the early fashions (Garden of Eden, and so on), 
with occasionally a mantle of skin thrown over their shoulders. They 
worship a god of good and a god of evil, and all that happens is consid- 
ered as directly sent by one or the other of these deities. They do not 
believe in the finai salvation of the wicked. They are averse to Chris- 
tianity, uncontrollable in a state of anger, and passionately fond of strong 
drink. Their favorite food is horse-flesh and the blood of animals, and 
though they have cooking utensils they prefer to eat their meat raw. 
They subsist by hunting the guanaco, an animal never seen in Patagonia 
to the westward of Cape Froward, but very numerous on the plains of 
Eastern Patagonia. These people live either in camp or on horseback 
and do not seem to be fishermen—at least they are not known to have 
canoes. Their bows and arrows betoken that they live by hunting, as 
their arrow-heads are both poisoned and unpoisoned, and it is not at all 
likely they would waste the latter on their enemies. Even so late as 1871 
- it was said they possessed few firearms. They are a bold, warlike, and 
fearless race; possessing certain magnanimous traits, and in this they differ 
widely from the natives of the southern and western shores of Magellan 
straits.”’ 


The same explorer says of the Fuegians: 
“They are an ugly, savage race, who in hard times become cannibals, 


and their most splendid feasts are characterized by dirt, filth, and misery. 
Christianity seems to have had no power among them.” 


Every one who has voyaged in these waters regards the Fuegians 
as treacherous and dangerous. They are short in stature and of 
a dirty copper-color, their only clothing, even in the coldest 
weather, being a sealskin or deerskin worn with the hair outward, 
and this solitary garment, vermin included, they will readily 
exchange for a little biscuit or tobacco. Darwin admits their 
cannibalism, which he excuses on the plea of necessity. When 
pressed by hunger they kill first their old women and then their 
dogs, because, said one of them, “ Doggy, he catch otter; old 
woman, she no catchee otter.” But usually they live by fishing 
and what they can gather from the rocks, as, for instance, snails 
and mussels, but they will eagerly devour putrid seal’s flesh and 
the most disgusting offal. 

- They live in huts constructed in a very primitive way of the 
branches of trees, and have no articles of traffic except their 
weapons and implements, which are sometimes bought as curi- 
osities. They are thievish; cunning, and greedy, and great cau- 
tion is requisite in dealing with them. Attempts have been 
made by English missionaries to lessen their barbarism, but 
with no success, a fact which is the more singular, as even the 


136 WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 


Fiji Islanders have been rendered subject to the civilizing influ- 
ences of Christianity. 

Captain Mayne, who recently resurveyed these waters in 
H. B. M. ship Nassau, states that ‘these people pass most of 
their time in canoes and make voyages from the straits to the 
Gulf of Pefias, a distance of many miles. Though usually but 
few canoes are seen in passing through, it is extraordinary how 
rapidly a hundred or more will gather together if they see an 
opportunity for attacking boats, small vessels, or a wreck. How 
the rendezvous is known is a mystery,” says Captain Mayne, 
‘“but fires are seen smoking all along the coast for miles, and 
out of every creek a canoe will be seen shooting toward the ral- 
lying point; but there is no romance whatever about their ap- 
pearance, for instead of the graceful shape of the Indian canoe, 
these miserable craft are simply planks tied together with thongs 
or fibers of trees, without the slightest regard to form, and in- 
stead of being urged along by paddles they are rowed by oars 
rudely made of pieces of board tied to the end of a short pole. 
On the bottom of the boat, in the middle, is a small fire, and on 
each side of it are crouched six or eight men, women, or chil- 
dren, according to the size of the craft. These are generally, as 
we have said, almost entirely naked, the women appearing to 
care less about clothing than the men,” 

A very striking difference between these people and the Pata- 
gonians was noticed by Captain Fitzroy in 1830, and subse- 
quently by Captain Mayne in 1867. This is that while the 
Patagonian will generally drink all the rum he can get and is 
always more or less drunk when near a settlement, the Fuegian 
cannot be persuaded to drink at all, and if he is enticed into 
tasting strong liquor of any kind will always put it away with a 
wry face. In fact, this is the solitary redeeming trait in these 
savages, who are indeed to be dreaded, for they have frequently 
attacked and overcome the crews of passing vessels. 

The next morning we were under way with the first of the 
flood, and steamed around Cape Gregory into the second nar 
rows. Up to Elizabeth island the scenery was as tame and un- 
interesting as possible, but now for the first time we caught sight 
of the distant mountains to the southward, with their snowy 
peaks and glaciers. Passing the island, we descried the clearing 
above the settlement at Punta Arenas, and soon after the village 
was in full view, showing to much advantage its white houses 
and fences dotting the hillsides. It is now a colony of Chile, 


WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 137 


originally founded as a penal settlement in 1849, when the gov- 
ernment removed its post from Port Famine, 28 miles to the 
southward. A dreadful tragedy took place in 1851, the convicts 
rising upon the garrison, seizing several vessels, and murdering 
the governor and his subordinates with circumstances of atro- 


cious cruelty, since which time the practice of sending felons 


here has been abandoned. ‘The village consists of about one 
hundred houses built upon ground which slopes gradually back 
from the water. ‘The governor was very enthusiastic about the 
success of the colony and showed some gold nuggets found in the 
little stream east of the village. The attractions of Sandy Point 
were insufficient to detain us long, and on the next evening we 
left by moonlight, steaming slowly for that magnificent head- 
land, Cape Froward. 

The morning sun shone bright and beautiful over the lofty 
snow-capped hills, while in the valleys, which were entirely free 
from snow, a flood of golden light upon the dark green foliage 
of the forest rendered the landscape very charming. The shore, 
after passing Cape San Isidro, is dotted with numerous little 
bays, in one of which, known as Jack harbor, the celebrated 
Bougainville in 1764 moored his ships and cut timber for the 
French colony on the Malouines, now the Falkland islands- 
The cove, which is hardly larger then an ordinary wet dock, is 
a romantic-looking nook, sheltered completely, and to add to its 
beauty a sparkling mountain rivulet tumbles noisily into the 
sea at its head. 

At noon we had reached our extreme southern limit and were 
off Cape Froward. Though up to this time the weather had ‘been 
beautifully clear and pleasant, the moment we rounded this 
magnificent terminus of our continent we felt a change. The 
bright sky gave place to an overcast leaden hued one, the air 
grew colder, and for the first time since entering the strait we 
felt the williwaw. These winds are peculiar to this region, 
the name being corrupted from the term “ whirl ’awas” of the 
old navigators and seal hunters. ‘They are rotary squalls, which 
blow at times with indescribable fury, seeming apparently to 
come from every point of the compass. There is one peculiarity 
about these squalls which seems to have escaped notice hitherto. 
This is the singularly mournful whistling sound, like the sighing 
of an Holian harp, which invariably precedes and follows them. 

Cape Froward, 53° 54’ S.,71° 18’ W., is the southern extremity 
of the continent of America. It is one of the grandest head- 


1388 WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 


lands in the world, and I say this after a lengthened experience 
at sea. Let those who have seen the sea face of Gibraltar imagine 
a thousand feet added to the rock and they will have an idea of 
the grandeur of Cape Froward. But we are now on the home- 
stretch for San Francisco as the ship doubles the pitch of the 
cape and edges closer and closer to the eastern shore to avoid 
the fury of the west wind, of the force of which the white caps 
and heavy sea in the middle of Froward reach give indications. 

It was quite dark when the ship reached Fortescue bay and 
anchored. This is the most secure anchorage in the strait, and 
may eventually become the, principal stopping-point of mail 
steamers. There is an outer and an inner harbor, the latter, 
known as Port Gallant, being accessible for ordinary steam ves- 
sels. The view from the anchorage is very fine. There are several 
prettily wooded islets separating Fortescue bay from Port Gal- 
lant, while Mount Cross, covered with snow, rises gradually to a 
height of 3,000 feet and completely overlooks the anchorage. 

A few weeks before our arrival off Port Gallant it had been the 
scene of a tragical occurrence, the captain and three men of 
an Hnglish vessel, the Propontis, having been murdered by the 
Fuegians while obtaining water. On our arrival the Fuegians 
had apparently deserted that part of the strait. The governor 
had evidently deemed it impossible to apprehend the wretches 
concerned in these frightful murders. The fate of these unfortu- 
nate men should be a warning to small merchant vessels. 

The next day was mostly consumed in making the run from 
Port Gallant to Borja bay, the wind being adverse and the tide 
strongly against us, but the beautiful scenery compensated for the 
tediousness of the trip; it was by far the finest that we had yet 
seen. The serrated ranges of mountains on Cordoba peninsula, 
covered with snow and glaciers sparkling in the sunlight, are very 
grand. The character of the strait seems to change entirely 
when abreast of Jerome channel, at the entrance to which Cor- 
doba peninsula apparently blocks up the strait, which now as- 
sumes all the grandeur and beauty of an Alpine lake. The ship 
anchored in the deep waters of Byron’s Island bay, under the 
shadow of Borja mountain, towering grandly 3,000 feet above 
our heads. A landing party soon woke the echoes of the moun- 
tain with the sharp crack of the rifle, the sound reverberating in 
prolonged echoes. The scenery on the mountain side is very 
picturesque, but the ascent is made under difficulties. The deep 
bay is thoroughly sheltered, and to add to its beauty three spark- 


* fb iin - 


WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 139 


ling rivulets fall into it at different points. A peculiar feature of 
the place (which is a favorite post-office) is the great number of 
boards, nailed to the trees, which serve as a rough log of the 
numerous vessels that in the last fifty years have touched here. 
A very conspicuous one drew our attention. It read: “U. S. 
sloop of war Decatur, Dec’r 11th, 1854. All well.” This ship had 
then been 80 days in the strait, and was finally towed through 
by the United States steamer Massachusetts, Captain R. W. Meade, 
father of the writer. Before leaving, the Narragansett’s board, 
“5 days in the straits; all well,” was nailed above the Decatur’s. 

The trees at Borja bay differ from those at some other points, 
being of great girth and gnarled and stunted in their growth. 
As soon as the moon was up, the ship steamed westward past 
the bold cliff of El Morion (the Helmet), and was at last fairly 
pointed for the great long reach to the Pacific. 

The lights and shadows reflected by the moon upon the dark 
waters of the strait—here almost unfathomable—the dark spots 
under the overhanging cliffs of the lofty mountains, and the 
flood of silver moonlight beyond rendered the scene one of sur- 
passing beauty. The night was calm and quiet, the stars over- 
head shone with the peculiar brilliancy of the high latitude, and 
everything promised fair for a quick run to the Pacific. At 10 
next morning we had passed Glacier bay and the chill, dreary 
coast between it and the Spanish gulf with the unpronounceable 
name (Xaultegua), when a change in the weather became ap- 
parent. At 2 o’clock in the afternoon the Pacific ocean was only 
35 miles off, but the long swell we now encountered and the 
stormy appearance of the weather compelled us to choose be- 
tween a port of refuge or a stormy night in the open strait. 
Port Churruca, on Desolation island, seemed the best harbor, 
and the ship bore up for the narrow entrance. There being no 
bridge on the Narragansett, the captain took his place on the 
forecastle as pilot, the navigating lieutenant* held the chart, and 
an old sailor held a tarpaulin over it to keep it from getting wet. 
Careful hands were in the chains and at the engine-room bell, 
and all hands were called to “bring ship to anchor.” The 
steamer was heading for two small rocky islets, about 50 yards 
apart, dimly visible through the sleet and mist of a driving 
squall. The surf broke furiously all along the rocky shore. 
“Slow down!” says the captain from his lookout on the fore- 
castle, and slow it is. No soundings! In truth none could be 
found here with 200 fathoms of line. Ina few minutes a narrow 


* Now Commander Z. L. Tanner, U.S. N. 


140 WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 


channel is descried leading apparently into the very bowels of 
the mountain, which towers thousands of feet above us. “ Port!” 
from the forecastle. ‘ Port it is, sir!” from the quartermaster at 
the wheel, and the ship’s head flies to starboard, obedient to the 
helm. All hands are at their stations, both anchors ready, and 
the silence fore and aft is profound. We enter the passage, and 
the helm is alternately hard-up and hard-down as we thread our 
way through the narrow pass, scarce 200 yards wide, bordered 
by rocks and islets, upon which the sea roars and surges dis- 
mally. Now we emerge into an inland sea which in the thick 
weather seems almost illimitable, the shores being perpendicular 
walls of rock two and three thousand feet in height. The vessel 
turns short round to port and shoots ahead toward a little cove 
under the shadow of animmense mountain. “By the mark, 
seventeen!” comes from the chains, and the anchor is let go. 
Hawsers are run from the ship to one of the few stunted trees to 
keep the vessel clear of the rocks, and the Narragansett is safely 
sheltered for the night. 

Sir John Narborough spoke soberly and truly when he named 
this the “Isle of Desolation.” Nothing can be more grandly or 
profoundly desolate than the scenery in the neighborhood of 
Oldfield anchorage, Port Churruca. The term port is an entire 
misnomer, for beyond two small coves, where anchorage may be 
obtained in from 15 to 40 fathoms of water, there is no bottom 
to be found with less than 50 or 100 fathoms of line; in many 
places there are no soundings at all. The deep inlets of this 
inland gea are bordered by awful precipices, broken by frightful 
chasms and ravines. There are a few stunted trees along the 
beach, but on the mountain side not even the usual moss or 
lichen—nothing but bare,slate-colored, savage-looking rocks, coy- 
ered with iceand snow. The place is fully sheltered, and all that 
night the ship lay profoundly quiet, not a breath of air stirring, 
though the roar of the sea and the whistling of the furious west 
wind outside could be distinctly heard. A party left the ship 
before dark to explore the head of the little cove. They found 
some signs of vegetation in the gully at the base of the cliff, under 
which the ship. was moored, and one of the explorers collected a 
bouquet of Fuegian flowers. The sailors, however, looking rather 
toward the practical than the beautiful, found a bed of fine mus- 
sels, upon which we all regaled ourselves that evening. _ 

The next morning the weather, though overcast with rain 
squalls at intervals, was sufficiently favorable to admit of an 


Ae Te eee, 


3 


WINTER VOYAGE THROUGH STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 141 


attempt to leave. Some of the officers seemed dubious of the 
Narragansett’s ability to clear the strait, but the-captain con- 
cluded to take the chances, and at noon Cape Pillar was in sight 
on the port bow. 

With a full head of steam and the fore-and-aft canvas the 
ship made good way, and at 2 o’clock passed out of the strait 
and steered directly west for an offing. But both the wind and 
sea were now rapidly rising. At dark it was blowing a furious 
gale from the W.S.W., with one of the most tremendous rolling 
seas I ever saw. No chance to run back or find an anchorage 
in such weather as this. At times the squalls of wind, sleet, and 
rain were so thick that we could not see a ship’s length. There 
was nothing to do now but to * claw off’? shore under every inch 
of storm canvas the vessel could carry, and trust to the engines 


‘to help us to gain an offing. At8o’clock that night the hatches 


fore and aft were securely battened down, and the lee rail of the 
ship was under water as she struggled under sail and steam 
against the storm and sea. Dimly visible astern, through the 
furious driving squalls, was Cape Pillar, eight miles distant. On 
the lee beam were the black rocks of Los Apostoles, the ship 
drifting slowly southward in dangerous proximity to them. The 
wind veered constantly from point to point, and the squalls came 
with blinding and terrific force; but everything held well, and 
the Providence which watches over “ poor Jack” sent us a slant 
of wind which enabled us to make an offing during that dark, 
dismal, and anxious night. 

For eight long days and nights this state of things continued, 
the ship vainly struggling to get to the westward, the squalls of 
sleet and snow never continuing long enough from southwest 
to enable the vessel to get north at all. On the eighth day the 
vessel was nearly as far south as the parallel of Cape Horn, with 
a fair prospect of being driven round the cape altogether. There 
were but a few tons of coal left, and the ship was still 1,200 miles 
from Valparaiso. Affairs looked blue. Many of the men were 
worn out, exhausted by cold and fatigue; several of the officers 
were in the same condition. 

But all ill fortune, as all good fortune, must at some period 
come to an end,and so it happened that the next day the wind 
shifted to the south, and with strong and favoring gales the old 
ship went rapidly north under a press of canyas, and in ten days 
was safely anchored in the harbor of Valparaiso. And so ended 
the Narragansett’s winter voyage through the Straits of Magellan. 


ADMIRAL R. W. MEADE, U.S.N. 


When the principal contents of this number of THE NATIONAL 
GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE were sent to the printer there was no in- 
dication that the gallant and accomplished author of the article 
“A Winter Voyage through the Straits of Magellan” would have 
completed the long and eventful voyage of life before his stirring 
narrative of one of the most interesting portions of his famous 
cruise in the Narragansett could be placed in the hands of our 
readers. On the first of May, however, he succumbed to the effects 
of a surgical operation, from which he had been supposed by his 
friends tolhave permanently rallied. Itis impossible, on the eve 
of going to press, to present more than the briefest outline of Ad- 
miral Meade’s distinguished career or to render adequate tribute 
to his memory. It must suffice to remind our readers of his 
brilliant career at college; of his becoming navigating officer of 
the Cumberland before he was 19 years of age; of his command 
of a naval division, engaged with the enemy, before he was 25; 
of the dauntless courage, good judgment, and unfailing skill that 
won for him, time and again, the commendations of his superior 
officers; of his historic cruise of 60,000 miles, mainly under 
canvas, in the Narragansett ; of his success as a professor of sea- 
manship and naval tactics; of his numerous contributions to 
periodical literature, and of his ever-welcome appearances before 
the National Geographic Society, of which he was an active 
member. The accompanying article contains an allusion, which 
we cannot regard as without significance, to “the Providence 
which watches over poor Jack.” Himself handsome, coura- 
geous, true-hearted, and patriotic, we can say of Admiral Meade, 
in the words of Dibdin’s grand old sea-song: 


‘His form was of the manliest beauty, 
His heart was kind and soft; 
Faithful below he did his duty, 
And now he’s gone aloft.”’ 


142 


COSTA RICA 


By SeXor Ricarpo VILLAFRANCA, 


Consul-General of the Republic of Costa Rica at San José, Guatemala 


It is impossible to give within the space allotted to me a com- 
plete idea of Costa Rica, or to describe explicitly its varied re- 
sources and industries. I can but dwell briefly on the more 
important features of the land, the characteristics of the people, 
and the natural resources of the country. 

The peculiarly favorable situation of Costa Rica might well be 
the envy of all nations, for it lies between the continents of the 
new world and between the earth’s greatest seas ; it enjoys a tem- 
perate climate, with the advantages of a tropical sun; it is one 
ofthe smallest of small nations—the true gem of American repub- 
lics; its people are peaceful and law-abiding; its republican 
form of government, copied from the United States, is very popu- 
lar; its climate is moderate, without extremes of heat or cold, 
and is remarkably healthful. The dreaded fevers are found only 
along the swampy coastal fringe and other low-lying Jand, of 
which there is little in Costa Rica. Against visionary dangers 
we have a land of prolonged spring and autumnal splendor—a 
soil upon which the flowers smile with perennial bloom. 

Costa Rica is feeble for want of sufficient population, but she 
possesses a rich store of undeveloped resources in her widely 
disseminated minerals and the endless productions of her fertile 
soil. Her forests are an incalculable natural wealth. Through- 
out the country the land is thickly covered with gigantic trees, 
among the finest in the world, and all are of a rare quality, such 
as mahogany, cedar, rosewood, lignum-vite, and a number of 
dye-woods, such as anatto and indigo. Little attention has 
been given to the forest wealth. Along the seashore, where 
transportation is easy, some woods have been marketed, but in 
the interior the trees stand as they did a hundred years ago. 

In the Matina valley the Matina Banana Company is working 
an extensive plantation and paying large dividends. The ex- 
tent of this industry cannot be appreciated except at the ship- 
ping stations. Hundreds of cars are loaded every day, and the 
number of boats loaded with bananas far surpasses those carry- 

145 


144 COSTA RICA 


ing any other freight. The harvest neverends. From January 
to December there is a continuous cutting and marketing. One 
sees at the same time the budding blossoms, the young fruit, and 
the fully developed bananas. 

Those who have seen cotton plants elsewhere, rarely attaining 
the height of a man, are ill prepared to see cotton trees growing 
to the height of 12 feet, with numberless branches, which are 
tipped by the snowy down. There is nothing that more clearly 
proves the fertility of Costa Rican soil. The bread-fruit tree is 
also a wonder to northern visitors. The tree is tall and massive ; 
its branches are innumerable; its leaves large, resembling fig 
leaves, and the characteristic bread-fruit, of a greenish yellow 
color, is the size and shape of a cantaloupe. The fruit—fried, 
boiled, and baked, very much like potatoes—forms one of the 
staple foods of the working people. 

The Costa Rica-Nicaraguan and Panama canals are such im- 
portant projects that the nations of the earth must sooner or 
later complete them. Costa Rica,occupying almost entirely the 
territory between the two proposed canals, will ere long reap the 
benefit of such an unparalleled position. The Nicaraguan canal 


LIMON, COSTA RICA, FROM THE PARK 


Sa 


——— 


COSTA RICA 145 


will be the final event which shall make Costa Rica the true gem 
of American republics. ; 
Only a few years ago a few shanties marked the present site 
of Limon, which today is one of the most important cities fanned 
by the Caribbean breezes. Rare tropical trees in the distance 
overshadow the most elaborate buildings, which are as a rule 
low; the regular streets are well kept, and the churches neat and 
well attended. In Central American cities great prominence is 
given to churches, but at Limon they are not as elegant as in 
more typical cities. Here foreigners are numerous, and the na- 
tive population is neither wealthy nor important, but the places 
of worship and many of the buildings are of foreign design and 
foreign material. Limon has a distinctive appearance, not un- 
like southern settlements in the United States. English is the 


prevailing language, and English-speaking people conduct most 


of the business. 

Nearly one-third of the population of the country is in the 
province of San José, a broad expanse containing the main coffee 
plantations, at short distances from the principal cities, where the 
owners generally live. The wealthiest, most prosperous, and 
most conservative of the towns are Heredia and Alajuela, which 
are connected with the capital by a railroad. What we shall say 
about San José applies more or less to all Costa Rican cities. 
In this magnificent neighborhood the country is studded with 
fruitful plantations. Here the true population of Costa Rica 
dwells, since here are found the hardy, simple toilers, who wrest 
from the earth its agricultural products—the true wealth of the 
soil. An air of ease combined with antique simplicity charac- 
terizes the majority of these villages. The city of San José at 
once gives the impression of thrift, not unlike the cities of the 
United States. The traveler sees two-story houses, wide side- 
walks, and electric lights. In the center of Walker’s park has 
recently been placed a handsome monument to commemorate 
the defeat of the filibuster Walker. Educational facilities are ex- 
cellent: there are high schools, a school of law, several colleges, 
public libraries, etc. It is safe to say that the number of teachers 


in Costa Rica far exceeds the number of soldiers. The well-kept 


hotels, like most private residences, are built around a beautiful 

courtyard, from which every room in the house receives moist, 

cool air charged with natural perfumes of carefully cultivated 

flowers. Costa Ricans mingle work and play in the most de- 

lightful way ; in the cities amusement is often considered more 
lv 


146 COSTA RICA 


important than business, and means of recreation are abundant. 
San José has a modern theater not equaled in Central America. 

The Roman Catholic churches in San José, Heredia, and Ala- 
juela are excellent indications of the wealth of the country. 
These churches, and particularly the Cathedral of San José, 
are of a design and finish that are rarely surpassed in Spanish 
America. The people may at times go barefoot and hungry, but 
the priests never lack enthusiastic support. 

The home of the Costa Rican is the true pivot of life and the 
center of all pleasure. The houses are built around the ever- 
present courtyard, a garden spot which is carefully cultivated. 


THE CATHEDRAL AT SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA 


COSTA RICA 147 


In it one finds flowering plants in full bloom throughout the 
year, and from it every room of the house has a never-ceasing 


‘ current of air charged with a delightful odor. 


Everybody in Costa Rica who has money and some ambition 
is either directly or indirectly interested in farms. The gentle- 
man farmers are the rulers of the land. Coffee farming is the 
primary industry, since Costa Rican coffee has become famous and 
commands very high prices. Almost anywhere within a radius 


A STREET IN SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA 


of fifty miles one can find coffee farms, either in their infancy or in 
full development, with shade trees to protect the young plants. 
Coffee plants in bloom are among the most beautiful sights in 
nature. Three years after the planting of the young coffee bush 
it bears its first fruit. The crop increases until the eighth year ; 
after that, for fifteen years, the crops are more or less even. In 
the first weeks of December the berry is of a bright red color, 
which indicates that the coffee is fully ripe. Every man, woman, 
and child is pressed into the service of picking coffee, and with 


148 COSTA RICA 


a basket swung from the waist, picks from sunrise to sunset. 
This operation is a delicate one, and is watched very closely to 
prevent the leaves from being broken, as the next crop starts 
from the angle formed by the leaf and branch. The fresh coffee 
is transported by ox carts, passes through a machine that breaks 
the outer skin, and is then placed for twenty-four hours in water, 
until the syrup-like substance that has adhered to the grains is 
washed away, After it has been washed, the coffee is spread out 
on a cemented court intosmooth beds. Here it remains during 
the sunshine, but at night and. during cloudy days it is gathered 
into heaps and covered with canvas. The process of spreading 
and gathering together is continued until the coffee is thoroughly 
dry. During this operation no planter neglects to place sentinels 
around the coffee court, since coffee even in Costa Rica is worth 
40 cents a pound, and a single individual might carry away 
several hundred dollars’ worth of it in a few hours. When dry 
the coffee is sacked and transported to the factory, where an 
elaborate process by modern machinery prepares it for the market. 
The final work is the separation of the black, small, and imper- 
fect berries and classifying them. They are called first, second, 
third, and fourth classes, and the well-known caracolillo or pea- 
berry. This is done bya machine haying a long center cylinder, 
with openings of various sizes that correspond with the different 
classes of coffee. \ From this machine the berries are transferred 
to large tables, where girls pick out by hand any impurities 
not removed by the machines. The coffee is then sacked and 
marked; each bag weighs 132 pounds. Now that the coffee is 
ready for export and marked “ Hamburg,” “ Liverpool,” ete., a 
question naturally arises, Is there any marked “New York,” 
‘““ New Orleans,” or “ Baltimore”? I have to answer with deep 
regret that very little is marked that way, the bulk of the crop 
being bought by European firms, who send their agents several 
months in advance of harvest time, either to buy outright or to 
furnish funds, with liberal conditions, to farmers who agree to 
consign their crops. American merchants make very little effort 
to secure the products of Costa Rica or to furnish its markets 
with the manufactured articles which are produced in the 
United States. 

Time does not permit me to speak of other agricultural pro- 
ductions. Costa Rica is capable of producing not only coffee, 
bananas, cocoa, and sugar-cane, but northern fruits and vegeta- 
bles. There we find peaches, apples, quinces, strawberries, and 


COSTA RICA 149 


grapes, as well as tomatoes, cabbages, potatoes, corm, wheat, and 
other cereals. Costa Rica heretofore has not produced enough 
‘meat for home consumption, but this is not because cattle will 
not thrive there; it is because few intelligent attempts have been 
made. There is abundance of water, a perpetual verdure, and no 
winter necessitating feeding. Cattle of every kind and variety 
thrive beautifully, and that without any attention or care. Al- 
though stock farming is new and people are ill prepared to raise 
cattle, yet the results are excellent. Even sheep, the last animal 
in the world that one would expect to do well under a tropical 

‘ sun, thrive and multiply with remarkable success. 

7 Not far from these farms are several peculiar natural springs. 
The most popular and interesting thermal springs today are 
those of Agua Caliente, which are frequented by the wealthy 

citizens of Costa Rica and by foreign visitors. ‘These springs, 


: like most natural waters, are said to be good for nearly all human 
E ailments, but it is certain that they cure rheumatism and skin 
diseases. One finds among them waters hot enough to boil an 
) egg and of a strong sulphurous odor, while, on the other hand, 
there are others extremely cold. 

‘ One of the unique primitive structures of the country, which 
j portrays the characteristic ingenuity of early settlers, is the 


| bridge made of bejuco, a native vine-like growth, noted for its 
; great strength, to be noticed hanging from large trees. This 
; strange substance is made into a rope which is hung from con- 
venient trees near the banks of the river. The peculiar sensa- 
tion experienced while crossing is far from a feeling of safety; 
with every step the dry, woody ropes crack and the bridge moves 
not only up and down, but sidewise, forward, and backward. 
Entering the Indian reservation of Talamanca, fine views greet 
the eye of the traveler. Here are the farm-houses of half-breeds ; 
there, colossal cocoanut trees, with large leaves, of which the 
roofs and sides of huts are made. ‘The true Indian house is 
built on the bee-hive plan, and its framework of vine rope is 
thatched by palm and cocoanut leaves. Its external appearance 
is artistic, and the people are comfortable within. The Indians 
are completely isolated from civilization, are peaceful, and never 
give the government trouble. The men are usually well built 
and the women are patient: and gentle. They are very thinly 
clad, as the climate is such that clothing is the least of their 
wants and isavorn only with an idea of adornment. Most cloth- 
ing is of the local cotton, colored by home dye-roots and certain 


i 


150 COSTA RICA 


kinds of shells. Their beds are placed on platforms well up 
under the roof. The floor is the naked earth. Hammocks are 
strung about, always occupied, for Costa Rican Indians are not 
fond of work. The most interesting character in Talamanca is 
Antonio Sandano, the king, to whom the government accords 
the absolute sovereignty of the Talamanca Indians. 

The rainfall of Costa Rica issomewhat greater than that of the 
United States. There is a dry season and a wet season every 
year, but the rains are never constant, nor are they ever entirely 


IN TALAMANCA, COSTA RICA 


absent; indeed, the atmospheric moisture is reliable and droughts 
never affect plants. It is well to become acquainted with a 
fact that seems rather curious in reference to rain; it is the one 
that attracts the attention of foreigners, who in visiting Central 
America expect to see rain pouring down constantly. The rain 
begins at about 2 o’clock in the afternoon, continuing from a 
half hour to three hours. But what rain! It seems as though 
the dikes of the heavenly reservoirs had been torn asunder.. An- 
other peculiarity still, when it rains on the eastern slope it is 
clear on the western, and vice versa. 


COSTA RICA 151 


To visit the successful mining camps in Costa Rica one has to 
ride over rough roads, crossing bridgeless rivers, and traversing 
thick forests, where mahogany, cedar, rubber, and other trop- 
ical trees cover the earth and screen the skies. The journey is 
long and at times tiresome, but to see gold at the end of the 
journey mingling with the best of mother earth more than repays 
for the discomfort of travel. Here is a region of incomparable 
mineral richness, but up to the present the mines have been 
worked in a most primitive way, necessitating great labor and ex- 
pense. With the importation of new labor-saving machines and 
improved mining methods there is no doubt that we shall soon 
see golden streams flowing from the depths of Costa Rica. 

Throughout the Republic transportation is largely conducted 
by caravans, with ox teams as the motive power. The carts are 
heavy, primitive vehicles made by the peasants, the wheels being 
solid circular disks cut from the stems of large trees. The oxen 
are always objects of regard, as their drivers and owners have 
an almost supernatural love for them, and often prize them more 
than they do their own wives. 

The railroad from San José to the Pacific coast is partially 
completed and passes through a fertile agricultural country and 
several towns, among them Alajuela, with its extensive market. 
At Alajuela we leave behind us the train and reach Esparta, 
twelve miles away from Puntarenas, by mules. From Esparta, 
one of the oldest towns in Costa Rica, we again take the train to 
Puntarenas. This is the principal seaport on the Pacific and is 
connected by steamer with San Francisco. 

It must be plain that Costa Rica offers industrious immigrants 
exceptional advantages. Men who can begin life ona plantation 
or in one of the many industries with a few hundred dollars can 
in a few years accumulate a reasonable property, secure a perma- 
nent home ina region surpassed nowhere in the world for health- 
fulness, and lay the foundation for an estate which is certain to 
increase rapidly in value. Costa Rica is indeed a land of promise 
to all interested in securing for themselves a future prosperity ; 
it is a land upon which greater nations will ere long be casting 
their ambitious eyes. 

[The illustrations accompanying the foregoing article are from photographs kindly 


placed at the disposal of the editor by Seflor Don Joaquin B. Calvo, Costa Rican Min- 
ister Resident at Washington.] 


APPLIED PHYSIOGRAPHY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 
By L. C. GuEenn 


' An interesting physiographic change is now going on in much 
of the Piedmont section of South Carolina and other cotton- 
growing states, the consequences of which are becoming grave 
to the owners of the soil and are threatening soon to result, un- 
less checked by a proper observance of physiographic laws, in 
the destruction of much of the most fertile land of the region— 
a destruction already wrought in many cases. The change re- 
ferred to is the exceedingly rapid aggradation by the streams as 
a result of a system of farming that has recently come into vogue 
in that region. ; 

This Piedmont section is an old peneplain that has been up- 
lifted and is now well dissected by the many streams that have 
cut their way down into the plateau from fifty toa hundred and 
fifty or more feet below the general level. In some places rapids 
and falls still occur, but for the most part the streams are at 
gerade and rapid down-cutting has ceased, while lateral swinging 
has widened the valleys and bordered the banks with large tracts 
of rich alluvial ‘‘ bottom land.” On these bottoms chiefly the 
corn of the country has heretofore been raised, while the hill- 
sides and interstream upland are devoted to the culture of cotton. 

Before the first settlement of the country the forest-clad slopes 
furnished waste to the streams very slowly and they were able 
to erode for themselves deep channels and keep their valley 
floors well drained. Although the country has been settled over 
a hundred years, the system of farming common before the war 
did not so materially increase the amount of waste furnished to 
the streams from the hill slopes as to overload them and endanger 
the fertility of the bottoms. When a field became too poor for 
profitable cultivation it was turned out to grow up in old-field 
sedge and fresh land was cleared. Jn this way either much of 
each stream basin was in original forest or vegetation covered 
old fields, both of which fed the rainfall to the streams slowly 
and furnished only a moderate amount of waste. 

Since the war the use of commercial fertilizers has become gen- 
eralinthis region. By their application these worn-out old fields 
have again become capable of producing paying crops and have 


152 


APPLIED PHYSIOGRAPHY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 153 


been plowed and planted in cotton. The successful growing of 
this crop requires such clean culture that, in the almost total 
neglect of crop rotation, the soil is soon deprived of nearly all 
its vegetable matter, while the cotton plant furnishes far too few 
root fibers to hold the Soil together and prevent it from washing 
down into the valleys. When to this is added the fact that ter- 
race plowing is almost unknown, it is readily seen that the rain 
falling on these slopes rapidly gathers into hillside gullies and 
quickly finds its way down to the effluent stream, carrying 
with it an immense amount of detritus. The stream is now 
overloaded, and does the only thing possible under the cireum- 
stances—it drops the portion of its load that it is unable to carry. 
Thus the channel that of old was often five to ten feet deep is 
soon filled until it is scarcely more than twice so many inches 
in depth. With every heavy rain the stream now overflows its 
banks, covers the rich flood-plain soil with barren sand, and 
spreads desolation over almost its entire area. In the case of 
small streams the waste has been showered down from the val- 
ley sides during heavy rains in such quantities as, in many 
instances, to completely fill the stream’s channel and leave it to 
wander as an outcast hither and thither over the surface which 
it formerly drained and rendered fertile, but on which it now 
aids in producing marshes and malaria—in just retribution, 
as it were. for its owner’s neglect of physiographic laws. 

It might be well to note more fully the regular cycle of change 
through which the flood-plain passes before assuming the com- 
pletely wasted state. As the stream bed begins aggrading, over- 
flows become easier and hence more frequent; the mouths of 
the artificial drainage ditches leading from the flood-plain into 
the stream channel soon silt up; the drainage becomes poor, 
and as a consequence the land is longer after overflows in be- 
coming sufficiently dry for cultivation. As the aggradation 


eradually raises the stream surface nearer the surface of the 
flood-plain (c, ¢’, ¢”), the water level in the land on either side of 
the stream rises, pari passu, nearer the land surface (), 0’, 0") and 
thus constantly decreases the distance through which capillary 
attraction must act in raising water to the plant roots, and hence 
makes the land wetter and wetter until finally the culture of 
corn must be abandoned. Though now too wet for cultivation, 


154 APPLIED PHYSIOGRAPHY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 


the land may yet for a short time furnish a rather poor meadow, 
since comparatively little of the rich alluvial surface has yet been 
covered by the sand, most of which has been disposed of in filling 
the stream channel. Itis as though the stream realized its in- 
ability to directly attack the surface at first and so turned its 
attention to preparations for a more effective attack a little later 
by filling its channel with sand and thus placing itself in a posi- 
tion to rapidly complete the work of destruction when it has 
once actively begun. When it has built up its bed almost even 
with the flood-plain surface level this work of preparation ends 
and the work of direct destruction begins. Every overflow now 
cuts channels that lead away from the main stream, and spread 
sand far and wide over the plain, burying the fertile soil. As 
the depth of the sand increases, the flood-plain becomes more 
barren, until it is finally a waste of sand thinly overgrown with 
nettles and other sand-loving plants, while willows fringe the 
branching channels of the wandering stream, and here and there 
along the margins of the wasted plain and in other chance low 
places water collects and forms marshes that are soon overgrown 
with reedsand rushes. The cycle of destruction is now complete. 

Thus in some sections much of the formerly fertile ‘“ bottom 
land” has already been abandoned as worthless, much more can 
scarcely be cultivated profitably, while but little is so favorably 
situated as to escape entirely the ruinous effect of the continual 
clean cultivation of the hill slopes. 

The remedy for this destruction is so simple and self-evident 
to the student as hardly to require statement; the cotton crop 
must be rotated with some crop that will furnish an abundance 
of root fibers to hold the soil together and prevent it from wash- 
ing, and the hill slopes must be terrace-plowed. If this is 
done the degradation of the hill fields and the aggradation on 
the bottom fields will be checked; if this is not done all the 
most fertile land will soon become but barren wastes. 

Mention may be made of a lake of aggradation of the Red 
river (Louisiana) family, to be found in the northwestern part 
of Fairfield county, S. C., since it is due to the same general cause. 
From a broad open valley there runs back into the upland a broad 
side valley that contained a weak stream draining but a small 
area. When the master stream began agegrading, it set a pace 
with which the side stream could not keep up. Its mouth was 
sealed up, and it was forced to lake itself before gaining an exit, 
thus covering to a depth of eight or ten feet a considerable area 
that before the war had been planted in corn. 


SHEIK SAID 


The Société de Geographie, of this city, has just published a fine map 
of Africa. On looking over it I noticed that Sheik Said, on the south 
coast of Arabia, was given as French territory. This surprised me, as 
Philip’s map of the Nile valley gives it as an English possession, making 
Aden the center of a large territory, extending to and including Sheik 
_ Said. On consulting a German map I found it given neither as English 
nor French, but asa part of the province of the Yemen, and therefore 
Turkish. I then called on M. Gauthiot, general secretary of the Commer- 
cial Geographic Society, who informed me that it was positively French 
territory, although wrongfully occupied by a Turkish garrison. M. Gan- 
thiot having suggested certain authentic sources of information, I pro- 
ceeded to make further investigations, and in view of the growing interest 
in eastern affairs I venture to submit the result to the readers of Tur 
Nationan GeoGrapHic MAGAZINE. 

The territory of Bab-el-Mandeb was well known in antiquity. On its 
southern side was the important port of Okelis. The fall of the Roman 
power in Egypt and the Red sea brought also that of Okelis, whose ruins 
are still visible, and trade with India went by way of the Persian gulf. 
When, under the Sultan Selim the First, the Red sea regained its impor- 
tance, it was Aden that was selected as the chief port. Since the down- 
fall of the Kalifate the territory of Bab-el-Mandeb has been left to govern 
itself. It is inhabited by the tribe of the Akemi-ed-Dourein, who have 
always held their independence against the Turks. This independence 
was indirectly recognized both by Turkey and by England. It was of the 
sheik of the Akemi-ed-Dourein that the governor of Aden asked permis- 
sion to dig wells on the territory of Bab-el-Mandeb to obtain water for 
the garrison of Perim. A Turkish vessel having been wrecked on the 
Arabian coast south of Mokha, it was to this same sheik that her owner 
applied for help. In 1863 an English vessel was wrecked on the coast of 
Bab-el-Mandeb and looted by the natives. The English governor of Aden 
applied to the kaimakam of Mokha for redress, but the kaimakam said he 
could do nothing, as the Turkish authority did not extend south of Mokha. 

In October, 1868, the firm of Raband & Bazin, of Marseilles, entered 
into negotiations with the sheik of the Akemi-ed-Dourein, Ali Tabatt, 
and purchased from hima part of the territory of Bab-el-Mandeb, includ- 
ing the bay of Sheik Said and about 400,000 acres of land adjoining. 
Naturally England did not like to see France'take possession of so impor- 
tant a strategic point, but, not wishing to openly oppose France, she is 
said to have stirred up Turkey to claim it as included in her dominion, 
Accordingly asmall Turkish garrison landed in Turks’ bay to take pos- 
session of Sheik Said, but, warned by the French consul at Aden, the 
French ship Bruat was immediately dispatched to protect the small colony 
of Sheik Said. Early in 1870 the firm of Raband & Bazin erected a two- 
story building and began to lay in coal supplies. A few weeks later the 

155 


156 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Franco-Prussian war broke out, and England, having declared her neu- 
trality, refused to allow French ships to coal at Aden. The French goy- 
ernment then officially took possession of Sheik Said by making it a 
coaling station and a refuge for French warships. After the treaty of 
Frankfort Sheik Said was abandoned. Raband & Bazin continued to 
occupy it for some time, but finally withdrew, after lodging a declaration 
as to their rights and ownership with the Turkish authorities. In 1884 
the French press again took up the subject, and the government sent out 
some surveyors and engineers, who found the place occupied by a Turkish 
garrison. In 1885 the Turkish government officially announced its oceupa- 
tion by a notice published in a newspaper of Sana, the capital of the Yemen- 

It is very evident that the occupation—I mean a thorough military oecu- 
pation—of Sheik Said would be of the highest importance to France in 
view of the enormous development of her colonial empire, and especially 
of England’s continued occupation of Egypt. The way to the Indian 
ocean and the far East has become almost as important to France as it is 
to England, and it is hardly fair that one nation should possess all the 
keys to the gates of the famous waterway to the exclusion of all other 
nations. France’s present occupation of the territory of Obok, on the 
west side of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, with the port of Djibouti, is 
very good as a commercial position, but as a strategic point it can only 
acquire importance by the addition of Sheik Said on the east side. 

This incident of Sheik Said furnishes an example of inaccurate map- 
making by men who are apparently more zealous and patriotic than 
learned and accurate. Whatever may be said of the claims of France to 
the territory in question, it does not appear that England has ever had 
the shadow of a claim to it, and Mr Philip ought to know that the use of 
a brush and some color to make a territory appear to be either English, 
French, or Turkish, according to one’s patriotic ambitions, does not make 
itso. Geographers ought certainly to stick to official facts and not mislead 
by marking on their maps unofficial and inaccurate boundaries.* 


ERNEST DE SASSEVILLE. 
Paris, April 12, 1897. 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Bulletin of the Department of Labor. No. 9. Edited by Carroll D. Wright, 
Commissioner; Oren W. Weaver, Chief Clerk. Pp. 109-236. 

Rand, McNally & Co.’s Road Maps and Cycling Guide to Westchester County, 
New York. Chicago and New York: Rand, McNally & Co. 50 cents. 

Magnetic Declination in the United States. By Henry Gannett. From the 
Seventeenth Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey. Wash- 
ington, 1896. Pp. 208-440, with map and diagrams. 

Statistical Abstract of the United States. 1896. Nineteenth number. Pre- 
pared by the Bureau of Statistics, under the direction of the Secretary 
of the Treasury. Pp. x11 +400. Washington, 1897. 


*In the Times Atlas, London, 1896, Sheik Said is distinctly marked as a French 
possession. J. H. 


“ 
, 
> 
1 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 157 


The Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States for the year ending 
June 30, 1896. Prepared in the Bureau of Statistics, U. S. Treasury 
Department. Worthington C. Ford, Chief of Bureau. Vol. 1, pp. 
I-CxLviI + 1-760; vol. 1, pp. 761-1432. 


It is rarely that the bimonthly Bulletin of the Department of Labor 
fails to present some useful contribution to the literature of economic 
geography. Two articles in the March number are worthy of note in this 
connection: The Padrone System and Padrone Banks, by John Koren, 
and The Dutch Society for General Welfare, by Prof. J. Howard Gore, 
Ph. D., of the Columbian University. 

Nothing could better illustrate the extraordinery popularity of cycling 
than the publication for the express use of wheelmen of the attractive 
handbook and large-scale road maps of Westchester county, New York, 
recently issued by Rand, McNally & Co. While the easy accessibility to 
an immense population of the interesting and delightful region described 
will no doubt fully justify the publishers in their venture, the publication 
is none the less a notable one and worthy of high commendation. 

Henry Gannett, whose versatility of mind as a geographer, statistician, 
and diligent investigator in many other lines of scientific inquiry is con- 
tinually enriching our technical literature, has compiled for the Annual 
Report of the Geological Survey an elaborate series of tables and diagrams 
relative to the variation of the compass. While the chief aim of the 
author has been to show the approximate declination for the year 1900 
at 22,000 different points in the United States, he gives us an interesting 
historical review of the secular variation and briefly notices the various 
other changes to which the magnetic declination is subject. 

The high standard of excellence that has characterized the publica- 
tions of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department under Mr 
Worthington C. Ford is fully maintained in the Report on the Foreign 
Commerce and Navigation of the United States for the fiscal year 1895-'96 
and in the new number of the Statistical Abstract. The latter is more 
comprehensive and correspondingly more valuable than ever before. In 
a country whose official statistical publications are as voluminous as those 
of the United States, such an abstract is indispensable, and the provision 
made by Congress for its publication should be such as to admit of a care- 
ful analysis of such statistical data as may from time to time become 
available and of an absolutely accurate presentation of them in a sum- 


marized form. 
J. Ee 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute for April contains a valuable 
paper on ‘‘The Dairy Industry in the Colonies,” by Mr Samuel Lowe. 

The Scottish Geographical Magazine for April contains an excellent phys- 
ical and political description of Ceylon by Mr L. B. Clarence and an his- 
torical article treating of ‘‘The British in South America’’ by Colonel 
Howard Vincent. 


158 GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The Geographical Journal for April contains several articles of interest, 
including ‘‘ The First Crossing of Spitzbergen,” by Sir W. Martin Con- 
way; ‘‘Two Years’ Travel in Uganda, Unyoro, and on the Upper Nile,” 
by Lieutenant C. F. S. Vandeleur; ‘‘The Southern Borderlands of Af 
ghanistan,’’ by Captain A. H. McMahon; ‘The Perso-Baluch Bound- 
ary,” by Colonel Holdich, and ‘‘The River Oder.’’ The last article of 
the volume is by Professor A. W. Andrews on ‘‘ The Teaching of Geog- 
raphy in Relation to History.” This article has a spécial interest to 
members of the National*Geographie Society, inasmuch as it is in line 
with the course of afternoon lectures recently completed. 

The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, January-March, 
opens with an article entitled ‘‘ The Mendi Country and Some of the Cus- 
toms and Characteristics of its People,’’ by Rev. William Vivian. This 
is a little known region between Sierra Leone and Liberia. Sir W. Max- 
well contributes an article on the Results of the Ashanti Expedition in 
1895-96, which is supplemented by a description of the Niger River and 
Territories, by Major Hampden Jackson. The work of the Hausa Asso- 
ciation is summarized by Rev. W. Robinson, in a paper read at the Liver- 
pool meeting of the British Association and published here. The Botany 
and Zoology of Uganda and other parts of Equatorial Africa are the sub- 
ject of papers by Rev. F. C. Smith, and the number concludes with an 
excellent article on Queensland, by General Sir Henry W. Norman. 

The Transactions of the Liverpool Geographical Society for the year 1896 
include several interesting and valuable papers. The first, entitled “ Rail- 
ways in Africa,” by Major Darwin, describes not only the existing lines | 
of railway, but the lines of water communication and the railway routes 
needed in the future. Miss M. H. Kingsley writes on the ‘‘Ascent of 
Cameroons Peak and Travels in French Congo,” the narrative of an in- 
teresting journey. Mr Gray Hill writes the narrative of ‘‘A Journey to 
Petra,’”’? and Mr W. A. L. Fletcher of ‘“‘A Journey Toward Llassa.” Mr 
J. C. Ernest Parkes gives a short description of ‘‘ The Man-Eating People 
of the Imperri,” and Mr James Irvine furnishes a ‘‘ Description of the 
Kingdom of Benin,” written about the year 1630 and abridged from the 
folio edition of John Ogilby, published in 1670. The volume closes with 
a summary of the scientific results of Dr Nansen’s North Polar Expedi- 
tion, by Professor Mohn. 

The April Bulletin of the American Geographical Society is an exception- 
ally interesting number. Mr Cosmos Mindeleff writes on ‘‘ The Influence 
of Geographic Environment,” discussing its application to the Pueblo In- 
dians of New Mexico and Arizona. Dr George M. Dawson summarizes, 
in two and one-half pages, the ‘* Geographical Work in Canada” in the 
year 1896. Professor R. 8. Tarr continues his series of papers on ‘‘ The 
Physical Geography of New York State.’ Mr James Douglas furnishes 
an historical article entitled ‘‘The Consolidation of the Iroquois Confed- 
eracy,’’? and Mr Francis C. Nicholas contributes a paper upon the ‘‘ Eco-- 
nomic Importance of Geological and Physical Conditions in Tropical 
America.’’ The Washington letter of Mr F. H. Newell contains an ad- 
mirable summary of the situation regarding forest reserves. The ‘‘ Rec- 
ord of Geographical Progress’’ is exceptionally full, and this, with Map 
and Book Notices, closes the number. 


a. a 


TATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 159 


Among the recent publications in the Johns Hopkins Unive rsity 
Studies is one entitled ‘‘The Street Railway System of Philadelphia, its 
History and Present Condition,’”’ by Dr Frederic W. Speirs. The street 
railway system in that city commenced in 1858, when the first line was 
opened. The history of the development of the system was probably ver y 
similar to that of other American cities, extensions being sought by rail- 
way companies and promoters and strenuously opposed by the majority 
of the people living upon the threatened streets. In 1876 thesvstem had 
grown until it comprised 289 miles, operated by 17 separate companie S, 
which were associated in a pool, under the control of a board of railw: ay 
presidents. In 1880 the current began to set strongly toward monopoly, 
and the movement went on, until in 1895 all the mileage of the city, 
amounting to 430 miles, was in the hands of four companies, and in 1896 
the Union Traction Company, a new company formed for the purpose, 
obtained control of all the lines of Philadelphia, with the exception of 
one short line, 24 miles in length, the Hestonville, Mantua and Fairmount 
road. Besides giving a history of the lines, the paper treats in extenso of 
the financial aspect of the system, the price of franchise privileges, the 
principal item of which is the paving of the streets, estimated by the 
Bureau of Highways at $9,000,000. It contains a chapter on the public 
control of the railway system and upon municipal ownership and corporate 
influence in the city government. ‘‘ The Relations of the Railways to 
their Employés’’ is treated in a separate chapter. ; 

H. ¢ 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY, SESSION 1896-’97 


Special Meeting, March 29, 1897.—Fifth Monday afternoon illustrated 
lecture. President Hubbard in the chair. Prof. Benj. Ide Wheeler, of 
Cornell University, lectured on Greece. 


Regular Meeting, April 2, 1897.—Vice-President Gilbert in the chair. 
Mr H. M. Wilson and Mr Isaac Winston described instruments and 
methods used in spirit-leveling by the U. 8. Geological Survey and the 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey respectively. Illustration by instru- 
ments, maps, and diagrams. 


Special Meeting, April 5, 1897.—Sixth Monday afternoon illustrated lee- 
ture. President Hubbard in the chair. Rey. Dr Alex. Mackay-Smith 
lectured on Rome. 


Special Meeting, April 9, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. Vice- 
President Merriam read a paper, with lantern illustrations, on the Effects 
of Geographie Environment on Animal Life. 


Special Meeting, April 12, 1897.—Seventh Monday afternoon illustrated 
lecture. President Hubbard in the chair. Prof. Edwin A. Grosvenor, of 
Amherst College, lectured on Constantinople. 


Regular Meeting, April 16, 1897.—Secretary Gannett in the chair. The 
paper for the evening was on the Secular Variation of the Magnetic Dee- 


160 . MISCELLANEA 


lination in the United States, by the chairman, with maps and diagrams, 
followed by an address by Mr G. W. Littlehales on the Magnetic Com- 
pass in Modern Navigation. 


Special Meeting, April 19, 1897.—Eighth Monday afternoon illustrated 
lecture. President Hubbard in the chair. Prof. Wm. H. Goodyear, of 
the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, lectured on Venice and Genoa. 


Special Meeting, April 23, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. Dr 
T. GC. Mendenhall, President of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, lec- 
tured, with lantern illustrations, on Weighing the Earth. 


Special Meeting, April 26, 1897.—Ninth, and last, Monday afternoon 
illustrated lecture. President Hubbard in the chair. Dr David J. Hill 
lectured on America. After the lecture a number of lantern illustrations 
of American scenery were thrown on the screen by Mr B. P. Murray. 


Regular Meeting, April 30, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. Hon. 
Martin A. Knapp, Commissioner of Interstate Commerce, read a paper, 
with lantern illustrations, on Some Geographic Effects of Modern Methods 
of Transportation. 


Evections.—March 26.—J. M. Boutwell, Pay-Inspector A. Burtis, U. 
S. N., Col. R. M. Calhoun, Lieut. G. B. Harber, U.S. N., E. T. Parsons, 
Louis R. Peak, Powhatan Robertson, Hon. N. D. Sperry, Wallace Streator. 


April 9.—Capt. John Callahan, Rev. Asa 8S. Fiske, Miss L. N. Forrest, 
Lieut. F. M. Kemp, U. 8. A., Mrs Porter King, W. A. McFarland, Wm. 
A. McKenney, Dr Grace Roberts, Miss Grace C. Sheldon, Miss Mary A. 
Spencer, Julius Ulke, Jr. 


Deatus.—Major Charles E. Bendire, U. S. A.; Rear-Admiral Richard 
W. Meade, U.S. N. 


MISCELLANEA 


The map of the United States published by the General Land Office in 
1896 represented in broad lines the original territory of the United States 
and the several accessions made to it by purchase or otherwise. Among 
the mistakes perpetuated by this map is that of representing ‘‘ Oregon,”’ 
i. é., the present states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and part of Mon- 
tana, as a portion of the Louisiana purchase. This mistake is taken as a 
text by Colonel James O. Broadhead for a critical review entitled ‘‘ The 
Louisiana Purchase; Extent of Territory Acquired by the Purchase,”’ 
published by the Missouri Historical Society. Colonel Broadhead shows 
most conclusively that Louisiana extended on the northwest only to the 
limits of the Mississippi drainage basin. The conclusion is not a new one, 
but we are obliged to Colonel Broadhead for many new items of evidence. 
If anything were needed to settle the matter beyond peradventure, the 


proofs which he brings forward should be conclusive. 
BEG: 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


‘G a oe 
= ae 


CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 


THE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 

solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
it has an equal. The road-bed is literally hewed out of the eternal rocks; it is ballasted with stone 
from one end to the other; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
Variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


O08 LAKE CRESCENT 


TROUT 
FISHING 
EXTRAORDINARY. 


R EW species of trout in a new region. If you 

ag care for fine TROUT FISHING, by all means visit 

LAKE CRESCENT. 

H Go and tussle with the famous BLUE BACKS that 
weigh eleven pounds and more, and are thirty inches 

E in length. 

R The Lake is easily reached from PORT ANGELES, 


Washington. 
Send Six Cents for our new WONDERLAND '07 
N and read about the spot. 
CHAS. S. FEE, Gen. Pass. Agent, St. Paul, Minn. 


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Penetrates with its main line or branches eight States 
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junction with its friendly allied connections reaches all 
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Washington and N. ashville | via Salisbur y, Asheville, Knoxville and 
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Niel is for Map Folders. 


R. D. CARPENTER, Géneral Agent, 271 Broadway, New York City. 
L. S. BROWN, General Agent Passenger Department, Washington, D. ee 
Jo 28h WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. : 


S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 
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W. H. TAYLOH, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


The Mutual Life Insurance Co. 


OF NEW YORK, 
RICHARD A. McCURDY, President, 


Is the Largest Insurance Company in the World. 


The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 
. York SHOW THAT The Mutual Life 

Has a Larger Premium Income - - - ($39,000,000) 

More Insurance in Force - - - - -  ($918,000,000) 


A Greater Amount of Assets - = - -  ($235,000,000) 
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Writes More New Business” - - - -  ($186,000,000) 
And Pays More to Policy-holders - - ($25,000,000 in 1896) 


THAN ANY OTHER COMPANY. 


It has paid to Policy-holders since | 
its organization, in 1848, frie oa - $437,005,195.29 


ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 
WALTER R. GILLETTE, General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer, 
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WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 


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Everything First-class. First-class People patronize First-class Lines. 
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€ Catalogues and Information at Washington Office, No. 1416 F Street. 


AN IMPROVED METHOD OF KEEPING THE SCORE IN 


; 


DUPLICATE WHIST, COMPASS WalST, STRAIGHT WhIST AND EUCHRE, 


Since Duplicate and Com- 
pass Whist have come into 
fashion there has been an 
unprecedented revival of in- 
terest in the game, due to 
the fact that mere /wck is to 
a large extent eliminated by 
a comparison of the scores 
made in the play of the same 
hands by different players. 


The one thing needed to 
perfect the new method has 
been a convenient device 
by means of which the score 
made on the first round can 
be concealed until after the 
replay of the hands, as a 
knowledge of the first score 
often enables a good player 
to make a decisive gain, and 
matches are lost aud won on 
just such little chances. 


A Washington player has at 
length invented and put upon 
the market at a very low price a 
little device which admirably 
answers the purpose, and at the 
same time serves as a pretty 
and useful table ornament, 
marker, and pencil rest. It is 
called the ‘‘Cosmos COUNTER,”’’ 
and consists of a little polished 
wood tablet with a metal key- 
board that can be clamped down 
on the score in such a way as to 
bring 24 little metal plates over 
the 24 spaces in the ‘‘score”’ 
column of the card, for use in 
concealing each first score as 
soon as recorded and until the 
hand is replayed (in duplicate 
whist) or the entire series fin- 
ished (in compass whist). 


Whist players will at once see 
the advantage of this new 
method of keeping the score, as 
it effectually prevents their op- 
ponents at the same or another 
table from taking advantage, 
either by accident or design, of 
a knowledge of what the hand 
is capable. The trouble with 
duplicate whist, especially, is 


that the replay is liable to be in- | 


fluenced by memory of the cards 
and score, and anything that 
helps to confuse such recollec- 
tion is a great gain to fair play. 


The ‘‘Cosmos Score Card,”’ 
prepared for use with the 
counter, shows several new fea- 
tures, such as a heading for both 
Duplicate and Compass Whist 
and (on the reverse) for Straight 
Whist, Euchre, &c., thus ena- 
bling the same counter and score 
to be used for any game of cards. 


Cosmos Counters, with tablet 
of quartered oak, maple, or 
birch, and metal in either gold 
or silver finish, 50 cts. apiece ; 6 
for $2.75; 12 for $5; by mail, 4 
cts. aplece extra. Cosmos Score 
Cards, 25 cts. per package of 50; 
12 packages for $2.50; by mail 
free of postage. 


Ask to see samples at any 
stationer’s, or order direct from 
the General Agents. 


WN 


Cosmos Duplicate WHist Score 


For use 


yden, Washington, D, 


1895, by 


Copyright 


E. MORRISON PAPER CO., 


COMPASS WHIST 


score | totats | tRuMP 


OPPONENTS 


DUPUICATE WHEHIST 


ON A niP WEN 


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LS) 


1009 Penna. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


' pn eaee””~6 6a De 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHysIcAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOI,UME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - . - - 

GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - - J. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - 

BEACHES AND ‘TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N.S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof, I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - c Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller ; 
THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND Its HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


Remit with order to AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY, 


New York - Cincinnati = Chicago 


Ripans Tabules assist digestion. 


TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


fee the March, 1897, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
subjects, such as Earth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its second 
‘volume. ‘The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
_ making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
of research, not only in terrestrial, but in cosmical physics, that this Journal appeals to a large class of 
investigators. The geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support. 
Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs. Barus, Borgen, Chree, 
Eschenhagen, Littlehales, Riicker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo, 


' Future numbers will contain : 


‘¢ The Earth, a Great Magnet,’’ 
BY DR... J. 'A. FLEMING. 


‘‘ The Electrification of the Atmosphere,”’ 


: By Pror. ALEXANDER MCADIE. 
4 
‘‘ The Height of the Aurora,”’ 
" By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 
9 ‘‘The Distribution of Magnetic Observatories,” 
+ (Illustrated), 

By Pror. MAX ESCHENHAGEN, 
ete. ete: 


: The size of the Journal is royal octavo, a volume embracing about 200 pages. Domestic subscription 
_ @price: Two dollars; single numbers, fifty cents, Foreign subscription price: Nine shillings, nine 


b 
_ marks, or eleven francs. Address: 
ve - TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 
% The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohie. 


at Si). 


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° bo SNe 
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\ EOPLE like to read about the great % oA’ Lae \ 
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\ New Orleans, © © PAPER, and every typographical de- \ 
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WI My Mi 7, My My My 7, My 7, Uy I Wy Yy Wy Wy Wy Wy Y "y 4 4 4 4 wy 4 N 


; Be CONTENTS GF: 
| WONDERLAND "97 


eter pecaticine briefly the historic incidents of the region from 180%, its 
- geographic, p olitico-economic, and other valuable features. A chapter of special 
lows b public-school teachers and pupils. 


ARK REGION. 


I eee descriptive of the beautiful lake region of Minnesota. 


~ VALLEY. 


f description of this well-known farming section. 


CATTLE RANGE. 
Kel 
"YELLOWSTONE, PARK, 


ww 
oa 
OJ 


thy, varied study SF the mining regions of Montana, Idaho, and the now 
owned KOOTENAI country. Special visits were made lo these regions to ob- 
ain oe for this article . 


es devoted to four of the mighty snow-covered peaks of the North Pa- 
¢ Coast. 


HEART OF THE OLYMPICS. 


"Anew and wild region, LAKE Crescent, in the Olympic Range, N. W. Wash., 
brought to the Yourist’s atteution. The trout found there are something? 


, 


A brief article on this Wonder of Wonderlands. 


THE NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY desires to place this publication 
—_Which is profusely illustrated, printed in good type, and has au 
; attractive cover, in a HUNDRED BOUSe or eh homes. 


mang the Conten 7 


Be 


The Deserts and. of . 


JUDD & DETWEU,ER, PRINTERS, WASHINGTON, D.C. _ 


scoeraphic 


_ ‘Magazine 
AN ILLUSTRATED, MONTHLY * 


t \ 


Editor: JOHN HYDE 


|_| Associate Editors 


GREELY |W J McGEE HENRY GANNETT 
3, HART MERRIAM. ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORB 


: 


| ~ CONTENTS 


OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT IN. THE DEVELOP- 
Tf OF CIVILIZATION IN PRIMITIVE MAN. 
a GARDINER G. HUBBARD, 161 


PAGE 


NAL FOREST RESERVES. FREDERICK H. NEWELL. 177 


RAIS, , 


LVILLE, with portrait. 187 
IC SERIALS, p. 290; PROCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL 
APHIC SOCIETY, p. 191. 


* 


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BLISHED BY THE. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


Y 
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NAT. GEOG. MAG. VOL. VIII, 1897, PL. 28 


ENGINEER-IN-CHIEF GEO. W. MELVILLE, U. S. NAVY 


Lisi 


fon 
National Geographic Magazine 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT IN 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION 
IN PRIMITIVE MAN* 


By Hon. GarpINer G. Hupsparp, LI. D., 


President of the National Geographic Society 


I have selected as the subject for my annual address “ The 
Effect of Geographic Environment on the Development of Civili- 
zation in Primitive Man.” 

The interest of this subject is not confined to the history of the 
various stages of life through which man has passed, for his past 
modifies our views of the present and is a prophecy of the future. 

It is my province to treat of the effects of different environ- 
ments on the development of primitive man. This development, 
though on the whole beneficial, has ever been a mingling of good 
and evil. Its progress has been hitherto intermittent—originally 
very slow, requiring thousands of years, possibly tens of thou- 
sands, to gain slight results ; advancing sometimes with quicker 
pace, often retrograding, sometimes apparently dying out, proba- 
bly because its progress is ofteninvisible. It has never been uni- 
form in any race, nation, or country, though progressing more 
rapidly in higher stages and in modern times. 

That civilization has been and must be beneficial to mankind 
we cannot doubt, though every upward step has been the cause 
of suffering, loss, and death in many ways before unknown. The 
discovery of America was followed by the death of tens of thou- 
sands of negroes in Africa and of Indians in America, The civ- 

* Annual presidential address, delivered before the National Geographic Society, 
March 1, 1897. 
an 


162 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


ilization of the Hawaiian and other islands of the Pacific ocean 
caused a great diminution in the number of their inhabitants 
and the entire extinction of some tribes. No discovery or inven- 
tion was ever made, whether of fire, of the bow, of gunpowder, 
of printing, steam, or electricity, of the telegraph, telephone, or 
bicycle, that did not bring with it changes in civil, social, and 
private life and in business transactions. The greater the value 
of the invention, the greater the disturbance of established habits, 
trade, and business. The cotton gin enriched the South, but 
made slavery profitable and led to our civil war. The rail- 
road, steamship, and telegraph revolutionized the entire com- 
merce of the world, and ruined many wealthy and long estab- 
lished mercantile and commercial firms. The civilization of 
past ages was never the enlightenment and elevation of the 
whole nation, it was the upbuilding of the higher classes in 
knowledge, culture, wealth, and power, and the oppression and 
debasement of the lower classes. 

Comfort, happiness, and length of life are ever increasing with 
civilization. Individual strife is prevented by law, warfare is 
controlled, new and improved varieties of food, shelter, and 
clothing add to the sum of human happiness. Civilized man 
has become a highly developed and sensitive organism, with in- 
creased susceptibilities to both pain and pleasure. It is the pur- 
pose and effect of modern civilization to offer opportunities which 
shall raise the whole race to an elevation never yet attained. 

One of the most striking features in the development of civili- 
zation, though hitherto little considered, is its relation to and 
dependence on geographic environment. In our earliest studies 
of man we find him the creature of his environment, only pro- 
gressing in those directions and at that rate to which he is 
forced by his necessities. As we follow him through different 
and progressive stages of development, we find still the influ- 
ence of geographic environment in directing, in stimulating, 
or retarding his progress. Indeed, so marked is the effect of 
geographic environment on any primitive people that, given the 
environment, the geographer can determine the character, re- 
ligion, and habits of life of that people. 

We were formerly taught that some four or five thousand 
years back in the world’s history a man, perfect and complete, 
was created, the ancestor of the human race, to whom was given 
lordship over the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air and 
dominion over all nature. Modern research and the discovery 


uF 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 163 


of the remains of ancient man have proved that no less than 
twenty thousand years, probably a much longer time, has passed 
since he first appeared upon the earth, and that he was then 
little superior, either in mental or moral qualities, to the animals 
by which he was surrounded, while greatly their inferior in 
strength. Whatever his origin, the causes which lifted him from 
this low estate proceeded from without and not from within. 

The earliest traces of man are found in what is known by 
geologists as the Pliocene formation. They lie buried in deposits 
of gravel or in caves, and consist of fragments of chipped flints 
pointed into spear or arrow heads, and of bones (and in some 
cases of stones) shaped into rude fish-hooks. 

With these flints are found bones of animals, with probably a 
few human bones. From these remains we gather that man had 
not only learned to defend himself from the wild animals about 
him, but probably to use their flesh for food and their skins for 
clothing. He lived in caves, in trees, or in rude huts sometimes 
built on piles or shell walls sufficiently separated from the land 
to make him secure from attack. We have no evidence that the 
use of fire was known to him. Gradually, step by step, we see 
him by slow advances become through geographic environment 
a hunter, a fisherman, a nomad. From a dweller in caves and 
trees he becomes a dweller in tents—finally gathering into famil- 
ies, tribes, cities, nations. 

So much and so little do the gravels of river beds and rocks 
tell us of early man. But in existing peoples, in various parts 
of the earth—in the Dwarfs and Hottentots of Africa; in the 
Andamans of the Indian ocean; in the Papuans of the islands 
of the Pacific; in Tierra del Fuego; in the aborigines of Aus- 
tralia; in the inhabitants of the Arctic regions—we find man 
still in a very low stage of development, corresponding to, and 
little superior to, that of the drift and cave men. That these 
races have continued through so many ages in the same condi- 
tion, and that others have risen through successive stages to the 
highest civilization, we believe to be the result of geographic en- 
vironment. Had the environment been everywhere the same, 
progress must have been the same over the whole earth. But 
with every degree of latitude, every change of altitude, every 
variation of climate, every. variation of rainfall, conditions are 
changed and progress is hastened or retarded. 

Let us go back to primitive man as we still find him in Equa- 
torial Africa, in the Arctic regions, in Central Asia, as he was in 


164 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


Europe for countless ages, and trace the effect of geographic 
environment on his condition in each of these countries. 

The whole of Africa was at one time probably occupied by the 
Dwarfs or Hottentots. The climate is warm, clothing is unnec- 
essary; they require but slight shelter for protection against 
sun and rain. Their dwellings are either in trees or rude huts, 
with thatched roofs, sometimes open on every side. Thestreams 
and jungles furnish fish, birds, and animals for food and also 
roots and fruits. They become expert in laying snares and traps, 
in catching fish,and in hunting. Further needs they have none. 
There is neither necessity nor inducement for other exertion or 
for further development. Their environment has made them 
and keeps them what they are. A stronger race of negroes from 
the north, with better weapons, drove them into the hottest 
jungles of Central and South Africa; there they remain. Again, 
other races appeared, and to maintain their position the negroes 
must improve their weapons, must learn to make bows and 
poisoned arrows, spears and javelins, must clear spaces in the 
forest, erect palings around them, gather within these enclosures, 

and inventa system of alarms. To protect themselves from wild 
beasts they learned the use of fire and invented means of lighting 
a fire by friction. Gradually they gathered into families, and fire 
was used for cooking animal food. Sometimes the meat was 
hung over the fire on a spit; sometimes cooked in ant-holes 
with hot stones. The date and cocoanut palm supplied them 
with food, shelter, and light. They had advanced a stage beyond 
the Dwarfs and Hottentots, but as their environment encouraged 
no further progress they remained stationary. 

In the Arctic regions the environment and therefore the con- 
ditions of life are different, but equally unfavorable to progress. 
In these regions clothing is a necessity, and to obtain the skins 
of sea and land animals the Arctic man was driven to invent 
snares and weapons and to make rude boats. In a land of snow 
and ice he must have a warm, tight shelter as well as clothing; 
so he builds huts of blocks of stone or ice covered with snow. 
He makes a fire and gathers moss for fuel. As his surroundings 
afford him scanty vegetable food, and that only in the short 
summer, he dries berries and mosses; he smokes and freezes the 
flesh of bear, seal, and walrus, and lays in a supply for winter 
use. The animals which surround him are generally not the 
ferocious beasts of warmer climates; the dog and reindeer become 
his companions and friends. Gradually he learns to use them 


_ 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 165 


in his service, and thus from the environment came the domesti- 
cation of animals in the Arctic regions. The denizen of the far 
north cannot cultivate the ground, for the frozen earth refuses to 
yield any return for his labor. All the energies of the Arctic 
man are expended in contending with the elements and striving 
to secure from sea, snow, and ice the oil, skins, food, and habita- 
tion necessary for the support of life. His body is enervated 
by the intense cold, and his mental, physical, and moral growth 
is dwarfed and stunted. 

Thus we see that the geographical environments of intense 
heat and intense cold develop different faculties, but in neither 
does man progress toward civilization. 

Let us turn to a temperate climate, to the vast steppes and 
plateaus of Asia, which extend from southeastern Russia, past 
the Caspian and Ural seas, northeastward and eastward through 
upper Turkestan and Siberia to Mongolia; from the Black sea 
to Bering sea and the Pacific ocean—the greater part, indeed, of 
Asia. Here we have a different geographic environment—a 
temperate but arid climate, vast steppes, where, on account of 
the drought, agriculture has always been impossible. Over these 
steppes immense flocks and herds of wild goats, camels, wild 
horses, and buffalo roam now as thousands of years ago. Here, 
in ages past, man, following where they led, gradually gathered 
them into herds and tamed and domesticated them. The herds 
must be cared for, be kept together, and guarded ; goats and cows 
must be daily milked ; must be pastured in summer, and the wild 
grass gathered for their winter use. Man learned to breed cattle, 
to increase his flocks and herds, for on them he depended for 
food, for clothing, for covering for his tents, and for all the other 
necessaries of life. His environment forced him into habits of 
foresight, of thrift, of thoughtfulness ; and thus man took the first 
step in civilization. He ceased to be a savage and became a 
nomad ; he acquired property, and for thousands of years lived, 
as now, the shepherd’s life. Flocks and herds belonged to the 
family or tribe, and the land where they grazed was regarded as 
the property of the tribe, from which the flocks and shepherds 
of other tribes were driven away. 

Gradually the family relation was established. The father or 
his eldest or strongest son.became the patriarch, and the families 
of a common ancestor were united into a tribe with the patriarch 
as its chief. Gradually the idea of social life and patriarchal 
government was developed, but there was neither city nor state, 


166 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


no close contact of man with man, no assembling into com- 
munities. The men tended their flocks ; the women learned to 
spin and weave; some ideas of individual rights were developed. 
The nomad condition of life gave form to his habitation—a tent 
easily moved. 

From Asia we turn to Europe, a country from its geographic 
environment better adapted for the advancement of civilization 
than any other quarter of the world. Its two long, narrow penin- 
sulas, Greece and Italy, stretch southward into the Mediter- 
ranean; its seacoast, longer in proportion to the land surface 
than that of any other continent, is indented with excellent har- 
bors on the north and south, with deep bays and gulfs; its islands 
of Great Britain, its temperate climate, its abundant rainfall and 
numerous rivers, its mountain ranges, easily crossed, afford facili- 
ties for the development of trade and commerce, of science, the 
arts, and civilization of all kinds not possessed by any other 
country ; yet this land, so well suited for the progress of civiliza- 
tion, was unfitted to be the birthplace of civilization. 

The life of primitive man in Europe has been longer and more 
thoroughly studied than in any other part of the world. Traces of 
the different stages in the development of primitive man through 
the Stone, Bronze, and Iron ages have been found in many places. 


We learn of the life of the Drift and Cave men and of the time 


when they lived from their implements and from the bones of 
animals. Their implements resemble those found in other con- 
tinents. This, however, does not prove the acquaintance of one 
race with the work of another in a different continent, but that 
similar stages of development occurring in different places and at 
different times, produce a like results. These implements, which 
are very rude and simple, are made of the stones most easily 
worked, and show by their design that they could have been 
made only by man. In France and England these remains have 
been found in the banks of streams 50, 80, or even 100 feet above 
the present level of the river. The men of this period belong to 
the earliest Stone Age, and are called “ Drift men.” Their im- 
plements are found with fauna extinct before our earliest knowl- 
edge of natural history and known to us only as fossils, or else 
with the remains of such animals as the reindeer and woolly 
rhinoceros, now found only in arctic or tropical climates. 
These Drift and Cave men lived the life of all primitive men, 
hunting and fishing, or eating roots and the fruits of trees. 
Neither in their physical nor mental condition were they much 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 167 


superior to the wild beasts among which they lived. They had 
the mind of a child, with the strong animal passions of a man. 

Great mounds, or cromlechs or barrows, as they are called in 
England and France, were probably built by these early races, 


possibly at the same time that a race of semicivilized men were 


building the pyramids of Egypt. The cromlechs and barrows, 
made at different times, are of different forms. Many of them 
were used as burial places. In the long barrows the dead were 
generally buried in a crouching or sitting posture. Major Powell 
tells us that the property used exclusively by the individual, 
such as clothing, ornaments, and weapons, was inherent in the 
individual, and to prevent strife was buried with the owner, 
together with food for the long journey. 

The family relation and marriage were in their first germ, and 
the idea of property was scarcely more than that of the wild 
beasts. Many wild animals protect their right of property in 
the prey they take and in the females of their kind. 

We have no certain knowledge when these men lived, but the 
great geographic changes which have taken place must have re- 
quired thousands of years. They seemed to disappear from 
Europe; possibly they were destroyed by the changes of climate 
during the glacial era, which, as is now known, was not as great 
and far-reaching in Asia as in Europe and America. Some 
geologists do not believe that man lived in the glacial period ; 
others that the Drift men of Europe were conquered by immi- 
grant hordes from the East, who had reached a progress some- 
what higher, and that thus the first upward step in European 
progress came from the influence of the Orient. 

The superiority of the men of the later Stone and Bronze Ages 
is confirmed by comparisons between the skulls and other re- 
mains of the Stone and Bronze Ages. The skulls of the Stone 
Age are narrower and the men smaller than those of the Bronze 
Age. Those who lived ina limestone or volcanic country, or 
where there were fissures and caves in the rocks, made their 
homes in the rocks and caves. In such places as the Marne 
valley, where the rocks are soft, they excavated caves, and later 
built their habitations of limestone, shaping them after the cave. 
The weapons they used were superior in workmanship and 
variety to those of the Drift men, being often ground and 
polished. Charred wood has been found in these caves, show- 
ing a knowledge of the use of fire, but no pottery. 

Far removed and strange as this life of the Stone Age may 


168 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


seem to us, it is not more unlike our own than that of many of 
the tribes who within the present generation have lived in South 
America, Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Pacific. There is 
scarcely a custom, a habit, or an implement of primitive man 
that has not been found among one or more of these tribes. The 
Fuegians have been described by Darwin and Captain Ross, who 
visited Tierra del Fuego in 1839 and 1840. Captain Ross tells us | 
“ They are naked, except a sealskin mat thrown over the shoul- 
ders, living in a dome-shaped hut about the size of a hay stack, 
formed by branches of trees driven into the ground in a circle, 
the ends brought together at the top, and the interstices filled 
with smaller branches. They use stone fish-hooks and live on 
fish or any other food they can find, frequently eating it raw. 
They have no pottery, but make vessels for drinking and cooking 
of birch bark. They do not seem to have any form of govern- 
ment.” Darwin says, “‘ They are ill-looking, badly proportioned, 
stunted in their growth, their skins filthy and greasy, their voices 
discordant.” On the Baltic, in a different environment, we find 
other traces of primitive man. Here are found great mounds 
of shells, bones, refuse of fish and wild animals, and a few pieces 
of earthenware, which show the beginning of pottery. In the 
mounds on the Baltic sea are found shells of salt-water oysters 
that do not now live in the Baltic, whose waters, formerly salt, 
are now brackish, showing the long period that must have elapsed 
since the mounds were formed. Thus the seashore adds its tes- 
timony to that of the rocks as to the antiquity of the race. 

Their geographic environment taught them also navigation 
by the use of boats for fishing. The simplest form is a float, 
which may consist of a single log, trimmed of its branches, or of 
a great branch with the boughs remaining. Some races of 
people use bladders and inflated skins or cocoanuts, while the 
Californian ties reeds in bundles and thus forms a float. The 
earliest means of propulsion was paddling with the hands and 
feet. Gradually use was made of wind power, by holding up a _ 
leaf, bough, skin, or article of clothing as a sail; then a mat 
raised by one or two sticks. The mast and sail followed. The 
man who found that a pointed log made better headway than a 
square one had made great progress in shipbuilding. The 
shapely and skillfully constructed vessels of the present day are 
only the gradual evolution of the primitive log. 

We have referred to the migrations of the men of the later Stone 
Age from the East. Without this habit progress and civilization 


_ 
fl 
q 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 169 


would have been impossible. “No community,” says Maine, 
“when first known by the historian, can certainly be said to 
occupy its original seat.” No instance can be found where a 
race has risen from savagery to civilization without contact and 
intermingling with races from countries where different environ- 
ments have developed different intellectual activities. If, how- 
ever, the disparity is too great between the old and the immi- 
grant race, then the inferior fades away, for scarcely a single 
race has been found that can bear the contact. In trying to 
civilize we destroy. 

We have referred to the immigrants from the east as having 
advanced the progress of Europe. These emigrations were the 
result of environment. As population increased in the plains 
of Asia, the land became insufficient for the support of a nomad 
people. with their vast herds of cattle. Few realize the amount 
of land required for the support of even a single family; the 
hunter and fisher required for his sustenance and that of his 
family a tract of one hundred square miles. Forasmall nomad 
tribe on the steppes of Asia, 500 to 600 square miles are required. 
In these regions man will ever remain content to be a savage or 
a barbarian. Where agriculture, trade, and industry are com- 
bined, the same land that supported one hunter is sufficient for 
the sustenance, in India and Europe, of 10,000 inhabitants, and 
in the state of Massachusetts of 25,000.  One-fourth of the popu- 
lation of the world—savages and barbarians, constant wan- 
derers—require three-fourths of the surface of the earth for their 
support. As population increases, the time invariably comes 
when the land is insufficient for the support of the increased 
number. The people must die of hunger or immigrate to other 
lands. Such immigrations, apparently always from the east to 
the west, or from the north to the south, have frequently occurred 
in the world’s history. They have usually followed the same 
route, through passes and over plains to rich fertile regions. 
Forced by hunger, great hordes of Huns and Mongolians gath- 
ered under great warriors, of whom no record exists, left the 
plains of Asia, long before the time of Alaric or Attila, and 
wandered over the steppes, through the Pass of Dariel in the 
Caucasus to Asia, and on across Asia Minor and the Dardanelles 
to Greece, or else traveled across Russia, north of the Black sea, 
into Hungary, and thence spread over Europe. These early 
nomads belonged to the period of the Stone and Bronze Ages, 
and met in Europe the men of the later Stone Age, and as their 


170 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


development was higher and their weapons were better, they 
easily overpowered the Europeans and mingling with them 
formed a new people or race. The Bronze Age was thus intro- 
duced into Europe. not as a progression from one stage to 
another, but by the invasion of a superior civilization. The im- 
migrants drove their flocks and herds with them, for in the 
Bronze Age the larger proportion of the bones are those of 
domestic animals, while in the early Stone Age no bones of 
domestic animals are found, and very few in the later Stone 
Age. The inhabitants of Europe slowly passedfrom the Bronze 
to the Iron Age, from savagery to barbarism, and there progress 
ceased. How long this stagnation continued we cannot tell— 
possibly many thousands of years. The population of hunters 
and fishermen were satisfied and contented with their lot. 

We have traced, in Equatorial Africa, in the Arctic regions, 
and in Europe the slow development of man, so far only as for- 
ced by his geographical environment. It is to the east that we 
must look for those conditions, which raised man through suc- 
cessive stages of savagery and barbarism to the highest civiliza- 
tion the world has ever known. In Egypt we find a people iso- 
lated on the north by the Mediterranean, on the east and west 
by the Desert, and on the south by the Cataracts, and thus pro- 
tected for long ages from any foreign enemy. Their surround- 
ings largely influenced the religion of the people. The desert 
which forever encroached on them was to them the type of death, 
while the Nile, their greatest blessing, to which they owed all the 
fertility of their valley, represented life. The sun and moon, in 
all their various phases, were deified and worshiped, as were the 
sky and wind. Every mysterious natural phenomenon which 
influenced their daily lives became an object of worship. 

More wonderful than the Nile is the valley of Mesopotamia. 
It is about 1,200 miles in length, extending from the Persian 
gulf almost to the Mediterranean. A long range of mountains 
runs along the northern side; the boundless desert, on the other, 
stretches across Arabia and over the Red sea, through Africa to 
the Atlantic ocean. Through this valley flow the Euphrates and 
Tigris in nearly parallel lines, uniting shortly before they reach 
the Persian gulf. The fauna and flora of this valley are very 
rich and abundant; wheat and millet grow spontaneously. “So 
great was the fertility of the soil, according to Herodotus, grain 
commonly returned two hundred fold to the sower, and occa- 
sionally three hundred fold, while wheat, barley, sesame, ochrys, 


7 


¥ 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 171 


palms, apples, and many kinds of shelled fruit grew wild, as 
wheat still does in the neighborhood of Anah.” Pliny, too, says 
that wheat was cut twice and afterward was good for sheep. 
The valley between the rivers varies in width from ten to one 
hundred miles. These rivers in different spring months bring 
down the rich detritus from the mountains, inundating the val- 
ley, and as the water subsides the valley is covered with rich 
and abundant vegetation. 

Here, many believe, was the Garden of Eden, and the reputed 
site of the Tower of Babel is daily visited. The region was 
early inhabited, and its fertility made it in all ages one of the 
richest portions of the world. Its aborigines on the Persian 
gulf lived by fishing, but as the population increased, they 
were forced to follow up the Tigris and Euphrates into the desert. 
For awhile food was abundant, but with the increase of popula- 
tion the supply failed. The conditions of environment taught 
man to depend on the inundation and to increase the amount of 
habitable land by digging irrigating canals. Eventually, thou- 
sands of large and small streams connected the two rivers and 
flowed southward into the desert. The valley and the desert 
thus became a garden, and the population rapidly increased. 
The irrigating canals were continually being enlarged, and for 
many generations the country sustained a population so vast 
that an ancient writer says that ‘‘ for hundreds of miles a night- 
ingale could fly from branch to branch of the fruit trees and a 
cat walk from wall to wall and housetop to housetop.” 

As there is little rainfall, the country was almost destitute of 
wood, and the river mud was used instead of wood and made 
into bricks. These, with or without straw, were hardened by the 
sun or fire and used for building adobe houses. Tablets were 
also made of mud or bitumen, which is found here in large 
quantities, and while soft, cuneiform inscriptions were written 
upon them and hardened in the sun. These have remained even 
to the present day. Large quantities of mud and clay from the 
canals were thrown out, sometimes banked up, forming small 
hills or mounds, upon which temples and palaces were built. 
Canes and reeds, growing along the banks of the canals, were cut 
and used for the roofs of buildings. They were inclined toward 
each other, joined at the top, coated with clay, and formed the 
roofs of the houses. In the temples and great palaces the canes 
were bent into an arch, supported underneath by other canes, 
making a wicker arch-work, on which layer after layer of mud 


172 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


or bitumen was placed, until a solid roof was formed. Thus the 
architecture of the people here as elsewhere was the result of 
geographic environment. 

As the population in Mesopotamia became dense, the people 
were forced into communities. These grew into towns and great 
cities. The patriarchal system still continued, though with 
greatly changed conditions. All related by blood or adoption 
were regarded as members of the tribe and all on an equality. 
The patriarch retained the ownership of the property, with power 
of life and death. With the increase of wealth, luxury, and 
power the people deteriorated. They lost the personal liberty 
and freedom of hunters and fishermen, and later of shepherds. 
The patriarch became a despot, the nomad a slave. 

From the ruins of cities scattered all over this valley, we learn 
much of the history of this people, their character, habits, and 
manner of life. In Nipper, the city most recently excavated, 
by gentlemen connected with the University of Pennsylvania, 
tha debris over one of its temples is 37 feet in thickness, the 
accumulation of about 4,000 years. Thirty feet below the ruins 
is the temple built by Mullil about 6,000 years before Christ, 
and here have been found monuments, pottery, and other evi- 
dences of civilization. The inscriptions even then had ceased 
to be pictures and were cuneiform; but the beginning of Baby- 
lonian writing lies far behind the foundations of the temple of 
Nipper. Recent writers tell us that “the flower of Babylonian 
art is found at the beginning of Babylonian history.” 

The inscription upon the temple tells us that “‘ Millel, king of 
the universe, invested Lugal with the kingdom of the world. 
He filled all lands with his renown and subdued them from the 
rising of the sun to the setting of the sun—from the Persian gulf 
to the Upper Sea, where the sun sinks to rest, and granted him 
dominion over all things and caused all countries to dwell in 
peace.” His capital was at Erech, which was called “ The City.” 
His empire extended from the Persian gulf to the Mediterranean, 
“the sea of the setting sun,” and out into the Mediterranean to 
the island of Cyprus. Here lived Nimrod, “‘ the mighty hunter 
before the Lord,” and Ashur, “ who builded Nineveh.” Eight- 
een hundred years after Sargon, Abraham went forth from Ur 
of the Chaldees, near the mouth of the Euphrates, into the land 
of Canaan, and subsequently when Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, 
and Tidal, king of nations, took Lot, his nephew, and made him 
prisoner, Abraham armed his servants, attacked Chedorlaomer 
and Tidal by night, smote them, and liberated Lot. 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 173 


v 


About a thousand years later Sennacherib ruled, and about 
six hundred years before Christ Nebuchadnezzer lived, under 
whom the Jews were taken captive, “when by the rivers of 
Babylon they hung their harps.” Bricks from the palace of 
Nebuchadnezzar, with his name and title still inscribed, now 
grace the walls of the most lowly Arab and Turkish dwellings. 
The names of all these kings have been recently found on some 
of the Babylonian tablets. The great rich valley of the Euphrates 
was filled with cities, some of them, such as Babylon and Nine- 
veh, then and now the wonder of the world. 

Here, 8,000 years ago, ruled Ensagana, “ Lord of Kengi,” “the 
land of canals and reeds.” From the remains of the city and 
palaces he built, pieces of pottery have been recently taken of 
fine shape and as beautifully worked as the ancient pottery of 
Greece. Two thousand years later, or 3,800 years before Christ, 
flourished Sargon the First, founder of anew dynasty. On one 
of the statues the following inscription is found: “She placed 
me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen, the door of my ark she 
closed. She launched me on the river, which drowned me not. 
The river bore me along; to Akki the water-carrier it brought 
me. Akki the water-carrier in the tenderness of his heart lifted 
meup. Akki the water-carrier made me his gardener. And in 
my gardenership the goddess Ishtar loved me.” 

In Egypt, enclosed by the sea and desert, there was no need of 
large armies. Walled cities were not required, for there were few 
inhabitants in the desert, and for many centuries no hostile army 
appeared on its border. The geographic environment of Meso- 
potamia was different. On one side were mountains and valleys 
inhabited by numerous warlike wandering tribes, and beyond 
them the Nomads of Central Asia. The inhabitants of the valley 
must be ever ready to meet attacks, and this required an army 
and people accustomed to arms. ‘Thus a different environment 
made peoples of different character. Their rulers were often 
great warriors, who led their armies in different directions, sub- 
duing countries far and near. As the mountains inhabited by 
these warlike tribes were near the plain, they were compelled 
to surround their cities with high and broad walls. Within 
these walls were large and populous cities ; temples and pal- 
aces crowned the heights; the hanging gardens of Babylon were 
built; bridges connected the cities on either side of the Eu- 
phrates; cuneiform writing was largely used; libraries, filled 
with tablets, were founded, and civilization rose to the highest 


174 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


point yet reached, which must have had its beginning ten thou- 
sand years ago. 

When we remember the wonderful cities that flourished in this 
valley, its great population and high civilization, and reflect that 
this civilization continued from five to six thousand years—sev- 
eral thousand years longer than our own civilization; when we 
remember that certain portions of the valley are low, often inun- 
dated; that in summer the climate is hot and unhealthy; that 
the government was a despotism and the people slaves; that 
there was a great inequality between the upper and lower classes ; 
civilization, refinement, and luxury in the upper classes and 
degradation in the lower classes, when we reflect that these con- 
ditions continued thousands of years, our interest in the people 
and country which produced such results must ever increase. 

During the wars that often laid waste the valley the inhabit- 
ants were sometimes conquered and driven from their homes, far 
to the north and west. Many crossed the Aigean into Greece 
and carried to Greece and through it to Europe the civilization 
of the Orient. By this means Europe gradually passed from the 
- Iron Age to the civilization of the present. 

It is asked why, with the same geographic environment as 
in the days of Nineveh and Babylon, Mesopotamia, once the 
garden of the world, should have become a desert. We must 
again look to its environment. On the easterly and northerly 
sides of the valley, living among the mountains, were powerful and 
warlike tribes. These tribes, tempted by the wealth of the cities 
of the plain, made frequent inroads, killing its inhabitants. If 
the ruler was strong and powerful, they were driven back to 
their mountains. If he was weak, his government was over- 
thrown; the mountain tribes took possession of the valley, kill- 
ing the inhabitants, and sometimes destroying the cities and 
forming a hew dynasty. Thus in different ages the Sumarians, 
the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Assyrians, Elamites, Hittites, Scy- 
thians, Parthians, Medes, and Persians under Cyrus; Greeks 
under Alexander, and Romans under Ptolemy conquered and 
plundered the valley. It was afterwards conquered by the 
Mongolians, and five hundred years ago it fell into the merciless 
and destroying hands of the Turk; for five centuries has been 
pillaged by its governors and officers; the taxes raised beyond 
the power of the people to pay, the water shut off from the 
land, the irrigating canals closed, the land laid waste, and 
famine and desolation followed. The sands from the desert 


ee 


ar 


THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 175 


drifted in until the valley becames a waste, rich only in mounds 
and ruins of old empires. 

The geographic position of Mesopotamia made it for thousands 
of years the great highway of the world—connecting the east 
and the west, Europe and Asia. Over it great caravans were 
constantly passing; but the carriage by canal was slow, expen- 
sive, and finally became dangerous. 

Columbus, in his efforts to find a better way to the Orient, 
discovered America. Magellan circumnavigated Africa and 
opened a new route around the Cape of Good Hope, which was 
followed for nearly four hundred years, when a shorter way was 
opened through the Suez canal and Red sea; but the route 
through Mesopotamia must once again become the highway con- 
necting the two continents, for it is now the route of the tele- 
graph, and railroads are gradually finding their way from the 
Mediterranean to the valley of the Euphrates, and down the 
valley, as the shortest route and easiest road between the east 
and west. When the Turkish rule is overthrown and a good 
government established the population will increase, new cities 
will arise, and this valley may once more become the garden 
of the world. : 

The civilization of the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates 
traveled eastward into Persia and India, over the mountains into 
China, and down its great rivers to the Pacific, across the desert 
southward and up the Nile to the interior of Africa. From 
Babylon it commenced its westward course, tarrying first at the 
Mediterranean, where it exchanged the cuneiform writing of 
Babylon for the Pheenician alphabet, founded Tyre and Sidon. 
There it met a new environment, for the ocean added shipping 
and commerce to the civilization of Babylon. 

The population of Mesopotamia, Tyre, and Sidon and their 
colonies was of the Sumarian or Semitic race. They had mate- 
rial wealth, the patriarchal or despotic rule, with little personal 
freedom, and their work in advancing civilization, which they 
had earried on for so many thousand years, finally came to an 
end. Another country and a different race must carry forward 
civilization and develop art, science, and literature. From Tyre 
and Sidon and the Semitic race, civilization moved westward to 
Greece, and there met the Aryan race, with different political 
and personal training, its home amid lofty mountains, enclosing 
rich valleys, with shores indented with deep gulfs and bays, 


‘ harbors studded with islands. Instead of one great despotism, 


176 THE EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT 


geographic environment caused the creation of many small states; 
then a city became a state, frequently at war with its neighbors. 

Literature, arts, and sciences, enriched with personal liberty 
and freedom of action, were added to the civilization of the 
Orient. In Greece all nature was ona small scale. Civilization 
needed a broader field, and from Greece it moved westward to 
Rome, where it acquired the principles of order and stable gov- 
ernment and established its rule over many nations and peoples— 
savage, barbarian, and civilized. But personal freedom was, after 
the second century A. D., lost. The Roman tribune became an 
imperial Augustus, the world subject again to a single will. 
The Dark Ages followed, wherein the foundations of the states 
of modern Europe were laid. These ages of darkness must pre- 
cede the Renaissance, and then for a short time the march of ciy- - 
ilization was turned back toward the land of its birth. Constan- 
tinople was founded—that great and wonderful city, beautiful 
in situation, overlooking the Hastern and Western worlds; where 
continuous imperial power has existed longer than in any other 
city ; where the literature, art, and science of the Old World were 
preserved that they might be handed down to Italy again when 
the Dark Ages were past. With the Renaissance, civilization 
finally turned westward and wended its way from Constanti- 
nople to Venice and Genoa. From Italy the culture of the Old 
World was carried on the great lines of travel to central and 
northern Europe. 

With the Renaissance the lethargy of the Dark Ages was 
broken. Printing was invented, America was discovered, and 
civilization started on its westward course across the Atlantic to 
its home in a new world, where public schools, science, art, mo- 
rality, and religion, with equality and freedom, are working out 
the civilization of the future. 

We have seen that in the early life of our race man was not 
only dependent on his environment, but a slave toit. As he 
passed from savage to civilized life, he gradually threw off the 
yoke, relying more and more upon himself and becoming less 
and less dependent on his surroundings. Cold and heat, snow 
and rain, storm and sunshine, time and space, no longer control 
him. He not only rises superior to their power, but uses them 
for his own pleasure and purposes. In the infancy of his race 
the feeblest and most helpless of animals, the slave of his en- 
vironment, he has in his manhood claimed and exercised the 
right to rule and become its master. 


Tea! 
= 
i 


_— -— es” ey 


THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 


By Frepertck H. Newe tr, 


Chief Hydrographer, United States Geological Survey 


Recent discussions in Congress regarding forest reservations 
have drawn public attention to matters relating to forestry, and 
many questions are being asked as.to the nature, location, and 
purpose of our forest reservations. To answer these and similar 
questions it is necessary to have clearly in mind some funda- 
mental facts concerning the geography of the country, with its 
resources and possibilities of development, especially in the por- 
tion west of the Great Plains. 

The fact first in importance, and one that even in our own 
country needs to be strongly emphasized, is that the people of the 
United States, collectively as a nation, are still among the great 
landowners of the world. In the eastern half of the country 
nearly all the land formerly at the disposal of the national goy- 
ernment has been disposed of, but in the western half the reverse 
is the case. Fully two-thirds of the land surface is still open to 
settlement under the homestead and similar acts, and with slight 
limitations is free to all citizens. In many of the states within 
this western half of the country less than one-fourth of the lands 
are subject to taxation, the great bulk being held by the national 
government. For example, in Nevada less than four per cent 
of the land surface has,been disposed of and about one per cent 
has been reserved, over 95 per cent being still vacant; in Idaho 
less that seven per cent has been disposed of and about four per 
cent reserved, a little over 89 per cent being vacant. Similar 
conditions prevail to a somewhat less degree as regards the ex- 
tent of public land in Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Arizona, New 
Mexico, and Colorado, while in the great state of California, with 
its comparatively dense population, over one-half of the area is 
vacant; the proportion in Oregon being still larger and in Wash- 
ington a trifle less. In the Dakotas, the western half, excepting 
a small area around the Black Hills, may be considered as almost 


12 177 


178 THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 


uninhabited, and the same may be said of the western third of 
Nebraska, excepting along the Platte river. 

It is not due to any lack of fertility that so much land is still 
in the hands of the general government. On the contrary, the 
ereater part of this area has on it soil far richer than that of the 
average farm lands of the east. The one obstacle to its use lies 
in the scarcity or the irregularity of distribution of moisture. 
As a rule. it is arid and cannot be depended upon to produce 
crops each season unless artificially supplied with water. It 
supports, however, a scanty vegetation except in a few relatively 
small spots where the drifting sands or the accumulations of 
earthy salts prevent the growth of the hardy desert plants. 
Many of these plants are valuable as forage, and thus the public 
lands in their native condition are as a whole valuable for grazing. 
_ It must not be supposed that the soil, though fertile, is every- 
where adapted for agriculture even with irrigation. The surface 
of the country is in places extremely rough, the West being 
characterized by the great mountain masses of the continent. 
Many of the mountains rise to heights of 10,000 feet and over, 
and on account of their altitude and precipitous slopes receive 
a larger amount of rain and snow than the broad lands of the 
adjacent valleys. On the plateaux and ranges, especially at 
an altitude of 7,000 feet and upward, where the moisture is 
sufficient, the desert plants are replaced by larger growth, and 
considerable areas of woodland and even of dense forest abound. 
This is especially true in the country to the north and west of 
the main body of arid lands, where the Sierra Nevada, Cascade, 
and Coast ranges are thickly clothed with forests, among which 
are the groves of giant sequoias, the largest of existing trees. 

It has been estimated that in the aggregate there are on the 
public lands lying within the arid or semiarid portions of the 
western public land states over 75,000,000 acres of forest, and 
besides this over 118,000,000 acres of land upon which scatter- 
ing trees suitable for firewood, fencing, or other farm purposes 
are to be found. The public land areas have in their forests vast 
potential values, the ultimate realization of which is dependent, 
however, upon proper protection and conservation. 

The first necessity of the pioneer in the West is water; next to 
this grazing for his animals, and then wood for fuel and for pur- 
poses of construction. As settlement progresses the demand for 
wood increases—more houses must be erected, more fences built, 


ee en SS  Sllrrlrlt lee ee 


THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 179 


more fuel consumed, and: as mines are discovered and worked, 
wood in greater quantities ‘is called for. The demand is ever 
growing, and many industries are dependent for success upon 
the ability to obtain lumber, timber, or firewood at low prices, 
With the great distances between centers of population and the 
expense of transportation in our sparsely settled West, the utiliza- 
tion of many resources is closely connected with the ability to 
obtain the neccessary wood near by, and with the relatively 
small areas of forest and the unfavorable conditions for rapid 
growth, it becomes important to perpetuate the wooded areas, so 
as to provide for the needs of the near future. 

It is not alone, however, as furnishing a supply of material for 
industrial purposes that the forests have value. There isa belief 
prevailing throughout the country that the water supply for irri- 
gation is dependent to a certain extent in quantity, and perhaps 
still more in continuity, upon the preservation of the forests upon 
the headwaters of the streams. Without water the great arid 
West is worthless, for not even mining can be carried on unless 
a moderate supply of water is available, and, as a matter of course, 
stock raising is also impracticable unless water exists near the 
open range. Everything, therefore, that affects the supply of 
water in a land of drought must be foaled upon with the keenest 
solicitude, not only by the inhabitants of the country, but by the 
owners of the land, the people of the United States. It would 
seem, therefore, as though every effort should be made to ascer- 
tain the extent, value, and influence of the forest and to guard 
the perpetuity of the supplies of water and of wood. 

In order to obtain a clear conception of the relative extent of 
the woodland and forest of the West, the following table is in- 
serted, giving the area in acres of the seventeen western states 
and territories, and also the extent of the forest, the woodland, 
and the treeless area. There is also added a table showing the 
area of improved land in each of these political divisions in order 
to illustrate to what a small relative extent settlement has already 
progressed. In this table the classification has been attempted 
befween the land which bears forests in whole or part and that 
where the conditions of soil and climate are such that only scat- 
tering wood is produced. Such a distinction must, of course, be 
arbitrary and crude, but for the present discussion it serves to 
convey general ideas. 


180 


THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 


Forest, Woodland, Treeless, and Improved Areas in Western Public-land States * 


States and Terri- 


Land sur- 


: Forest.a | Woodland.| Treeless. | Improved.b 
tories. face. 
Acres. Acres. Acres. Acres. Acres. 

IATIZOM Aaa atari pee 72,268,300 | 10,000,000 8,700,000 | 53,464,672. 104,128 
California.....- ..| 99,827,200 | 18,000,000 | 27,000,000 | 42,604,361 | 12,222,839 
C@oloradoweee cece 66,332,800 | 10,600,000 | 14,000,000 | 39,909,280 1,823,520 
Nida homae sea ese: 53,945,600 | 10,800,000 | 21,600,000 | 20,939,258 606,362 
Indian Territory.| 19,840,000 | 8,000,000 5,000,000 6840/0007) 2c eee 
Keansase a sae 52,288, 0005) 9 4000/0007) Se 20 vei saee 25,984,699 | 22,303,301 
Montanaiecscs 92,998,400 | 17,000,000 | 18,600,000 | 56,482,885 915,517 
Nebraska........ 49,177,600 I 500 0007 seis tear 32,429,895 | 15,247,705 
Nevadateeesences 70, 233,600 1,000,000 5,300,000 | 638,210,548 723,052 
New Mexico..... 78,374,400 4,700,000 | 16,500,000 | 56,911,294 263, 106 
North Dakota....| 44,924,800 ANON) ec ooosocaaas 39,866,785 4,658,015 
Oklahoma....... 24,851,200 500000 «i arae See 23,787,472 563,728 
Oregon. a2. se 60,518,400 | 20,600,000 | 17,000,000 | 19,402,400 3,516,000 
South Dakota... | 49,184,000 IC COMO lasers cass de 41,224,707 6,959, 293 
TWitallavgr seat oa iise ee 52,601,600 8,400,000 | 14,200,000 | 29,453,377 548,223 
Washington...... 42,803,200 | 23,500,000 9,000, 0CO 8,482,368 1,820,832 
Wyoming........ 62,448,000 7,000,000 | 10,000,000 | 44,471,169 476,831 
RO tallcseeeorae 992,617,600 | 147,500,000 | 166,900,000 | 605,465,148 | 72,752,452 
IPerscent ae a 100 14.86 16.81 61 7.30 


a Report of the Secretary of Agriculture for 1893, pp. 317, 318. 


b Abstract of the Eleventh Census, 1890, Washington, 1894, pp. 62, 63. 


The figures given in this table have been used in the construc- 
tion of the following diagram, which brings to the eye graphic- 
ally the relative area of the different states and territories of the 
West and also the amount and proportion of the various classes 


of land. 


The length of the horizontal bar opposite the name of 


each state and territory is made proportional to the area of this 


political division. 


Each bar is divided into three or four divis- 


ions, the open or white part being proportional to the extent of 
the treeless land, the cross-hatched portion proportional to the 
area of the woodland, and the solid black to that of the forest. 
To the right of this in a few cases, notably in California, is given 
In some of the other states 
this is so small that it can scarcely be distinguished. 


the relative extent of improved land. 


* The Public Lands and their Water Supply, by F. H. Newell. 


Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, part ii, p. 482. 


Extract from the 16th 


THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 181 


Millions of acres. 


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
Arizona. WW, 
fe WML 
oo 0) re WW, 
Colorad WWMM, 
olorado. _ iS aa - j N 
eS 
Idaho. es YYW. 


Indian Ter. 


a /, 
pens 


Kansas. EE  WLQLYwws 
WU 
Montana. aa a 
i ee ee 
Nebraska, [|  __.-_: ERS 
. 2 a 
Nevada. a 
| i a aa 
New Mexico. EE — 
=a. 
North Dakota. 
a 
Oklahoma. 
pat 
Oregon. Ses a an SS 


— 


South Dakota. 


Utab. es YW!!//////, 
| 
Washington. {[ —= U/////) 
Oe eam 7////)/ 
TREELESS. WOODLAND. FOREST. IMPROVED. 


Diagram illustrating relative areas of forest, woodland, treeless, and improved land in 
the western states. 


In the table and diagram the whole of each state and territory 
was considered, but since from 38 to 50 per cent or even more of 
the area of these states and territories has been disposed of, the 
general public, as the owners of the remainder, are more imme- 
diately concerned with that part which is still vacant. The fol- 
lowing table gives the amount of vacant land in each of 15 states 
and territories, Kansas being omitted as having a very smi all area 
of pullic land. while Indian Territory is not considered, from the 


182 THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 


fact that all the land is at present reserved for the use of the Indians. 
There is also given in round numbers a classification of the vacant 
land into grazing or treeless, woodland, forest, and desert. To 
the right of this is appended a somewhat crude estimate as to 
the area that can be supplied with water for agricultural pur- 
poses, assuming that all the available supply is utilized. This 
assumption, of course, involves so many contingencies as regards 
conservation of floods, development of underground supplies, 
and other conditions that it is open to criticism, but nevertheless 
it may be useful as showing present opinions in the matter. 


Vacant Lands in the Western Public-land States * 


Vacant. Millions of acres. 
& 
States and Territories. Sy 
uare : a0 DR 
miles. ACHES: ocala (ies) eels 
ee 
oad ane Pee aay | == 
ATIZOM AI ik alee ieelee ier: 85,908 54,981,120 | 5 Siete low ieee 
Caliiformia. seme 90,215 57,737,600 | 27} 5] 6| 19 }17 
Coloradoneseee see 66,934 42,837,760 | 30; 7] 6| 0] 8 
MAINO Noite heneiits scotia ons 75,099 48,063,360 | 19 | 20} 8} O]| 5 
IMontalmaceease ane. ete 114,057 72,996,480 | 50} 18} 10} O JIL 
Nebraska...2.....5...: 17,186 10,999,040 | 11} O} O| O| 2 
ING Vard ales ee GAN ce ser: 104,571 66,925,440 | 42 | 5] 0 | 20] 2 
iNew Miexacopeny iberan 85,302 54,593,280 | 49} 8] 2] 0} 4 
North Dakota......... 33,090 21,177,600 | 21} 0} OO} O} 1.5 
Oklahoma: eee nee 15,218 CeO ses Sr oOey 0) | Oi il 
Onrecon ies eons vase 50,887 BD) TO TO80 Wadi Lp 2O a (Oe ae 
South Dakota..... ... 25,204 16,180,560 | 15 | Oj}; 1} O} 1.5 
(Wiha ea es een Mane 67,308 43,077,120 | 16} 11} 6) 10] 4 
Washington........... 32,707 20,964,480 | 6] 5|10) O}] 8 
Way @rmiti ow eet eee 83,644 53,032,160 | 86} 8| 5] 5] 9 
Motale ak idle 952,375 609,520,000 | 374] 96 | 70 | 69 |74 


The following diagram has been prepared to show graphically 
the facts expressed by the figures in the foregoing table. By 


comparison with the preceding table and diagram it will be seen 
that a considerable proportion of the forest areas has already 
passed out of the hands of the government, but that in round 
numbers about seventy million still remain, and though only 
about half of the whole extent of forest it is still a matter of great 
importance, especially as nearly all of this is included within 


*The Public Lands and their Water Supply, p. 494. 


—_—- 


THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 183 


the boundaries of the arid region, where wood and water have 
the highest value. 

It is now generally accepted that only a small proportion of 
the fertile lands of the West can ever be irrigated, ow ing to the 
inadequacy of the water supply. Such being the case, it is ob- 


Millions of acres. 


10 20 30 40 50 60 = 70 

Arizona, SSS 
California. _SSSO™§5N 
Colorado. 

pod id 
Idaho. = aan ae cies aie 
Montana, —_—_1_1 ty 
= ST 
Nevada. SL, ite Geeiaeee es 
New Mexico. 


North Dakota. 
Oklahoma. 


Oregon. 


era 

ee //// 
Se 

Eee Ta 


South Dakota. 


Utah. Face 
Washington. mn = 
Wyoming. . ii ea 41 SS 


L 1 HA QE Ss 


GRAZING. WOODLAND. FOREST. DESERT. 


- Diagram illustrating proportion of vacant lands, classified according to grazing, wood- 
land, forest, and desert areas. 


vious that much of the land has little or no value, except as 
furnishing scanty grazing. Agricultural land values thus rest 
directly upon the ability to obtain water, and as this is limited, 
the great bulk of the area of the West must apparently always be 
devoted to pastoral purposes or to the growing of trees, where 
the conditions are such that these will thrive. The United 


184 THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 


States must therefore continue to be a great landowner, unless 
the lands are disposed of wholesale to states or to corporations. 
The unoccupied lands are now open, furnishing free pasturage 
to all persons who have cattle, horses, sheep, or goats, and the 
woodlands are almost equally free to be cut and burned by set- 
tlers. A few restrictions have been imposed with the intention 
of preventing the wholesale depredations of the forests by lumber 
companies, but these have in the main been ineffective, the great 
companies being able to cut almost without limit. 

The question may be asked, Why should not the government 
allow every one to take what lumber he desires, as in the case of 
the mineral wealth, where mines, when found and operated, be- 
come the property of the discoverers, irrespective of their value? 
The radical difference between these two sources of wealth lies in. 
provision for the future. In the case of mining, ordinarily no 
amount of foresight will increase the quantity of mineral avail- 
able for the next generation, but with the forests the reverse is 
the case. It has been argued by men familiar with the subject 
that as matters are now proceeding the timber supply in many 
localities will be entirely destroyed within a half generation, 
while with a moderate exercise of prudence the supplies may be 
made practically continuous, guaranteeing the perpetuity of 
many industries. As owners of the forests, the people of the 
United States should, from motives of prudence, see that these 
resources are not wasted, and still more, as owners of vast tracts 
of land dependent for utilization to a greater or less degree upon 
the forests, should they make most strenuous exertions to in- 
definitely preserve the latter. 

But it may further be asked whether any special steps need 
be taken to preserve the forests. Will not the local and indi- 
vidual interests be sufficient to guard against waste? ‘Theoret- 
ically this may be possible, but the experience of mankind in the 
old world and in this has shown that individual and present 
profits are asa rule placed far above public and remote interests. 
In other words, while the farmer usually needs no interference 
or urging in maintaining the fertility-of his wheat field and 
adopting methods that will secure the largest crop each year, he 
does require some strong incentive to maintain forests or wood- 
lands in which he is but a small owner and from which the crop 
may be cut only once in a generation. An agency of longer life 
than that of ordinary men is needed to sustain the work of forest 
production—such an agency, in short, as is the state or nation. 


Ae « 


ee ae ee ee 


>a 


Ne PE See eT Se eee eee eS ee 


A eee ee Oe P 


.. 
~ 
4 


THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 185 


If we admit that something should be done to secure the per- 
petuity of the great public forests, the query at once arises as to 
what it should be and how we should go about it. The most 
direct way would undoubtedly be to at once reserve all forest 
lands, have them surveyed and examined, appoint suitable men 
to take charge of them, to protect them from fire, to designate 
trees that may be cut, and to attend to the details of the utiliza- 
tion and preservation of the tree growth. A system of this kind 
once fairly under way would unquestionably be more than self- 
sustaining and would bring to the government a considerable 
and constantly increasing income, besides furnishing a perpetual 
supply of timber, protecting the sources of water, and adding to 
the natural attractions which draw tourists to remote parts of 
the country. But such a step involves many radical changes. 
The people as a whole are not educated up to it. Those in the 
West are afraid of interference in local concerns, and those of the 
Kast are fearful lest large expenditures should be incurred. Asa 
compromise, therefore, the friends of forestry have proposed that, 
instead of taking all the forests, certain specified spots should be 
designated, and that these should be reserved for forestry pur- 
poses in the hope that later some provision might be made for 
carrying out a system outlined above, and that the system, if it 
proved efficient, might be extended gradually further and fur- 
ther. Accordingly many bills have been introduced into Con- 
gress, but have all failed from one cause or another. At length. 
after many failures, a clause was inserted in “An act to repeal 
timber-culture laws, and for other purposes,” approved March 3, 
1891, providing, “ That the President of the United States may 
from time to time set apart and reserve in any state or territory 
having public land bearing forests, in any part of the public lands, 
wholly or in part covered with timber or undergrowth, whether 
of commercial value or not, as public reservations, and the Presi- 
dent shall, by public proclamation, declare the establishment of 
such reservations and the limits thereof.” 

The then Secretary of the Interior, the Hon. John W. Noble, 
took great personal interest in this matter of forest reservation, 
and through his active assistance the friends of the forestry 
movement were able to secure the proclamation by President 
Harrison of fifteen reservations, having an aggregate area of over 
thirteen million acres. They then renewed their efforts to secure 
suitable legislation and energetically supported the attempts 
made to pass laws allowing the reservations to be protected and 


186 THE NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 


properly utilized. Among others, the McRae bill (H. R. 119) 
was passed twice by the House, and in a slightly different form 
once by the Senate, but failed of final consideration. Soon after 
the beginning of his administration President Cleveland pro- 
claimed two reservations, one of these, the Cascade Range Forest 
Reserve, in Oregon, being of enormous size, embracing nearly 
four and a half million acres. 

As session after session of Congress passed without the needed 
legislation to protect these reservations, the friends of: forestry 
united upon a new line of action. The American Forestry Asso- 
ciation, in its executive sessions, drew up a letter, subsequently 
signed by the Secretary of the Interior, the Hon. Hoke Smith, 
calling upon the National Academy of Sciences for information 
upon the whole subject. Secretary Smith also asked that Con- 
gress appropriate the sum of $25,000 for this purpose. In the 
act approved June 11, 1896, this amount was accordingly set 
aside “to enable the Secretary of the Interior to meet the ex- 
penses of an investigation and report by the National Academy 
of Sciences on the inauguration of a national forestry policy 
for the forested lands of the United States.” The commission 
appointed by the President of the Academy at once took up the 
subject and as soon as practicable visited many of the forestry 
areas of the West, making a preliminary report to the Secretary 
of the Interior on February 1, 1897, recommending the establish- 
ment of thirteen additional forest reserves. The recommenda- 
tion was at once acted upon, and on February 22 President 
Cleveland proclaimed the thirteen reserves, containing an esti- 
mated area of over twenty-one million acres. 

The commission in this preliminary report recognized the 
difficulty of securing suitable legislation for the protection of 
the forests or of the reservations, and accordingly used, as one 
of its arguments for making these reservations, the fact that a 
greater number of persons would be induced by self-interest to 
urge upon Congress the enacting of laws which public interests 
alone have not been sufficient to bring about. The commission 
“believes that the solution of this difficult problem [of forest 
management] will, however, be made easier if reserved areas are 
now increased, as the greater the number of persons interested 
in drawing supplies from the reserved territory or in mining in 
them, the greater will be the pressure on Congress to enact laws 
permitting their proper administration.” The wisdom of this 
argument was seen in the demand from the West for immediate 


fitted 


© 


ae. Ss 


v 


Ss eee Lee ee ee 


OE  E——— 


_ 


GEORGE W. MELVILLE 187 


action on the part of Congress. This demand resulted in the 
insertion in the sundry civil bill that became a law June, 1897, 
of a number of paragraphs which put into effect at once many of 
the provisions of the McRae bill. The legislation thus secured, 
while open to criticism in many directions, marks a distinct 
progress and is undoubtedly the best that can be had under the 
circumstances, where such a large and influential body of citi- 
zens are interested in preventing any measure which shall inter- 
fere with their obtaining practically for nothing the great stores 
of public timber. 

The bill provides for the immediate survey of the boundaries 
and for the suspension until March 1, 1898, of the thirteen reser- 
vations proclaimed on February 22,1897. It is explicitly de- 
clared that ‘“‘no public forest reservations shall be established 
except to improve and protect the forest within the reservation, 
or for the purpose of securing favorable conditions of water 
flows, or to furnish a continuous supply of timber for the use 
and necessities of citizens of the United States; but it is not the 
purpose or intent of these provisions . . . to authorize the 
inclusion therein of lands more valuable for the mineral therein 
or for agricultural purposes than for forest purposes.” 

Authority is given to the Secretary of the Interior to make 
suitable regulations for protection against fire and depredations 
and for the sale of dead, matured, or large growth of trees. On 
the other hand, the rights of prospectors and miners are care- 
fully guarded by the statement that “ nor shall anything herein 
prohibit any person from entering upon such forest reservations 
for all proper and lawful purposes, including that of prospecting, 
locating, and developing the mineral resources. Settlers, miners, 
residents, and prospectors may be permitted to use timber for 
firewood, fencing, buildings, mining, and domestic purposes.” 


GEORGE W.. MELVILLE 
FENGINEER-IN-CHIEF, U.S. Navy 


Tur Nationa, Grocrapuic MAGAZINE presents to its readers 
with this number a portrait of one of the most distinguished 
members of the Society of whose proceedings it is the exponent. 
Born in the city of New York January 10, 1841, young Melville, 
after graduating in the Polytechnic School of Brooklyn, acquired 


188 GEORGE W. MELVILLE 


a thoroughly practical knowledge of engineering in the works of 
James Binns of that city. Stirred to patriotic effort by the out- 
break of the rebellion, he entered the Navy July 29, 1861, and 
became an officer of the Engineer Corps of that service before 
attaining his majority. Constantly on sea duty, Melville saw 
service on the Great Lakes, in the North Atlantic blockading 
squadron, at the capture of Norfolk and in the operations on 
James river, on the Mississippi river, in the capture of the Florida, 
and as a volunteer in one of the torpedo boats at the capture of 
Fort Fisher. His most conspicuous war service was in connec- 
tion with the capture of the Florida in the harbor of Bahia, Brazil, 
Melville, in civilian clothing, boarding the vessel in broad day- 
light and gaining the desired information as to the strength of 
her battery and the location of her machinery. In the capture 
of the Florida on the following morning Melville displayed his 
usual bravery, and was one of the three men wounded in the 
affair. His war services were such that Engineer-in-Chief Loring 
officially wrote, ‘‘ With the high reputation this gentleman has 
throughout the service for professional skill, executive ability, 
energy, and zeal, . . . itis no disparagement to his fellows 
to say that he has not his superior in his corps.” 

The dangers of war past, Melville sought the first opportunity 
for adventurous service elsewhere, and volunteering for service 
in the Tigress, formed one of the search party for the missing crew 
of the Polaris. The Tigress, under Commander Greer, reached 
the deserted camp of the Polaris, near Littleton island, the suc- 
cess of the voyage being largely owing to Melville’s “ great fer- 
tility of resource, combined with thorough practical knowledge.” 

His most conspicuous arctic service was under Lieut. D. W. 
De Long in the Jeannette, which attempted to solve the polar 
problem via Bering strait. As will be recalled, the Jeannette, 
beset by the pack in the neighborhood of Wrangel island in Sep- 
tember, 1879, drifted almost steadily to the westward until she 
was crushed by ice-floes and sank June 12, 1881, in 77° 10’ N., 
155° KE. During this long and monotonous drift Melville’s quali- 
ties as a man and his efficiency as an officer were conspicuously 
displayed ; now it was a series of engineering problems which 
saved from foundering the leaking Jeannette, again it was physical 
endurance and will-power as the leader of an exploring party 
that enabled him to reach and survey Henrietta island, the first 
of De Long’s discoveries. It was under the most desperate con- 
ditions, however, that Melville’s spirit and abilities were practi- 


ee a ae ee 


: 


———— ss —_— 


a i a 


ai ti Te i eee 


=P 


| 
. 


GEORGE W. MELVILLE 189 


cally indispensable—when the Jeannette sank five hundred miles 
from the Lena Delta. 

Lieutenant Danenhower being disabled and Lieutenant Chipp 
sick, De Long’s main dependence was in his chief engineer, Mel- 
ville, who was well, strong, energetic, and fertile in resources. 
It is unnecessary to dwell on the dangers and hardships which 
this unprecedented journey entailed on the members of this 
party, which were met with fortitude, courage, and energy that 
made its successful issue one of the most notable efforts in the 
history of man, overcoming obstacles almost insurmountable. 
It is only to be said that in this fearful journey for life Melville, 
as the right arm of De Long, was full of energy and expedients. 
Such was De Long’s confidence in Melville, that, when the three 
boats left Bennet island, De Long placed the whale-boat entirely 


under his orders, although Danenhower was placed therein. 


This unusual step was fully justified by the events, as Melville’s 
boat’s crew was the only one that was saved, Chipp perishing 
at sea and De Long in the Lena Delta. When De Long’s des- 
perate condition became known, it was Melville’s heroie spirit 
and personal daring that ventured the unsuccessful autumnal 
search and later, in the brighter but more fearful polar spring, 
discovered the remnant of De Long’s unselfish crew and secured 
for them a Christian burial. Congress, in 1890, promoted him 
fifteen numbers ‘as a recognition of his meritorious services in 
successfully directing the party under his command after the 
wreck of the Arctic exploring steamer Jeannette, and of his per- 
sistent efforts, through dangers and hardships, to find and assist 
his commanding officer and other members of the expedition 
before he himself was out of peril.” 

In 1883 Melville volunteered to lead a relief party for the res- 
cue of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, which had that 
autumn retreated under orders to Cape Sabine, and when the 
government rejected a proposition, the heroic Melville sailed in 
the expedition of 1884 commanded by Captain Schley, and was 
one of the first officers to reach the living remnant of the expe- 
dition, and thus closed with credit his service afloat. 

Selected in 1887 as Chief Engineer of the Navy with the rela- 
tive rank of Commodore, he has discharged the important duties 
of this office with such professional fitness and administrative 
ability as to merit universal praise. During this period the 
United States Navy has been substantially reorganized and with 
a degree of success that has enlisted the admiration of the world. 


190 GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


As the engineering head of more than sixty vessels of all types, 
from torpedo boats to battle ships, it may at least be said with 
perfect safety, that as much to Commodore Melville as to any 
other man in the Navy is due its remarkable degree of efficiency 
as regards its vessels and its materials. 

In recognition of his professional ability, of his Arctic career, 
and of his qualities as a man, George Wallace Melville has been 
the recipient of distinguished honors from governments and 


scientific institutions not only of America, but also of foreign 


countries. A. W..Ga 


GEOGRAPHIC SERIALS 


The Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute for May contains an extremely 
interesting article, entitled ‘‘ Western Canada Before and Since Confed- 
eration,” by Sir Donald A. Smith. It comprises an outline of the history 
of the region while it was under the control of the Hudson’s Bay Com- 
pany and a summary of its development since it became a part of the 

-Dominion of Canada. u 

The June number of the same Journal contains a paper on the “‘ Colony 
of Largos, by Sir Gilbert T. Carter. It is mainly a history of this little 
colony of Western Africa, with a summary of its present trade and social 
conditions. 

The Scottish Geographical Magazine for May opens with an article by 
Nansen, entitled ‘‘Some Results of the, Norwegian Arctic Expedition,” 
accompanied by amap. It contains also an account of a trip to Mount 
Tarawera in New Zealand, with an account of the topographic changes 
produced by its great eruption in 1886. This is illustrated by a map show- 
ing the present topography of the surrounding region. 

The June number of The Scottish Geographical Magazine contains an im- 
portant article by Dr Robert Bell on the ‘‘Geographical Distribution of 
Forest Trees in Canada.” Mr W. Saville Kent writes on ‘‘ The Market 
Fishes and Marine Commercial Product of Australia.” 

The Geographical Journal contains several articles of interest: Nansen 
contributes ‘‘Some Results of the Norwegian Arctic Expedition,” which 
is followed by a discussion on the North Polar problem. ‘The Meso- 
potamian Petroleum Field” is described by Capt. F. R. Maunsell. “* The 
Formation of the Dungeness Foreland ” is described by Mr F. P. Gulliver, 
and a summary is given of recent ‘‘ Russian Expeditions in, Tibet.”’ 

The Quarterly Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society contains a 
number of articles of interest, among them ‘{The Growth and Progress 
of the Australian Colonies,” by Mr W. Harper, which is accompanied by 
a relief map; ‘* Meteorology of Queensland,’’ by Mr Clement L. Wragge ; 
““The Suez Canal,’’ by Mr Isaac Bowes, and ‘‘ The Nicaragua Canal, as 
Proposed by the Maritime Canal Company,” by the same gentleman ; 
“The Canals and Navigable Rivers of England,’’ by Mr Lionel B. Wells; 


EEE —<— = _-- 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 191 
‘The Earthquakes of Iceland in 1896,” by Mr John R. Newby; *‘‘ Physi- 
cal Geography of Northeast Tamtachiva, ” by Mr Herbert Bolton. Ps 

The Technological Quarterly for March contains, among other papers, an 
interesting article on ‘‘ The Scientific Work of the Boston Party on the 
Sixth Peary Expedition to Greenland,’’ by Mr G. R. Putnam. Besides 
giving a narrative of the expedition, this article contains a siiitary of 
the Magnetic and Pendulum Observations. 

The Sierra Club Bulletin for May opens with an article on “ The Conifers 
of the Pacific Slope,’ by Mr John G. Lemmon. An entertaining story is 
contributed by Helen M. Gompertz, entitled ““Up and Down Bubbs 
Creek,”’ and Mr Bolton Coit Brown continues his ‘‘ Wanderings in the 
High Sierra.” Y 

The Journal of Geology for February-March contains an article by Prof. 
R. D. Salisbury on the ‘‘ Drift Phenomena in the Vice inity of Devils Lake 
and Baraboo, Wisconsin,” describing the formation of the strange glacial 
deposits of that region. The same journal for April-May continues the 


. ‘* Glacial Studies in Greenland ” of Prof. T. C. Chamberlin. 


The Journal of the Tyneside Geographical Society for May devotes half its 
space to Nansen’s explorations. For the rest it contains a narrative of a 
journey in Benin by James Pinnock and T. B. Auchterlonie, and sum- 
maries of lectures delivered before the society. 

Cs A 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY, SESSION 1806~’97 


Special Meeting, May 7, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. Mr 
Walter Dwight Wilcox read a paper, with lantern illustrations from origi- 
nal photographs, on Scenery and Camp Life in the Canadian Rockies. 


Annual Meeting, May 14, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. The 
Treasurer read a progress report on the condition of the Society's finances, 
postponing the presentation of a complete report sn the close of the 
fiscal year. A committee, consisting of Messrs W. A. De Caindry, H. C. 
Rizer, and. A. Aplin, Jr., was appointed to audit Hie nach s accounts, 
Mr Marcus Baker, Col. H. F. Blount, Lieut. E. Hayden, U. 8. N., Dr C. 
Hart Merriam, and Prof. W. B. Powell were recélected members of the 
Board of Managers, and Mr Frederick V. Coville, Botanist of the U. 8. 
Department of Agriculture, was elected in place of Mr J. B. Wight, whose 
newly assumed duties as a Commissioner for the District of Columbia 
prevented him from offering himself for reélection. The meeting ad- 
journed until Friday, June 11, 1897. 

Special Meeting, May 21, 1897.—President Hubbard in the chair. The 
meeting was devoted to the following papers in connection with the ap- 
proaching excursion to Manassas Gap: The Blue Ridge and Piedmont 
Plateau, Prof. W J McGee; Manassas to Manassas Gap, a Chapter of War 
History, Major Jed Hotchkiss. 


192 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 


Annual Excursion and Field Meeting, May 22, 1897.—About 250 members 
and guests went by special train, leaving Washington at 9 a. m., via Ma- 
nassasand Thorofare Gap, to Manassas Gap, Va. On arrival, at 11.15a. m., 
a field meeting was held in the open air, President Hubbard in the chair, 
and addresses were delivered by Major Jed Hotchkiss, on War History ; 
Mr M. R. Campbell, on the Geography and Geology of the Region; and 
Gen. Chas. H. Grosvenor, M. C. Lunch was then served, after which an 
ascent of Mt. Monterey, to the northward, was made by many of the 
party, a few climbing High Knob, to the southward. The return to 
Washington was made at 4.30 p. m., arriving at 6.30. 


Adjourned Annual Meeting, June 11, 1897.—Vice-president Merriam in 
the chair. The annual report of the Recording Secretary was read and 
accepted. The annual report of the Treasurer was read and referred to 
the Auditing Committee. The Recording Secretary stated that as no 
printed notice of pending amendments to the By-laws had been sent to 
members, owing to his enforced absence from the city, they could not 
properly come up for final action at that meeting. Said amendments are 
as follows: 

Articte V. Add ‘‘ No initiation fee shall be required of ex-members in 
case of their reélection to membership. Annual dues shall be reduced 
one-half for the current season in the case of members elected after the 
end of January, or who resign before that date; and they shall be re- 
- mitted altogether for the current season in the case of members elected 
in April and May, upon payment of full dues for the following season.”’ 
Omit ‘‘Suitable rebates may be made, in the discretion of the Board of 
Managers, in the annual dues of members elected in April and May.” 

Omit ‘‘ within thirty days after election’’ (payment of dues by new 
members), and add ‘‘upon notice of election, and no certificate of elec- 
tion shall be issued until the required first payment shall have been made.” 

After “Annual dues may be commuted and life membership acquired 
by the payment of fifty dollars” add ‘‘, or, by ex-members or members 
who have already paid in dues as much as fifty dollars, by the additional 
payment at one time of twenty-five dollars.”’ 

Add ‘Suitable restrictions may be made in the issue of tickets and 
publications to members in arrears.” 

Arricte VI. Omit ‘‘The Board of Managers shall set apart a time and 
place for the annual address of the President and Vice-presidents.” 

Arricte VII. Insert after ‘‘ which (the magazine) shall be sent to all 
members of the Society,” insert ‘‘ not in arrears of dues.” Add at end of 
same paragraph, ‘‘ The number issued next after the annual meeting shall 
contain the By-laws and a list of the Officers and Members of the Board 
of Managers.” 


Evecrions—May 7.—Geo. F. Curtis, Elmer S. Farwell, Alpheus H. 
Hardy, Evert L. Harvey, Prof. Jos. V. Jackman, John P. Logan, Hon. 
L. T. Michener, Henry T. Offterdinger, Miss J. A. Read, Clinton Smith, 
Herbert Wright. 

June 11.—L. 8. Brown, Lieut. J. B. Cahoon, U. 8S. N., John G. Gossel- 
ing, Niels Gron, Judge Martin F. Morris, Miss Morris, James B. Pinkerton, 
Hon. Theodore Roosevelt, Miss Louise Taylor. 


NATIONAL ane RAPHIC MAGAZINE 


CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 


HE F. F. V. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
solid between Cincinnati and New York, the route from Washington being over the Pennsylvania 
system. It has every modern convenience and appliance, and the dining-car service has no superior if 
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from one end to the other; the greater portion is laid with one-hundred-pound steel rails, and although 
curves are numerous in the mountain section, the ride is as smooth as over a Western prairie. 

One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
mountains are just low enough to be clad with verdure to the very top, and in the early spring every 
variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, D. C. 


CLIMB MOUNT RAINIER 
swe WITH THE VASA MAS. 


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this club of mountaineers of the North Pacific Coast will ascend this mountain of ice. Men and 

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the summit, among the warm ice caves there. : aoe : 
The climb is not compulsory. Those who desire can remé 1in in camp at Paradise Park ant 

enjoy botanizing and.exploring. Scientific work will be a part o! the program 

CHAS. S. FEE, 


Gen. Pass. Agent, N. P. R'y, St. Paul, Minn., 


For Wonderland '97 and a Mazama Pamphlet. 


Send six cents to 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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Write for Map Folders. 


R. D. CARPENTER, General Agent, 271: Broadway, New York City. 
L. S. BROWN, General Agent Passenger Department, Washington, D. C. 
J. H. WINGFIELD, Passenger Agent, Norfolk, Va. ; 


S. H. HARDWICK, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Atlanta, Ga. 
yc. A. BENSCOTER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
W. H. TAYLOE, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Louisville, Ky. 


J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. _ W. A. TURK, General Passenger Agent. 


The Mutual Life Insurance Co, 


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The Records of the Insurance Department of the State of New 
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ROBERT A. GRANNISS, Vice-President. 


WALTER R. GILLETTE, General Manager. FREDERIC CROMWELL, Treasurer. 
ISAAC F. LLOYD, Second Vice-President, EMORY McCLINTOCK, Actuary. 
WILLIAM J. EASTON, Secretary. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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AN IMPROVED METHOD OF KEEPING THE SCORE IN 


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The ‘‘Cosmos Score Card,”’ 
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 —_— 


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book, 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME Ie 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - - - - - 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - : - \y. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - - ) 

BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N.S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - ek Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - a a - J. S. Diller 4 
THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - . - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND ITs HISTORY - - - - . - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


Remit with order to AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY, 


New York ~ Cincinnati _ ‘Chicago 


Ripans Tabules assist digestion. 


TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


j toe the March, 1897, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 


subjects, such as Earth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its second 
volume. ‘The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
of research, not only in terrestrial, but in cosmical physics, that this Journal appeals to a large class of 
investigators. ‘he geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support. 


Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs, Barus, Borgen, Chree, 
Eschenhagen, Littlehales, Riicker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo. 


Future numbers will contain: 


‘¢ The Earth, a Great Magnet,’’ 
By Dr. J. A. FLEMING. 


‘‘ The Electrification of the Atmosphere,’’ 
By Pror. ALEXANDER MCADIE. 


‘‘ The Height of the Aurora,”’ 
By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 


‘¢ The Distribution of Magnetic Observatories,’’ 
(Illustrated), 
By ProF. MAX ESCHENHAGEN, 
etc., etc. 


The size of the Journal is royal octavo, a volume embracing about 200 pages. Domestic subscription 
price: Two dollars; single numbers, fifty cents. Foreign subscription price: Nine shillings, nine 


marks, or eleven francs. Address: 
: TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 
The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohie. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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| Among the Contents of Forthcoming 


Numbers. of 


By PROF. :Bi- Es FERNOW, ; Poe Ds Es ree 


CHIEF OF THE Division or Forestry, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE; ~ 


Sere BNO 


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os 


lagazine 


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. t A J 


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CONTENTS, ie. 


Ts ea e . PAGE 
AN BOUNDARY COMMISSION AND ITS WORK. 


Sony Pee Nees ae | MARCUS BAKER. 193 
JUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. ~ 201 
| AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA. B. E, FERNOW. 203 


ELENS. .With map. CHAS. P. BLLIOTT. 226 
LITERATURE. — 230 


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1B 
National Geographic Magazine 


THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION AND ITS 
WORK 


By Marcus Baker 
Cartographer, U. S. Geological Survey 


On the northeast shoulder of South America, between the 
mouths of the great rivers Amazon and Orinoco, lies Guiana. 
On the extreme east and nearest the Amazon is French G uliana, 
or Cayenne; just west of this is Dutch Guiana, or Surinam, while 
the next division to the west is British Guiana, a colony of Great 
Britain ; and this in turn is bordered on the west by Venezuela 
one of the South American republics. 

Between these last two, British Guiana and Venezuela, current 
maps show a boundary line which, starting at or near the south- 
ern mouth of the Orinoco (for there are many mouths in its 150- 
mile-wide delta), runs in a southerly direction into the interior. 
This line, speaking in only the most general terms, is the now 
famous Schomburgk line. This boundary is in dispute, and has 
been so for more than half a century. It has been a source of 
prolix and interminable diplomatic correspondence and negotia- 
tion, a correspondence couched in politest phrase, without con- 
cealing the earnestness, nay, bitterness, underneath. Proposals 
and counter-proposals had been made, but without success. 
Arbitration*had been proposed, but until recently Great Britain 
had steadily refused to submit the entire disputed territory to 
arbitration. So the case dragged on for weary years. Finally, 
in 1886, some 10 years ago, Venezuela severed diplomatic relations 
with Great Britain and sent her official representative away. 

Venezuela then sought to bring about indirectly, through the 
friendly aid of a third power, a settlement of the long standing 

13 


’ 


194 THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION 


and irritating controversy. The matter was taken up by our own 
foreign office (the Department of State) and correspondence car- 
ried on in 1895 between Secretary Olney and Lord Salisbury. 
Secretary Olney, ina document resembling a lawyer’s brief much 
more than it does the ordinary diplomatic dispatch, stated the 
case as it appeared to him and asked that it be arbitrated. To 
this Lord Salisbury replied in two careful and most courteous 
dispatches (as diplomatists are wont to call letters), declining 
general arbitration. 

Thereupon President Cleveland, on December 17, 1895, sent to 
Congress this correspondence, accompanied by a brief but now 
famous message—a message of which, without exaggeration, it 
may be said that it startled the civilized world. After summa- 
rizing the correspondence and commenting upon Lord Salisbury’s 
two replies, President Cleveland proceeded as follows: 


In the belief that the doctrine for which we contend (the Monroe doc- 
trine) was clear and definite, that it was founded upon substantial consid- 
erations and involved our safety and welfare, that it was fully applicable 
to our present conditions and to the state of the world’s progress, and that 
- it was directly related to the pending controversy, and without any con- 
viction as to the final merits of the dispute, but anxious to learn ina 
satisfactory and conclusive manner whether Great Britain sought, under 
a claim of boundary, to extend her possession of territory fairly included 
within her lines of ownership, this government proposed to the govern- 
ment of Great Britain a resort to arbitration as the proper means of set- 
tling the question, to the end that a vexatious boundary dispute between 
the two contestants might be determined and our exact standing and 
relation in respect to the controversy might be made clear. 

It will be seen from the correspondence herewith submitted that this 
proposition has been declined by the British government upon grounds 
which, in the circumstances, seem to me to be far from satisfactory. It 
is deeply disappointing that such an appeal, actuated by the most friendly 
feelings toward both nations directly concerned, addressed to the sense 
of justice and to the magnanimity of one of the great powers of the 
world and touching its relations to one comparatively weak and small, 
should have produced no better results. 

The course to be pursued by this government, in view of the present 
condition, does not appear to admit of serious doubt. Having labored 
faithfully for many years to induce Great Britain to submit this dispute 
to impartial arbitration, and having been now finally apprised of her re- 
fusal to do so, nothing remains but to accept the situation, to recognize 
its plain requirements and deal with it accordingly. Great Britain’s 
present proposition has never thus far been regarded as admissible by 
Venezuela, though any adjustment of the boundary which that country 
may deem for her advantage and may enter into of her own free will 
cannot of course be objected to by the United States. 


~— 


i a i ices i tt i pe te i hit el Mat ee ee ee 


THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION 195 


Assuming, however, that the attitude of Venezuela will remain un- 
changed, the dispute has reached such a stage as to make it now incum- 
bent upon the United States to take measures to determine with sufficient 
certainty for its justification what is the true divisional line between the 
Republic of Venezuela and British Guiana. The inquiry to that end 
should of course be conducted carefully and judic ially, and due weight 
should be given to all available evidence, records, and fac ts in support of 
the claims of both parties. 

In order that such an examination should be prosecuted in a thorough 
and satisfactory manner, I suggest that the Congress make an adequate 
appropriation for the expenses of a commission, to be appointed by the 
Executive, who shall make the necessary investigation and report upon 
the matter with the least possible delay. When such report is made and 
accepted it will, in my opinion, be the duty of the United States to resist 
by every means in its power as a willful aggression upon its rights and 
interests the appropriation by Great Britain of any lands or the exercise 
of governmental jurisdiction over any territory which, after investigation, 
we have determined of right belongs to Venezuela. 

In making these recommendations I am fully alive to the responsibili- 
ties incurred and keenly realize all the consequences that may follow. 

I am nevertheless firm in my conviction that while it is a grievous 
thing to contemplate the two great English-speaking peoples of the world 
as being otherwise than friendly competitors in the onward march of civil- 
ization and strenuous and worthy rivals in all the arts of peace, there is 
no calamity which a great nation can invite which equals that which 
follows a supine submission to wrong and injustice and the consequent 
loss of national self-respect and honor, beneath which are shielded and 
defended a people’s safety and greatness. 


This short message went to Congress December 17, 1895, where 


‘it was read and referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. 


The following day, December 18, the chairman of that commit- 
tee, the Hon. R. R. Hitt, reported a bill (H. R. 2173) appropri- 
ating $100,000 for the expenses of a commission to investigate 
and report upon the true divisional line between British Guiana 
and the Republic of Venezuela. This bill was passed by the 
House of Representatives forthwith and unanimously; it was 
then sent to the Senate. It was on the following day, the 19th 
of December, referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations in 
the Senate. The next day it was reported back, debated, and 
passed without amendment. The following day, December 21, 
it was a law, having received the signatures of the Speaker of 
the House, the Vice-President, and the President. Thus Presi- 
dent Cleveland’s suggestion on December 17, that a commission 
be created, was four days later the law of the land,and made so 
with an unanimity almost, if not quite, unparalleled. No vote 


196 THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION 


against it was recorded in either branch of Congress. On Jan- 
uary 4, 1897, the commission was appointed, and consisted of five 
persons, Viz: 

Hon. David J. Brewer, one of the justices of the Supreme Court 
of the United States ; Hon. Richard H. Alvey, Chief Justice of the 
Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia ; Mr Frederick R. 
Coudert, a distinguished member of the New York bar, who had 
acted as counsel for the United States in the Bering Sea arbitra- 
tion case ; Hon. Andrew D. White, historian and diplomatist, and 
Dr Daniel C. Gilman, a learned geographer, president of the 
Johns Hopkins University. This commission organized by elect- 
ing Mr Justice Brewer president and Mr Severo Mallet-Prevost, 
of the New York bar, as secretary. 

Upon this commission were laid two duties: jirst, to investigate, 
and second, to report. Obviously investigation was first, not 
merely in order, but in the amount of labor involved and in im- 
portance. In the early sessions of the commission the whole 
subject was canvassed, and the work of investigation planned, 
organized, and assigned. Professor George L. Burr, of Cornell 
- University, a painstaking and accurate historian and linguist, 
was sent to Holland to investigate the Dutch archives. Later on 
he was joined there by Mr Coudert, of the commission. For 
assistance in the preparation of maps and in geographical in- 
vestigation, application was made to the U.S. Geological Survey. 
To this work I was assigned, and from January to May, 1896, 
eave to it such time as could be spared from Survey duties. In 
May, 1896, I was, however, detailed to the service of the commis- 
sion, and continued to serve on this detail till the close of the com- 
mission’s labors and the publication of its results in June, 1897. 

When, in November, 1896, it was made known that Great 
Britain and Venezuela had at last come together and had agreed 
to submit their dispute to arbitration, the commission found itself 
set free from the need of pronouncing judgment. As the con- 
tending parties had themselves agreed to submit their differences 
to an arbitral tribunal, it was obviously for that tribunal to pro- 
nounce judgment: Moreover, as Mr Justice Brewer had been 
chosen as a member of the arbitral tribunal, it was obviously im- 
proper that he should pronounce judgment in advance of his 
sitting with that tribunal. The commission accordingly decided ~ 
to withhold any conclusions it might have reached and to pub- 
lish only its investigations. Thus the facts gathered have become 
public property. The investigations undertaken were unfinished 


THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION 197 


when arbitration was agreed upon, but the commission decided 
to stop short and print in as complete and systematic form as 
time permitted the facts then gathered. 

The facts gathered by the commission are set forth in three 
octavo volumes and an atlas comprising 76 maps. The atlas 
constitutes volume 4 of the report and was the first volume com- 
pleted. It is composed, as above stated, of 76m: aps, divided into 
three groups or parts. 

Part I comprises 15 maps, all printed on the same base. This 
base map was specially compiled and engraved for the commis- 
sion, and is designed to represent the latest and best information 
as to the natural features of the Orinoco-Essequibo region. It is 
based chiefly on the so-called great map of the colony, dated 
1875, and published by E. Stanford, of London,in 1877. Various 
other maps were also made use of in its compilation. The dis- 
puted territory along the seacoast is so differently shown on maps 
of high authority that a compromise seemed impossible, and 
accordingly two different maps of the same tract are shown side 
by side on the base map. Map 1 shows various boundary lines 
proposed or claimed, map 2 the forests and savannas, map 3 the 
principal drainage basins, and map 4 the geology of the region 
as far as known. Maps 5 to 14 are historical maps, showing 
European occupation at various dates oie the earliest down to 
1814. ‘“ These eleven historical maps,” says Professor Burr, 
‘have been prepared to illustrate my report on the evidence of 
Dutch official documents as to occupation and claims in the re- 
gion between the Essequibo and the Orinoco, and are an attempt 
to show graphically the conclusions reached by that report.” It 
may be noted in passing that if title to the disputed tract is to 
be determined by occwpation, these maps showing occupation are 
of great significance and importance. 

Part II of the atlas comprises 41 maps, facsimile reproductions 
of the “ mother maps ” of the region—produced during a period 
of about 300 years. . Volume 3 of the commission’s report con- 
tains a paper by the secretary, Mr Severo Mallet-Prevost, on 
the Cartographical Testimony of Geographers. The 41 maps 
mentioned illustrate that report and exhibit the gradual evolu- 
tion of our geographical knowledge of the disputed area, and 
also the evolution of the various boundary lines. It constitutes 
an interesting and instructive group of maps and makes avyail- 
able for students a number of scarce ones. 


198 THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION 


Part III comprises 20 maps of an official or semi-official char- 
acter, of which 12 are from manuscript originals not hitherto 
published. The origin of these maps, their character and mean- 
ing are set forth by Professor Burr in a paper in volume 3. 

In describing the atlas, we have in part anticipated the de- 
scription of volume 38, which is devoted to geography. It is an 
octavo volume of 517 pages and contains 6 papers. The first is 
by the secretary of the commission on the cartographical testi- 
mony of geographers. In its 80 pages the historical evolution 
of lines showing territorial division are worked out with great 
care, and the size of the paper inadequately measures the labor 
needful to gather and arrange and clearly set forth and discuss 
the facts therein contained. . 

The second paper is by Dr Justin Winsor, librarian of Har- 

vard College, and it deals with the same topics as the preceding 
paper, but in a different manner. This paper was submitted to 
the commission very early, its date being March 4, 1896, just two 
months after the commission was appointed. The third and 
fourth papers are by Professor Burr. 
_ The fifth paper, entitled Notes on the Geography of the Ori- 
noco-Essequibo Region, South America, is by the present writer. 
It consists of a prosaic compilation of statements made by vari- 
ous travelers and explorers in the region as to its geography, 
with references. in foot-notes, to the sources of these statements. 
All the geographic names found applied in the region, whether 
now in use or not, were recorded in these notes, which are fully 
indexed. Thus it is possible to proceed quickly by means of 
the index and foot-notes to the original sources of geographic 
information touching any part of the country described in these 
notes. 

The last paper in the volume is a partial list of maps of the 
region, also prepared by the writer. It was hoped to make an 
exhaustive list, but time did not suffice for this, nor for the 
preparation of a bibliography of the region. 

Volume 2 is given mainly to extracts from Dutch archives. 
There are 353 of these extracts, comprising 662 pages. They 
are printed in double columns, the original Dutch forming one 
column and the English translation the parallel column. Some 
miscellaneous manuscript documents, filed with the commission 
by the government of Venezuela, close the volume. 

Volume 1, first in order but last to be published, is now in 
press and will shortly be published. It is to contain the report 


THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION 199 


of the commission, which, however, is not new to the world, 
having been published May 25, 1897, as Senate Document No. 
106, 55th Congress, Ist session. It is to contain also a report by 
Professor J. F. Jameson, of Brown University, on the Treaty of 
Miinster of 1648, and also Professor Burr’s report upon what he 
found in the Dutch archives bearing upon the boundary matter. 
Exact reproductions of those Dutch documents with translations 
constitute the major part of volume 2. Professor Burr’s report, 
however, will tell a connected story of Dutch occupation and 
doings in the disputed territory, as gathered from these old 
manuscript chronicles of the Dutch. 

With the publication in the summer of 1897 of these four vol- 
‘umes the labors of the Venezuelan Boundary Commission end. 
The controversy, however, is not ended, but its settlement has 
been relegated to a new tribunal—a tribunal of arbitration, to 
be composed of five of the world’s leading jurists. 

The commission, whose work now ends, it will be remembered, 
is wholly a United States commission. The United States de- 
vised it, created it, and maintained it; and it did this ‘ to deter- 
mine with sufficient certainty, for its own justification, what is 
the true boundary line between British Guiana and Venezuela.” 
It is a high compliment to the character of the commission that 
both Great Britain and Venezuela promptly and cordially aided 
it to the fullest extent by furnishing information fully and freely. 
Neither was bound so to do, and neither had agreed to accept 
itsconclusions. Butas time progressed it became clear that this 
quasi or involuntary arbitration, if I may say so, might well be 
turned into an actual arbitration—an arbitration where all the 
facts could be sifted out, judicially weighed, and a just conclusion 
reached. Accordingly, at the Lord Mayor's banquet in London 
last November, Lord Salisbury announced that an agreement had 
been reached by which the long-drawn-out controversy was on 
its way toa peaceful, amicable, just, and final determination ; an 
agreement to arbitrate had been reached. 

That the action taken by the United States some eleven months 
before was a powerful agency toward securing this much-to-be- 
desired end does not admit of doubt. Such is the prevailing 
opinion. Such is the opinion of the commission itself, which 
in its report says: “A wise and just view of the case is that the 
commission has been a potent factor in bringing the two nations 
into a consent to stibmit the matter in dispute to an arbitral 
tribunal.” 


200 THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION 


In addition to the influence exerted by the commission in 
initiating the peaceful settlement of the dispute, the contribu- 
tion which it has made to the scholars of the world should not 
be overlooked. The investigations in history and geography 
set forth in the papers accompanying its report have a value 
wholly apart from the case to which they owe their origin. 

A few words about the arbitral tribunal and the work before 
it must end this already too long article. 

On February 2, 1897, a treaty of arbitration as to the boundary 
was signed in Washington by Sefior José Andrade, for Venezuela, 
and by Sir Julian Pauncefote, for Great Britain. It consists of 14 
articles, describing in precise legal and formal phraseology how 
the dispute is to be disposed of. A printed copy of that now: 
public treaty les before meas I write. Let me summarize it. 

First. An arbitral tribunal is to be named forthwith. 

Second. It is to be composed of five jurists, two named by 
Venezuela and two by Great Britain. Venezuela names Chief 
Justice Fuller and Mr Justice Brewer, of the United States Su- 
preme Court, and Great Britain names Baron Herschell and Sir 
Richard H. Collins, of Her Majesty’s privy council. These four 
are to select, on or before September 14, 1897, a fifth arbiter, a 
jurist, who is to be president of the tribunal. In the event of 
failure to do so, the fifth arbiter is to be chosen by the King of 
Sweden. ; 

Third. The tribunal is to determine what belonged to the 
Netherlands and what to Spain at the time when Great Britain 
acquired from the Dutch what is now British Guiana. 

Fourth. The tribunal shall take account of all pertinent facts, 
shall be governed by the principles of international law, and by 
three rules, viz: 

(a) Adverse possession or prescription for 50 years to consti- 
tute a good title. 

(0) Thearbitrators may recognize and give effect to laws sup- 
ported on any other valid foundation (than adverse possession) 
and which conform to international law. 

(c) In determining the boundary, if the tribunal shall find 
that the territory of one party was at the date of this treaty oc- 
cupied by citizens or subjects of the other, it shall give to such 
occupation the effect which in its opinion is required by reason, 
justice, the principles of international law, and the equities of the 
case. 


i ay 
“wt 


MINERAL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES 201 


Fifth. The arbiters are to meet in Paris within 60 days after 
the printed arguments have been submitted, and decide the 
questions submitted ; all questions to be decided by a majority ; 
each party to appoint an agent to assist the tribunal. 

Sixth. Within eight months, 7. ¢., on or before February 14, 
1898, the case is to be submitted, with proofs, documents, ete. 

Seventh. Within four months thereafter, i. ¢.. on or before 
June 14, 1898, the counter-case is to be similarly submitted, 
and may contain new matter, with proofs. 

Kighth. Within three months thereafter, i. ¢., on or before 
September 14, 1898, the agent of each government must submit 
his argument in print. Oral arguments may then be had. 

Ninth. The arbiters may lengthen each period above named 


by 30 days. 


Tenth. Decision to be rendered within three months after the 
case has been argued, to be in duplicate, in writing, and signed 
by the arbiters who assent to it. 

Eleventh. An exact journal of proceedings is to be kept. 

Twelfth. Each government is to pay its own agent, and the 
cost of the arbitration shared equally. 

Thirteenth. The parties agree to be bound by the decisions 
rendered. 

It thus appears that the controversy bids fair to reach its final 
stage sometime during the winter of 1898-99. 


MINERAL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES 


The mineral products of the United States in the calendar 
year 1896 had a total value, according to a recent report of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, of $621,969,943, the value of the me- 
tallic products being more by $4,868,951, and that of the non- 
metallic less by $5,586,656, than in 1895. 

The great increase in the production of pig iron, so much com- 
mented upon last year, has not been maintained, the output 
having fallen off more than 800,000 long tons, representing a 
decrease in value of nearly $15,000,000. On the other hand, the 
production of gold has increased from $46,610,000 to $53,088,000, 
that of silver from $36,445,000 to $39,655,000, and that of copper 
from $38,682,347 to $48,698,267. Gold shows an increase of over 
60 per cent in four years, the production of silver is the largest 
since 1893, and even the output of copper has almost doubled 


202 MINERAL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES 


since 1889. The most remarkable increase, however, is that of 
aluminum, the production of which has increased from 18,000 
pounds, worth $59,000, in 1887, to 1,500,000 pounds, valued at 
$520,000, in 1896, the value per pound having fallen, as will be 
perceived, from $3.28 to 40 cents within the period named. 

To return to a comparison of the statistics of 1896 and 1895, 
an increase in the production of bituminous coal from 135,- 
118,193 to 187,640,276 short tons has been accompanied by a 
sufficient decline in prices to reduce the total value of the output 
from $115,749,771 to $114,891,515. On the other hand, a con- 
siderably smaller production of Pennsylvania anthr&cite has 
represented almost as great a value in the market as the output 
of the previous year. The production of building stone has been 
the smallest in point of value (quantities not being reported) 
since 1888, but the estimated production of brick clay is still 
represented by the same round figures, $9,000,000, that have 
done duty for the last half-dozen years. 

There appears to have been a considerable increase (nearly 
4,000,000 gallons, or over 18 per cent) in the sale of mineral waters. 
It would be interesting to know how far this remarkable increase 
is due to the use of non-medicinal mineral waters for table pur- 
poses, and how far it is to be attributed to the apparently largely 
increased use of lithia water as a remedy for certain bodily ail- 
ments that seem to be peculiarly characteristic of our time. Of 
the remaining principal products reported upon, petroleum 
reaches, in 60,960,361 barrels, the highest figures its production 
has ever attained; salt shows a slight increase in production, 
with a considerable decrease in value, and the production of 
borax—no less than 13,508,000 pounds—is the largest on record, 
with the single exception of that of 1894. de 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA* 


By Bernuarp E. Frrnow, Ph.D., LL.D., ete., 


Chief of the Division of Forestru, U. S. Department of Agriculture 


It is a notable fact that but few of our people have any ade- 
quate conception of the vastness and the varied conditions of 
their country, and still less do they realize its opportunities for 
future growth. The horizon of the majority, even of those who 
have made hasty overland trips, rarely reaches beyond the limits 
of their personal observation, and as to the possibilities of the 
future—even those who have studied our past development fail 

to realize them. Our imagination—save in the professional 
boomer—lags behind reasonable expectation. 

When I told my friends that a happy accident—the invitation 
of a generous and public-spirited friend—would take me for the 
summer months to and through Arizona, two expressions were 
most frequent: one of commiseration at my prospects of sum- 
mer temperatures, the other a somewhat astonished inquiry as 
to what a forester could find of interest in that country of cactus 
and desert. That a large part of the territory of Arizona can 
boast of an ideal summer climate, unequaled for camping, was a 
revelation to them; and that some of the most interesting moun- 
tain forests—botanically speaking—are to be found there, and 
the most lovely and most extensive, as well as most economi- 
cally important pineries that exist between the great forests of 
the Pacific coast and the western border of the Atlantic forest 
in Texas and Arkansas, a thousand miles away in either direc- 
tion—this seemed to them almost incredible. 

Why should this particular forest area become a subject of in- 
vestigation? The question is worthy of answer. Here is a ter- 
ritory still undeveloped, still undespoiled for the larger part—a 
territory needing for its best future development not only the 
material which these forest areas can furnish forever, but depend- 
ent on irrigation for its agricultural future, and thus requiring 
that protection of its water sources which a forest cover is sup- 
posed to afford. Would it not be wisdom to study the relation 
of this resource to the whole development of the country, and 


*An address delivered before the National Geographic Society, February 5, 1897 


203 


204 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


to study the conditions under which this resource could be ra- 
tionally managed, so as to avoid as far as practicable the devas- 
tation that has characterized our occupation of other sections, 
and thus pave the way for a rational use of this important, yet 
limited, resource? To be sure, this is hardly the way we are 
wont to do, for with regard to our resources, especially our for- 
ests, we take a position somewhat similar to that of the old gen- 
tleman from Arkansas: ‘‘ When it was raining he could not 
mend his roof, and when it was not he did not need a roof any- 
way.” 

Arizona, the unknown and maligned; the land of thorns and 
spines; the province of apparently hopeless deserts and yet of 
rich promise; the land of dreary wastes and yet of infinite va- 
riety and contrasts; the territory most picturesque and full of 
interest to the geologist and botanist and ethnologist, even to the 
mere sightseer, and yet the least visited; the earliest discovered 
of the western territories and yet the last to pass from the red- 
man’s dominion and the least developed ; the land of a high pre- 
historic civilization, of cave-dwellers and cliff-dwellers, and of 
the peaceful agricultural Hopi and Pima, and yet until a decade 
ago terrorized by the most warlike of the Indians, the Apache— 

Arizona is one of the most interesting of all our provinces. 

It is curious that the health-inspiring, rejuvenating quality of 
Arizona’s dry air did not impress itself upon the Spanish seekers 
after the Fount of Eternal Youth, one of whom was destined, 
while balked in his search for the latter, to first set foot on this 
‘part of the continent. Alva Nufiez Cabeza de Vaca, with two 
Spaniards and one Negro as companions, all four fugitives by 
land from slavery among the Seminole Indians in Florida and 
finding their way across the continent, were the first to see the 
“Seven Cities of Cibola,” the Hopi villages; were the first to 
pass under the shadows of San Francisco mountain and to share 
the hospitalities of the Pima Indians just 3860 years ago.. Three 
years later (in 1540) an exploring expedition under Vasquez de 
Coronado visited the same country, and it was then that one of 
his lieutenants, Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, gazed—the first 
white man—on the wonders of the Grand Cafion of the Colorado. 
Forty years later another of the conquistadors, Antonio de 
Espejo, ventured forth and claimed and named the country for 
Spain, Nuevo Mexico, under which name it came to the United 
States ; the portion north of Gila river by the treaty of Guada- 
lupe Hidalgo in 1848, the portion south of the Gila by the treaty 


oS 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


205 


and purchase negotiated by the then Minister to Mexico, James 
Gadsden, in 1854, for the purpose of obtaining a suitable route 
for a southern Pacific railroad, the price paid for the latter por- 
tion being $10,000,000. 

Spanish development was confined entirely to the lower por- 
tions, and consisted mainly in the establishment of missions to 
convert the agricultural Indians, and in the location of presidios 
at Tucson and Tubac to protect the missions and the few haci- 
endas and silver mines then worked, the hostile Apache con- 
stantly harassing their Indian and Spanish neighbors alike and 
withstanding the progress of civilization. 

In 1863 the territory of Arizona was segregated from New 
Mexico, the name probably being a modification of Arizonac, a 
Papago Indian name of uncertain meaning which had been, ap- 
_ plied to a native village and was extended to the lower portion 
of what is now our southwestern province by the Spaniards. 

The expeditions of the War Department under Sitgreaves, Wil- 
liamson, Whipple, Parke, Gray, Beale, and Ives during the years 
from 1852 to 1860 give us the first definite knowledge of the 
country. Almost simultaneously with these, immigration and 
mining development began under protection of military forts 
Buchanan and Breckinridge. 

From 1863, when the territory was segregated from New 
Mexico, to 1874, the history of Arizona is written in blood. It 
took a hardy man to run the risk of tomahawk and scalping- 
knife in order to benefit from the rich mineral discoveries in 
southern and middle Arizona. Nor were the mining communi- 
ties themselves without their internal strife and shotgun admin- 
istration of desperadoes and Mexican laborers. The successful 
campaigns of General Custer, however, broke the war spirit of 
the Indians and led to the treaty of 1874, when these Indians 
were placed on reservations. The advent ofthe Southern Pacific 
railroad in 1878 stimulated anew the development of the mining 
districts, and since the Apache Indians, with their cunning leader, 
Geronimo, were removed to Florida in 1886 the peaceful progress 
of the territory is assured, and one may travel through the coun- 
try with no more fear of a hold-up than in Texas or New York. 

Three centuries and three score years of history! Yet the be- 
ginnings of civilization and of the development of the territory 
date back hardly a score of years, and it is only a little over a 
decade since a really peaceful progress has begun—since the 
marauding Apache has been removed! 


206 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


Arizona, with an area of about 114,000 square miles, equaling 
the combined areas of New York and the New England states, 
or of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, is in the main a plateau rising 
from the southwestern corner toward the north and east. From 
an altitude of not more than 40 feet above sea-level, at or near 
Yuma, the plateau level rises to 7,000 feet or more, and, with the 
many mountain ranges that overtop the plateau, every altitude is 
found up to 12,800 feet in the rude stone monument erected by 
Mr Gilbert on the highest peak of San Francisco mountains. 
There is, however. a convenient and significant altitudinal sub- 
division of the plateau to be noted, by which the northeastern 
section, with about one-third of the territory, is segregated as 
the Colorado plateau—a part of the great plateau which extends 
northward, with an average elevation of over 4,000 feet, the south- 
western two-thirds forming a lower plateau, with an average ele- 
vation of probably over 1,000 feet, studded with rugged sierras 
which sometimes reach up nearly 10,000 feet. ‘The division be- 
tween these sections is sharp and sudden; in most parts it isa 
line of cliffs and steep slopes, varying from 600 to 1,200 feet 
and more in height, which form a rim to the higher plateau, popu- 
larly known among the Mexicans as the Mogollon and among 
Americansas “therim.” This great escarpment forms so abrupt 
a boundary line that a stone may be hurled from one region into 
the other. Immediately below this rim there isa climatically and 
botanically intermediary region or transition zone which only 
accentuates the two main divisions. 

The convenience of this subdivision extends beyond topo- 
graphic distinction, for the two sections differentiate climatically 
almost as abruptly as the surface, giving rise, from the standpoint 
of the visitor, to a summer section and a winter section, with cor- 
responding differences in flora, fauna, and economic conditions. 


Thus the range of summer and winter climate which a latitudinal 


difference of a thousand miles effects from Maine to Florida is 
here effected approximately by altitudinal differences within a 
hundred miles. 

Furthermore, the two sections are best reached, and until a 
few years ago could only be approached, by rail on two inde- 
pendent railroad systems—the Southern Pacific affording pas- 
sage through the southern section and the Atlantic and Pacific 
(now part of the Santa Fé system) traversing the northern sec- 
tion. At present there is a connection between the two trunk 
lines by way of Phcenix and Prescott, giving access to the central 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 207 
section. These three lines, with a few short feeders, comprise the 


entire railroad system of the territory. 

The tourist starting for Arizona in July will probably enter 
the territory by the northern route and spend the warm months 
on the plateau, making Flagstaff his headquarters or base of 
supplies. After the hot and dreary ride over the featureless 
plains of western Kansas and eastern Colorado and through the 
hardly less dreary though more varied mountain scenery of New 


PETRIFIED STUMP, ARIZONA 


Mexico, and after passing through the desert country of the east- 
ern border county of Arizona (containing the celebrated petrified 
forests, strewn in huge logs over the sandy waste), it is a relief 
when suddenly the pifion and juniper appear in dense masses, 
and finally the pine forest is entered within an hour of reaching 
Flagstaff. To add to the: feeling of comfort and new interest 
which this unexpected forest scene creates, the grand peaks of 
the San Francisco mountains come in sight, possibly with a white 
veil of freshly fallen snow that vanishes before the day is over. 


208 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


Then when the heavy up-grade puffing of the engine and the 
rumbling of the cars cease and we alight at the terminus of the 
railroad journey and the beginning of our camping tour in the 
oddly-named town, Flagstaff, in the midst of this lovely pinery, 
we feel at home at once, without any misgivings as to the com- 
fort or interest of the expedition. 

Coming to study the forests, we are naturally attracted by the 
chimneys and lumber piles in the distance, which suggest what 
becomes of the grand pines that we have just learned to admire. 
Although the sun is low—the train arriving late in the after- 
noon—the sawmills, which, with the cattle and sheep interests, 
form the raison d’étre of the little settlement of 1,500 people, call 
for immediate inspection. At the mills and offices we learn that 
of the 24,000,000 feet of lumber now cut in the territory annually, 
the various sawmills of Flagstaff, supplied by a logging road of 
20 miles, produce about one-half, besides some 200,000 railroad 
ties, supplying the local demands of the northern part of the 
territory and also of southern California and New Mexico. We 
learn from inspection of the yards that the pine lumber of the 
pine (Pinus ponderosa) is only of medium quality, yet good 
enough for ali local uses. With a lumberman’s eye we have 
noticed that-the trees cannot yield much clear timber, and this 
impression is verified by the books of the sawmill men, which 
show that not more than 6 to 7 per cent of the logs reaching the 
mill yield first-class material; and we have also noted that the 
cut per acre must be far below what eastern lumbermen would 
expect. These conditions are fully realized in Flagstaff. The 
opinion of the president of the Arizona Lumber Company, con- 
veyed to the governor of the territory and printed by him in his 
report for 1899, is suggestive : 

I believe that it is the duty of every person who can give the matter 
thought and who is in position to influence any one’s action in the prem- 
ises, to make some endeavor to perpetuate our forest conditions for the 
benefit of future generations in the territory. Upon the rational use of 
our forests will depend the happiness and welfare, and I may say the ab- 
solute existence, of any large population in this territory ; and the time 
to act is the present, when the least possible injury will be done to vested 
rights. 

T believe the government ought to withdraw all timber lands it pos- 
sesses and ought to appoint a competent forester who would make it his 
sole duty to see that the covering which nature has afforded our moun- 

‘tain tops should be preserved, to the end that the valley land of the terri- 
tory be protected either from droughts or floods in the years to come. 


ee eS ee eee ee ee ee 


— 


Sih ROS cat 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 209 


The next morning we are naturally eager to start out early to 
climb that magnificent mountain which rises north of the little 
hamlet in solitary grandeur, a huge voleano whose fires have 
but recently been extinguished, now unique in its symmetrical 
and striking outlines, the most impressive feature in the land- 
scape. The elevation of Flagstaff being about 7,000 feet, a steady 
ascent is made from the town for ten or twelve miles to the foot 
of the cone at 8,000 feet, and then comes a steeper climb. The 
road is through a lovely forest of bull pine (Pinus ponderosa), a 


PETRIFIED LOGS, ARIZONA 


species common from British Columbia southward, both along 
the Sierra Madre and the Rocky mountains, down to Mexico. 
The forest is open and parklike, the trees standing in groups, 
with here and there an old stager which was a good-sized sap- 
ling when the first white conquistadors passed through this 
wilderness 360 years ago. The open stand of the stately pines 
rearing their heads 100 and more feet into the remarkably blue 
sky naturally causes the formation of a long and rather sym- 
metrical crown which adds to the scenic beauty, but not to the 
commercial value of the timber. Since the rainy season has 
not yet set in, there is but little grass and lower vegetation visible ; 
hardly any undergrowth impedes the view; yet here and there a 
4 


210 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


clump of the scrubby Rocky mountain white-oak (Quereus gam- 
belit) forms a pleasing contrast. 

As we reach an altitude of 9,000 feet a change of scene occurs; 
the yellow-green, heavy-foliaged bull pine is supplanted by the 
graceful, dark-green white pine of the Rockies (Pinus flexilis) and 
the still more striking Douglas spruce, which in scattered indi- 
viduals studs the now really grassy slope, for at this higher alti- 
tude more moisture and less evaporation favor the grassy growth. 
One thousand feet higher and we reach the region of the Foxtail 
pine (P. aristata), well named, for the long, flexible branchlets 
closely beset at their ends with crowded needles exhibit strik- 
ingly the appearance of a fox’s tail. As we ascend, the Engelmann 
spruce, as widely distributed over the west as the bull pine, joins 
these trees and with them forms a more or less dense forest, the 
trunks short and much branched and gnarly, of little or no eco- 
nomic value. Here we find also in a few individuals a beautiful 
fir, a new accession to our flora, which Dr Merriam has this sum- 
mer described as the Arizona cork fir (Abies arizonica) from speci- 
mens gathered on this very trip from this very tree. At 11,500 
feet the last Engelmann spruce, tousled and shorn by the wintry 
blasts at this high elevation, and low creeping junipers, denote 
timber line. Toward the northeast we look down into what was 

-once an enormous volcano, one side blown out; the three peaks 
are still above us. 

A short climb of a thousand feet more over large blocks of lava 
or gravelly detritus brings us to the top of Humphrey’s peak. 
From here the eye sweeps over a goodly portion of the northern 
part of the territory, and the vast expanse of the pine land can be 
traced. Toward the north stretches the Coconino forest, flank- 
ing the Grand Cafion, whose sheer walls on the opposite side are 
dimly discerned. Eastward and northeastward the color of the 
clouds indicates the position of the Painted desert, separated from 
the San Francisco forest by a fringe of junipers and pifions at the 

_ levels between 6,000 and 7,000 feet ; toward the south and south- 
east, far as the eye can imagine sight—to the Mogollon and White 
mountains—and westward beyond the three-peaked landmark 
of Bill Williams mountain and Mount Sitgreaves, stretches the 
sea of pines, covering altogether an area of not less than 3,000 
square miles. 

It is proper that we should give full consideration to San Fran- 
cisco mountains, for not only are they among the most picturesque 
and interesting to the sightseer, geologist, and plant geographer, 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 211 


but they are of importance economically ; not merely for the pas- 
turage that might be gleaned from their slopes, or for their timber 
(which on the higher levels is not worth the cutting), but for their 
meteorological effect, which is increased by the forest cover. Their 
peaks arrest and precipitate the clouds, which would otherwise 
pass over the plateau and find no cause for precipitation over the 
eastward desert. Nu-va-ti-ky-dbi(Home of the High Snows)is the 
name the Indians give to them. They form the only elevation in 
Arizona on which snows can and do accumulate, giving up their 
stores in spring, furnishing supplies for many springs and washes 
and to at least one perennial stream—Oak creek. From this con- 
sideration it would be proper to make into a forest reservation all 
the area above the level of 8,500 feet. 

We may take our descent on the western face of the mountain, 
passing one of the loveliest spots where a never-failing spring of 
cold delicious water invites us tocamp among the aspen growth 
which intermingles with the spruces and white pines; and we 
may also extend our excursion to pay a brief visit to Walker 
lake or to Crater lake, whose yawning mouth, once spouting 
molten masses, is now sealed by a sheet of water, a welcome find 
to the cattle herds roaming over the plateau to pick the some- 
times scanty herbage. 

Water even on the plateau is the one deficiency of the whole 
territory ; not that there is not sufficient and even too much at 
times, but in its distribution it is uncertain and extreme, both 
by localities and by seasons, and even within the rainy season 
the dry air makes constant and excessive demands. 

Here, as in the southern portion of Arizona, there are two wet 
seasons, winterand summer. On the plateau, after the beautiful 
days of Indian summer in November, winter begins with Christ- 
mas. While mostly clear and calm, with temperatures rarely 
below 22° at night, ranging to 50° or 60° in the day, snows come 
every ten to fourteen days to a depth of 4 to 24 inches, drifting 
badly, but rarely lying long, except on the higher levels, and 
even the frozen ground becomes soft in the middle of the day. 
Spring begins about the middle of April and is the dry season— 
windy, dusty, the first half cooler, the last half warmer, than one 
would wish. With the first week of July the rainy season sets 
in, lasting until September. With it comes the profusion of 
flowers which is characteristic of the Rocky mountains, and 
which by and by will fill the pine woods below with gay beauty 
and luxuriance. Whole fields of the blue flag (Jris versicolor) 


212 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


bloom; there are magnificent carmine Gilias and Pentstemons, 
the dark purple and golden Primula parryi, the yellow columbine, 
and a host of others changing off through the season and mak- 
ing this plateau a veritable flower-garden. 

The rains hardly ever comeas land rains, but their nature and 
quantity are very variable. A short shower each afternoon is 
said to be the regulation rain, but the season of 1895 excelled 
in terrific downpours, with most boisterous thundering and bril- 
liant lightning, not even respecting the nightly rest of the tentless 
camper. Yet the dry air soon obliterates the dampness. The 
temperature, however, is kept at a most delightful, uniform de- 
eree, never much above 75° or 80°, and the sunsets after a late 
thunderstorm are the most gorgeous to be seen anywhere. The 
nights are cool, toward morning occasionally even cold. Alto- 
gether the summer climate in the pines is ideal. 

While preparing for our trip of exploration there are many 
points of interest around Flagstaff to visit. We may descend 
into Cosnino or Walnut cafion, a deep, narrow cut, with its long 
rows of cliff-dwellings built into the limestone walls reminding us 
of bygone millenniums, when a teeming population must have 
lived here. These dry ridges and plateau portions are wooded 
with the low trees, rarely over 30 feet high, often shrublike in 
form, of the pifion or nut pine (Pinus edulis), whose sweet seeds 
are gathered for food by the Indians, and the western juniper 
(Juniperus utahensis), fit only for firewood, interspersed with 
shrubs of striking form and foliage, almost always spiny and of 
peculiar interest. Among these are the pink-flowered locust, the 
yellow-flowered, prickly-leafed barberry, the fruit making ex- 
cellent jam, the trifoliate, red-fruited squawberry, of delicious 
acid taste, and the snowy, white-tufted cliff rose, which is not a 
rose at all, yet fills the air with a rare fragrance. 

An inspection of the logging operations gives an opportunity 
to make measurements of the rate of growth of the pines and to 
observe the differences in their development, giving rise to the 
lumberman’s classification into jack pines, the younger or quickly 
grown, and yellow pines, the older or slowly grown, which are 
from 250 to 300 years and more old. 

Presently we start southward, looking back on the hospitable 
town of Flagstaff and its grand mountain and forest entourage, 
across the waste which the logger and the unavoidable forest fire 
have made, and the natural prairie or glade south of it. Such 
glades, from a few acres to several square miles in extent, are 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 213 


vw 


a very general and interesting phenomenon throughout these 
woods, furnishing not only most pleasing vistas but opportunity 
for pasturage and agricultural use. Their soil is usually rich 
black loam washed from the surrounding hills, rather compact 
and liable to a wide range of moisture conditions on account of 
deficient drainage, and hence inimical to tree-growth, but readily 
supporting a greensward of grass. In wet seasons these depres- 
sions sometimes turn into lakes. Mormon lake, which we pass, 
is such a prairie, some five miles long and one to two miles wide, 
which, when the Mormons arrived there, had the appearance 
of a rich meadow, inducing them to settle and go into dairy farm- 
ing; after a few years the glade filled up with water and became 
a lake; in 1895 it was all dry except a small remnant of water in 
the lowest depression. As these patches of fertile land, forming 
about 15 to 20 per cent of the forested area, are destined to be- 
come objects of agricultural development—they have begun to 
be so used—and in that way to be helpful in the rational man- 
agement of the surrounding forest country, it would be of inter- 
est to experiment as to their best treatment; many of them by 
judicious ditching, by which the moisture extremes may be 
abated, can undoubtedly be made to produce various crops be- 
sides the potato and alfalfa or oats which the short season and 
the cold condition of the soil now permit. 

As we proceed we presently pass a most forbidding spot, where 
the limestone soil is covered with black blocks of lava, giving 
rise to soils locally known as malapai, corrupted from the Span- 
ish mal pais, bad lands, although the soil is not so bad after all, 
at least for tree-growth. One of the great lava fields of the world, 
made up of basalt and trachyte, extends from San Francisco 
mountains southward and northward, covering fully 20,000 
square miles with its overflow. 

As we progress through the forest we learn from the differences 
of soils and consequent differences in development of the trees 
something of the geology of this plateau. Archean, Silurian, 
Carboniferous, Juratrias, Cretaceous, and igneous rocks are found. 
Three soil formations are readily recognized —limestone here, 
sandstone there, and over both, irregularly, the decomposed beds 
of lava which have overflowed thousands of square miles, giv- 
ing rise tothe malapai. So faras tree-growth is concerned, wher- 
ever the decomposition of the lava blocks has been thorough 
and limestones have added their quota, the soil is by no means 
unfavorable. The limestone soils seem to produce the best 
timber, the sandstone soils the poorest. 


214 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


Water is to be found in springs only at rare intervals, and 
hence camping places must be known; yet the few wells which 
have been dug here and there, furnishing deliciously cool and 
good water, suggest that the development of water resources 
could be extended. 

As we become familiar with the woods and observe how the 
trees always stand in groups with open spaces between, and how 
the young gfowths, from the seedling to the sapling, also occur 
only in groups and patches; and as we lie in our tentless bed in 
an open spot, where neither cones nay caterpillars can drop on 
us, and ponder over the reasons for this aspect of tree distribu- 
tion, we come to the conclusion that water conditions or soil 
conditions affected by drainage must account for it. Those 


portions of the rocky and unevenly disintegrated soil which 


permit a temporary storage of sufficient moisture at the proper 
season will alone reproduce and permit the young growth to 
thrive. Another interesting observation regarding these pine 
forests is that young growth seems to appear only in irregular 
periods, from three to ten years intervening between the groups 
of young trees. After a fortnight’s progress of the rainy season» 
millions of little seedlings spring up all through the wood, car- 


rying their seed shells in characteristic manner above ground, 


a rich promise of a dense, young aftergrowth, yet probably all 
doomed to perish from frost, because the short season does not 
permit the ripening of their wood. The reproduction, to be per- 
manent, must take place in the spring, induced by a wet winter 
and spring season, which occurs only at considerable intervals- 

The farther south we progress on our journey the denser, state- 
lier, and more valuable grows the pine forest, undisturbed as 
yet by the hand of man. Presently we emerge from its shady 


recesses, and as we pass the last pines a candelabrum of flaming 


red and yellow lights—a century plant in bloom, messenger of 
warmer climes, that has found its way up along a cafion from 
the lower levels—tells us that soon we shall be in the region of 
cactus, yucca, and catsclaw. 

If we had time we would visit those picturesque red rocks 
which loom up in the west, forming the cafions of Oak creek, the 
perennial daughter of San Francisco mountains, the clearest 
mountain stream in this entire region, in its upper part famed 
for beautiful trout pools. In its middle part, hardly known 
to even the nearest neighbors and not at all to the outside world, 
it affords the most romantic and most picturesque rock country 


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THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 215 


imaginable, the celebrated Garden of the Gods in Colorado being 
an insignificant imitation only. The manifold, curious, wind- 
carved shapes of the red sandstone rocks rising abruptly from 
the ground, contrasted with the green of the surrounding plain, 
are worth a long journey to see. The few who have visited this 
secluded valley will also not forget the remarkable bouquet and 
aroma of the grape, raised by one of the more enterprising ranch- 
ers on these sun-warmed sand bottoms, which promises some 
day to outrank the finest vintage of Bordeaux. 

Presently a wide view opens before our eyes; far below us 
stretches Verde valley, and we are looking over the rim into the 
borderland of the southern desert region. In red and white 
and yellow and brown tints glare the arid gravels, studded thinly 
with a scant, shrubby vegetation, dry and gray. The fresh, bright 
green spots that catch the eye we find afterward to be groups of 
opuntias, large prickly pears, whose red, acid fruit we appre- 
ciate later in the season, after we have learned how to avoid 
the prickles which almost invisibly cover them in small tufts. 
Among the trees, the first we meet is a peculiar, leafless, shrub- 
like form, with long, slender, green branches, the falsely so-called 
paloverde, Cunotia holacantha of the botanists. The majority of 
the shrubs of the brush desert belong to the Acacia tribe, all with 
symmetrically rounded heads, and, like every other plant here, 
provided with thorns or spines, the peculiar adaptation to desert 
conditions making the labors of the collector a hard task. Many 
unfamiliar plant forms excite the curiosity of the new-comer. 

We have suddenly dropped to the 3,000-foot level, and begin 
to feel the difference in temperature ; the canteen is often called 
into requisition. By-and-by the heat of the early afternoon sun 
leads us to wish that camp were near. Uncertain of the road, 
we ascend one of the glaring, white limestone hills, and lo! what 
an unexpected sight meets oureye. The contrast is so great that 
we think a mirage must have risen to mock,our heated brain. 
There lies at our feet, stretching away for several miles, a land of 
green vegetation, rich and luscious as in the most favored spots 
of the Alleghanies in early summer, a broad river of foliage, in- 
terrupted here and there by fields of alfalfa and corn, with 
orchards from which the red roofs peep out hospitably. We are 
looking into the valley of. Beaver creek, one of the affluents of 
Rio Verde, which, like all these water-courses, hidden away under 
a dense cover of deciduous trees, are the surprises of the deserts 
through which they flow, and furnish the water for the irrigated 
fields of the rancher. 


216 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


Here we find not only the cottonwoods, hackberry, and ash of 
several species, as along the streams of the more eastern plains, 
but a tree alder of excellent shape, peculiar to Arizona, and a 
plane or sycamore much more striking and beautiful in its foliage 
than those which are planted in our eastern streets and parks. 
There is the same tangle of luxuriant vegetation, with grapevines 
trailing over bushes and trees, that we find in the bottom lands 
of our Gulf states, with rock and debris and driftwood and sand 
carried by the flood waters of the stream which comes from the 
pine plateau—the forest watering the plain. Down in this bower 
of green, a real paradise after the weary desert ride, we gladly 
camp and enjoy a refreshing bath in the soda springs. 

In addition to the creek and these interesting soda springs, 
there is a still more remarkable sheet of water to be found in the 
well-known Montezuma well, a deep hole in the limestone hills, 
probably originally a large limestone cave, the roof of which fell 
in when the water collected in it. Here also we find reminders 
of the cliff-dwellers, who, a thousand years ago or more, built 
their abodes in the walls of this huge well and used its never- 
failing water, which passes through a subterranean tunnel into 
the creek, to irrigate their fields, as do the ranchers of today. Not 
only the line of the ancient ditch has been found clearly defined, 
but the petrified ditch itself has been dug out, the lime of the 
water having completely filled the original ditch with its deposit. 

A thrifty agricultural population, with whom agriculture, and 
especially horticulture, evidently pays, has now taken the place 
of these prehistoric tillers of the soil, who have left the signs of 
their existence and their activity everywhere through the terri- 
tory in more or less preserved ruins, the largest and most elabo- 
rate of which, named Montezuma castle, probably because of its 
size and elaborateness, is found not many miles from Montezuma 
well. Little is known of these prehistoric people, but after see- 
ing the present abodes and ways of the Hopi and Zufii Indians, 
there remains but little doubt in our minds that the ancients 
were the ancestors of these natives, perhaps not so many cen- 
turies removed ; and observing that these cliff-dwellings are as a 
rule situated near or overlooking agriculturally available grounds, 
and recalling the history of the Apache raids, we conclude that 
they were agricultural Indians driven to construct their dwellings 
in inaccessible places for defense against their enemies. 

Resuming our journey, a few miles bring us to Verde—the 
abandoned military post known as Camp Verde—where 2,000 of 


6 


. 
| 


v oqeeree. 


ee) ee ee a ee ee Se ee Ee eee 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 217 


the wild Apache surrendered to General Crook in 1883. then and 
there breaking the war spirit of the race which had harassed for 
centuries peaceful Indians and white settlers alike. Except in 
the irrigated valley, everything looks brown and sear and un- 
compromising under the July sun.* The cattle industry used 
to thrive in this valley, as in many others of the territory, and 
also on the plateau; but, just like lumbering in other regions, it 
was carried on recklessly, the natural meadows being overstocked 
far beyond their capacity ; so that large areas which twelve years 
ago were luxuriant grass-producers are now absolutely barren, 
with not a spear of grass visible. 

The broad valley of Rio Verde, which carries the drainage 
from the plateau to Salt river, is capable of agricultural develop- 
ment to a much greater extent than has been attempted ; but, as 
in other parts of the territory, this requires systematic storage 
and utilization of the water. By careful management the cattle, 
sheep, and goat industry would no doubt be able to use advan- 
tageously the large nonirrigable areas. The home market for 
this secluded valley is mainly in Jerome, which is the seat of 
one of the largest copper mines and reduction works in the 
United States, with an annual output of about one million dollars 
in value. Prescott and the mining districts surrounding it are 
also within reach by a long day’s ride. 

There is hardly a drearier ride to be imagined than that from 
Verde valley over the Black Hills to Prescott. Up and down 
hill, over dry ridges studded with chaparral, scrub oak, man- 
zanita, and the like, we traverse a region for which, but for the 
mineral wealth that may be under ground, no use suggests itself. 
Arriving at Prescott, we reach once more the altitude of the pines 
in Bradshaw mountains; but we find that there is little timber 
left, the town and the mining districts surrounding it having 
used up most of it. Prescott was once the capital of the terri- 
tory and is still the metropolis of central Arizona, the supply- 
base of many outlying mining districts and the cattle ranches 
in the large valleys on the north and west. 

Here we may take train for the southern portion of the terri- 
tory. A branch road starts from Ash Fork on the Atlantic and 
Pacific railroad, whence it passes through the Black forest—not 
of spruces, firs, and pines, like the celebrated forest of that name 


* When we passed this way again, in September, after the rains had had opportunity 
to be effective, the country was almost unrecognizable; the dry, brush desert had 
changed into a beautiful prairie, and for the first time in eight years the grass had 
grown large enough to be cut for hay. 


218 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


in Germany, but of somber, low-topped cedars and pifion—the 
road running over trestles and loops to get from the plateau into 
the valley. Passing southward from Prescott on this line, we 
traverse a rugged, dry, mountain country, which contains rich 
mining ground where a man may wash his day’s wages in gold 
from the sojl anywhere in the creek bottoms or cafions. Defi- 
ciency of water alone retards this mining development; yetsome 
large mines are worked by pumping water six and eight miles 
over the mountain. 

As we descend into the plain from the 6,000-foot level of Pres- 
cott the temperature seemingly rises in geometric ratio, and as 
we reach the plain, at about 1,200 feet, we begin to suspect our 
friends were right after all in commiserating our fate. We reach 
Pheenix at night, and the broad waters of Salt river in the moon- 
light at least suggest coolness, and the night, warm enough to 
sleep outdoors, does indeed afford relief from the excessive heat 
of the day, when the thermometer was at 110°. 

The southern portion of Arizona can be subdivided into two 
sections fairly well differentiated topographically, climatically, 
and economically. The eastern district is elevated and moun- 
tainous; it is bounded on the west by the high mountain ranges 
of Santa Rita, El Rincon, Santa Catalina, and Tortilla and Super- 
stition mountains. The western part is a vast desert plain out 
of which, like islands from the sea, rise abruptly, in parallel lines 
ten to thirty miles apart, in black and purplish hues, rugged and 
‘towering granite mountains, reflecting the sun’s rays with daz- 
zling brilliancy. These mountains are mostly devoid of vegeta- 
tion and mostly also of soil, awful in their barrenness, while the 
desert below may be just as barren in places or else is studded 
with the sparse vegetation of cacti, agave, yucca, catsclaws, palo- 
verde, mesquite, etc.—a paradise of spines and thorns. There 
would appear on general principles nothing more depressing 
than such a country; soit is when viewed from the car-window ; 
yet, asa matter of fact, to the explorer it is full of interest, a 
stimulus to the curiosity and furnishing real entertainment ; 
and, finally, much of this hopeless desert promises to the future 
many a paying enterprise. Not only do the desert mountain 
ranges contain minerals of value—gold and silver and others— 
while salt, borax, gypsum, sulphur, asbestos, kaolin, and pumice- 
stone may be found in the plain, but the soil is capable of pro- 
ducing profusely in this southern clime, if only water can be 
brought to it. Water is the great problem here. The little rain 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 918 


that falls over the vast region fills the water-courses, where there 
are any, for only a few hours, after which what is not evaporated 
sinks into the loose sand and the river continues underground. 
the bed above “running dry.” Yet, as to the possibility of 
finding enough water to irrigate the most of it, who will foretell ? 

There are really only two rivers which run alwavs full—the 
Colorado and the Gila. While Gila river and its affluents, the 
San Pedro, Salt, and Hassayampa, which run dry occasionally, 
furnish only a limited quantity, the mighty Colorado river ear- 
ries a volume of water not only six times as rich in fertility as 
that of the Nile, but of almost limitless and continuous supply, 
which would suffice to irrigate several million acres. To be 
sure, the bed lies considerably below the level of the plain, yet 
when the economic conditions of the country require it, there 
will be no difficulty in devising the mechanical means to bring 
this water upon the land, as is being done now in a small way 
at Yuma. And, with the addition of artesian wells, perhaps it 
may only be a question of time when these dreary wastes will 
be turned into fertile fields and gardens such as are beginning to 
grow up around Phenix, Yuma, and other cities—a revival of 
bygone times when an ancient and industrious people occupied 
the Gila bottom lands, of whose existence now only the ruins of 
long-fallen towns, the remnants of large aqueducts, and widely 
distributed fragments of pottery testify. Phamnix, the capital, 
already boasts of being a garden spot, all owing to the exten- 
sive irrigation canal system which derives its waters from Salt 
river, and certainly the green alfalfa fields and extensive or- 
chards of peach and almond, olive and pomegranate, are a 
most pleasing contrast to the surrounding cheerless brush desert. 
The city, embowered in the tropic foliage of palms and pepper 
trees, with its luxurious hotels, is bound to become—nay, has 
already become—a Mecca of the seeker after a mild winter cli- 
mate and relief from pulmonary complaints. While its sum- 
mer temperatures may be said to lack nothing in generosity, for 
eight months in the year the climate is said to be perfect. 

The eastern mountain region is mainly a pasturing region ; 
the valleys are clothed with hardy grass and stunted acacias, 
while the mountains, when over 6,000 feet high and massive 
enough to induce precipitation, are wooded ; the drier exposures 
and lower altitudes support an open growth of stubby live-oaks, 
the trees varying in height from 12 to rarely over 25 feet, which 
in the distance have the appearance of an old apple orchard, 


220 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZO} . 


Higher above the 6,000-foot level and reaching to the tops at 
10,000 feet at most, the pines appear, including several most in- 
teresting species, which are at home further south in Mexico, 
together with some of more northern nativity. 

In these mountains, within a day’s ride from Tucson, we may 
find the most lovely, cool recesses of a trout-stream either in the 
Santa Catalina mountains or, with a few hours of railroad added, 
in the Chiricahua range, where we may readily forget that we 
are in the dryest and hottest—erroneously Ft) believed—portion 
of the United States. Here, at the higher elevations among the 
pines, the air is most delightful, and while the days are just 
about right, the nights may, even in September, be frosty enough 
for a double blanket. Tucson being 2,400 feet above sea-level at 
the eastern border of the desert is the rival of Phoenix; not indeed 
with regard to agricultural development, for this old presidio of 
the Spaniard placed there to protect the mission of San Xavier 
among the Papago Indians, still in existence, lies high and dry 
beyond sufficient water supplies, unless some time artesian wells 
may be developed ; but it is or will bea rival as a health resort, 
excelling the capital in the conditions and quality of the air, 
helpful in pulmonary diseases. 

Returning to the plateaus of northern Arizona, there are two 
trips which we must take together from Flagstaff, for without 
them a visit to the territory is decidedly incomplete—one to and 
through the Painted desert to the villages of the Hopi Indians, 
the other to the Grand Cafion. 

Having heard that within three days the cachet ele 
dance is to take place at Oraibi, one of the Hopi villages 100 
miles northward, we get ready our camp outfit for a plunge into 
the desert. Once more we skirt the San Francisco mountains, 
which will remain our guide and landmark through the whole 
trip, visible at any time and to the last. Once more we pass 
through the pine forest and over the black lava sands of the 
juniper and pifion belt, coming out on the rocky limestone 
plateau, with its scanty pasture and low shrub growth. 

_ Water is scarce on this trip, and although spring wells and 
so-called tanks—clayey soil depressions and rock cavities in 
which rain-waters collect—may be found at distances of 25 to 
40 miles apart, it is safer to carry water in the approved fashion. 
We reach the river, the Colorado Chiquito, or Little Colorado, 
marked in the distance by the line of cottonwoods, on the morn- 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


99] 


ing of the second day, and find its bed, which is usu: lly dry, 
filled to the brim with a yellow loam puddle, a rushing torrent, 

We should have to camp here until the flood abates but for 
the enterprise of a trader. who has spanned the river with a steel 

cable by means of which we transfer our packs, swimming our 
horses. Now we have in truth entered a desert, such as we have 
met nowhere else in the territory. 

The scene is one of utter desolation. Nota tree or a shrub 
breaks the monotony of the flat table-land; here it is eroded 
into deep, dark, varicolored green, blue, and vellow-brown ravines 
and chasms, there overtopped by high mesas with flaming red 
edges, the sands reflecting the sun's rays in a white and yellow 
glare, and the white summer clouds in turn reflecting not only 
the heat but the colors of the desert. In the distance peculiarly 
shaped purplish peaks and pinnacles and solitary buttes mark the 
limit of the desert proper and our destination two days hence, 
while now and then a mirage brings into view a sheet of water 
so distinct and natural that in spite of our knowledge of the im- 
material nature of the apparition our eyes refuse to accept the 
reasoning of our minds. Now and then we pass over different 
soils, alkali in nature and still more forbidding than the sand ; 
then again heavy loam soils with scant brush growth. If there 
ever was a region which would be thought beyond the possibili- 
ties of useful occupation, you would think that this was the one; 
and yet as we reach the trading postof the enterprising German 
whose cable helped us over the river we are as ready to distrust 
our eyes believing to see a mirage as when we found ourselves 
deceived in the phantasmal lakes, but there certainly seem to be 
ereen corn-fields. We are not, however, deceived; there is real 
corn of various kinds, and sugar-cane and patetied and other 
garden truck, not less than 40 acres in cultivation right in the 
sand and without irrigation. 

Listen to what the enterprising cultivator writes of his success 
in the first year’s experiment: “ Our crop has furnished us 80 
tons of hay and fodder; sugar-cane did the best, 8 feet high ; corn, 
the old Indian variety, has done well; watermelons, onions, and 
sweet potatoes seem to be at home here, and all that without a 
drop of rain for 18 months. Our trial plantings have fully paid 
us. Now we have a lake here, made by construction of a mud- 
dam across a dry wash, and filled by the floods from the upper 
country, 1 by 14 miles in extent and 20 feet deep. The reservoir 
was filled about September 15, and has lowered until now, Jan- 


222 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


uary 3, hardly 15 inches. Irish potatoes were small, but per- 
haps would have made good-sized tubers but that they were 
drowned; yet we caught ducks in return, which we shot from 
_ our boat. The cottonwoods planted have done well; expect to 
plant 10,000 this spring. ‘There are a million acres around me 
which can do the same.” 

How is it possible, you ask, without water? It is due to the 
moisture held in storage from occasional rains and drainage by 
the sand, whose structure prevents its evaporation as well as its 
sinking away. Who will foretell the possibilities of the future? 

After this experience we are not surprised to find further on the 
cornfields of the Navajo Indians on the sandiest sites, much more 
primitive, to be sure, and when we reach the village of Oraibi the 
thrifty fields, small garden patches, and peach orchards show that 
these sands and dry deserts can yet support a goodly population. 

Here we are at last, after a weary ride over the sand and 
through the cornfields and bean patches of the Hopi Indians— 
called Moki by alien tribes in opprobrium and by some whites 
through objectionable imitation—-at the base of a precipitous 
mesa, perched on which, 300 feet above, stands Oraibi, one of the 
“ Seven Cities of Cibola,” where for hundreds, perhaps thousands, 
of years the original race of Indians have lived peacefully, closely 
packed in their stone houses. There can be no more picturesque 
sight than this town, with its inhabitants, clad in blankets of 
bright colors, grouped on the tops of the gray limestone houses, 
watching the snake dance, nor is there anything more fascinating 
than to watch these ceremonies. There is hardly a more promis- 
ing field for ethnological study than these primitive house-build- 
ers and agriculturists, but they are foreign to our chief subject, 
and we can only glance at a few features in rapid succession. 

This has been a festive time, and hence the usual filth has been 
in part removed and a general house-cleaning and cleaning of 
hair and body has taken place, so that inspection of the dwellings, 
which the good-natured children of Nature rather court, is com- 
paratively satisfactory. The wealthier householders have even 
whitewashed their houses outside and inside, and their stores of 
corn are in ship-shape order. The ceremonies of the snake dance 
last nine days in all, partly in public, partly in their secret tem- 
ples, where, as a rule, only the priests of the two orders—the 
Antelope and Snake—are admitted. Today is the last day, and 
the snake dance is the end of the ceremonies, the purport of 
which is to bring rain for the suffering crops. The Antelope 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 993 


priests— painted, masked, and decorated—coming from their kiva 
in single file, perform a rhythmic round march and place them- 
selves on guard before the snake hut made of cottonwood boughs. 
in which the reptile partners to the danceare placed. The snake 
priests perform the same round march, and then, placed in rows 
opposite each other, the two lines begin a low incantation, ac- 
companied by rhythmic motions in unison, sidewise, to and fro. 

Weird is their song, weird are their looks, and weird their 
motions, but weirder still all these when their wriggling, writhing 
partners enter the circle and the round march with the snakes 
begins. For this the snake priests divide into sets of three, the 
carrier holding the reptile, venomous or not, and in full posses- 
sion of its fangs, between his teeth, and rhythmically swinging 
its curling body, the charmer following him, with eagle feathers 
stroking the hair and shoulder of the carrier or else his burden, 
while the catcher trips on the outside, ready to pick up with un- 
failing accuracy the reptile. When it has done its service it is 
laid on the ground and darts away for liberty. The dexterity 
with which this act is performed, the man taking time to first 
strew the sacred meal and apply the charm of eagle-brush to the 
escaping rattler, makes the catcher the hero of the hour. When 
all these 20 or 30 reptiles have thus passed through the rite, it 
only remains to carry them toward the north, south, east, and 
west, whence they came, and set them free, unhurt, for they are 
the personified spirits of ancestors, who have in the ceremony 
been induced to intercede with the deities. 

The result of the prayer for rain, which is the purport of the 
whole ceremony, seemed to follow immediately in a most tremen- 
dous downpour, which turned the dry wash at which we are en- 
camped into a raging torrent 60 feet wide and 5 feet deep. This 
result, however, was promptly disclaimed by the snake priests, 
for their prayer is for gentle rain—a drizzle, as it were—which 
they rarely get. 

But we must hurry away for our last trip, the one by which 
we shall always remember Arizona if all else be forgotten—the 
Grand Cafion of the Colorado. 

A flying stage from Flagstaff brings us in a long day’s ride, yet 
not a dreary one, through the pine woods past San Francisco 
mountain, again through the cedars,over open mesas and through 
pine woods once more to a neat tent city—a hotel establishment 
well fitted to its surroundings and well kept—nestled in a depres- 
sion among the stately pines close to the cafion. Weare within 


224 THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 


a hundred steps of the object of our visit, but there is no indica- 
tion ofits presence; nothing but commonplace landscapes, albeit 
in the lovely setting of the shady pine boughs. We ascend the 
slope, unsuspecting what it is that makes people who have seen 
it so unreasonably effusive when speaking of it; and then sud- 
denly the sight bursts upon us; the earth has sunk away at our 
feet to illimitable depths. 

The first sensation is one of awe and bewilderment; a shock, 
a sense of oppression, perhaps of horror, overpowers you. ‘There 


is nothing you have seen before that has given you even a hint 
of what this is; nothing you can compare it to. It is an inno- 
vation in nature which it takes.time to comprehend—to appre- 
ciate; then as you gaze grows on you a realization of the enor- 
mousness, the gorgeousness, the weirdness, the grandeur, majesty, 
and sublimity of the scene. Speechless you gaze on the vast sea 
of ghostly, giant shapes, and are overcome by the feeling of your 
own insignificance as in the presence of infinity. Only gradually 
are you made fully conscious that you behold the most sublime 
of all earthly spectacles. 


“a 


ae 


eae ee ee 


+; 


THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 225 


sa) 


No picture has ever conveyed an idea, language there is none 
that can ever give an adequate conception of the ensemble of this 
great chasm —its vast proportions, its intricate plan, the nobility 
of its architecture, its colossal buttes, its wealth of ornamentation, 
the splendor of its rich colors. It is not a cafion at all that you 
see—the word belittles the scene; itis a labyrinth of an infinite 
number of chasms and cafions that press themselves upon your 
view all at once, a mighty mountain country filled with most fan- 
tastically carved, gigantic, rock masses, cyclopean castles thou- 
sands of feet in height, gracefully towering gothic cathedrals, 
round-topped Moslem mosques, Greek and Indian temples, frown- 
ing rock cities, pyramids, and obelisks, battlemented fortresses, 
all the wonders of the Arabian Nights multiplied and heaped to- 
gether in a wild chaos, stimulating your fancy beyond its power. 

And not only is the ensemble present the most stupendous 
sight; even the least imposing portions of the cafion are as im- 
pressive as any scenery that can be found in the world. For 200 
miles of the river bed, with a breadth of 10 to 12 miles and more, 
is here revealed the interior of the workshop of Nature and the 
secrets of the building up of our earth’s crust. Thesurrounding 
plateau country is scored by intricate mazes of side cafions. In 
these and in the main chasm to a depth of 6,000 to 8,000 feet geo- 
logical history is exhibited in precipitous walls with a clearness 
‘unparalleled in any portion of the world, telling of sons of rock- 
building and of millenniums of rock-carving by wind and water. 
Far below, hardly recognizable if at all visible from above, flows 
the great river, which in its ceaseless rush has carried to the sea 
the sands and debris, results of the denudation of more recent 
formations; has cut through the pale gray limestones of the 
Permian, the pink and brilliant red sandstones and the purplish 
and vermilion limestones of the Triassic, the deep brown rocks 
of the Carboniferous, down to the somber, iron-black granites of 
the Silurian and Archean ages, through which the river now 
rolls its yellow waters, gathered from thousands of square miles in 
the mountains of Coloradoand the plateausof Utah and Arizona— 
here in placid and majestic dignity, there with a wild current in 
roaring rapids, over boulders and rocks and precipitous falls. 

“ Great as is the fame of the Grand Cafion of the Colorado, the 
half remains to be told,” wrote Major Dutton in 1881, in his su- 
perb monograph on the cafion; and this is still true today, and 
will be for many years. While its geology has been unfathomed 
with considerable detail by that philosophical geologist, we have 

15 


* 


226 MOUNT ST. HELENS 


but fragmentary knowledge of its flora and fauna, and we have 
hardly yet dared to think of its undiscovered wealth of minerals 
and its other economic possibilities. 

We arrive at the brink on Sunday night; a thunderstorm has 
left a deep black nimbus, a dense glowering sheet, in the sky to 
the east, on which two beacon-lights appear, the bases of an un- 
finished rainbow, standing straight, like two sentinels, on each 
rim of the cafion. To the west, the sinking sun paints the hori- 
zon in deep crimson, surrounded with a golden glory, each one 
a cluster of small black clouds, while in the north a wild, yellow 
hail-cloud casts its lurid glare. It was in this setting that through 
rising mists in purplish hues the mystery of the cafion, awful in 
the utter stillness, revealed itself to us—‘a thought of God on 
earth expressed, all meaner thoughts expelling.” 

Whatever may become of Arizona in the future, it will always 
be known to the world as the country of the Grand Cafion, the 
wonderland of the Southwest. 


MOUNT ST. HELENS 
By Lieut. CuHaries P. Exvuiorr, U.S. A. 


In going by steamer from Portland, Oregon, to Vancouver, 
Washington, on a clear day it is possible to see from the pilot- 
house five snow-capped mountains—Hood, Jefferson, Adams, 
Rainier, and St. Helens.. The last mentioned is more to the west 
than the others, and has the appearance of a regular, inverted 
cone, truncated and rounded off. The mountain presents this 
same appearance from all sides when the observer is at any dis- 
tance. ‘Two seasons spent on this extinct volcano have enabled 
the writer to get a general idea of the effects of volcanic action 
on the local geography and to make a topographic map of the 
district. Since it is within plain view of many prominent points 
astronomically established, it seems strange that Mt. St. Helens 
should not be accurately placed on any map which the writer 
has examined, either as to its own position or relatively as re- 
gards the other snow-clad peaks. 

Mt. St. Helens lies east of Vancouver Barracks, north of Lewis 
river, west of the Columbia, and south of the Cowlitz; it is west 
of the divide of the Cascade range, even more to the west than 
Mt. Rainier. From rough triangulation based on recent surveys, 


MOUNT ST. HELENS 997 


~—/ 


the writer’s map shows the summit to be in the northeast corner 
- of township 8 north, range 5 east, of the Willamette meridian, 
and its altitude taken on a clear, still day, with an excellent 
aneroid, is 8,608 feet. 

The approach to the mountain is by wagon road up the north 
fork of Lewis river to the foot of the trail to Lake Merrill, around 
the lake to and across the Kalama river, up the Kalama for a 
short distance, then toward and by Goat mountain and in a 
northeasterly direction to what is known as Butte camp, at an 
elevation of 3,700 feet. From this point horses can be taken to 
the bench above, but there is no water and but little wood, and 
Butte camp is the proper place from which to climb the mountain 
unless you are thoroughly familiar with the very rough country 
around the base. Formerly the approach was from Lewis river, 
four miles above the trail to Lake Merrill, and up a continuous 
run of lava, sloping gradually up from the river, to Butte camp, 
a rough, hard trail, in many places over broken lava. Mt. St. 
Helens is not difficult of ascent, and is probably the least dan- 
gerous of any of the snow-clad mountains of the Cascade range. 
In going from Lewis river the trail leads up a steep hill, rising 
900 feet in two miles,.and then drops down 100 feet, when you 
most unexpectedly find yourself on the south edge of a small 
lake about two miles from Lake Merrill, without any apparent 
reason for its existence. On going to the northern end of the 
lake you find a mass of lava extending entirely across the axis 
of what was originally a mild cafion. 

There are a few small streams flowing into Lake Merrill, but 
there is no visible outlet. The difference between high and low 
water is more than thirty feet. The rainfall in autumn and 
spring and the snowfall in winter are very great, and the fall in 
the level of the lake at the close of the spring rains is much too 
great to be accounted for by evaporation. Ona very still day 
during September, 1895, I searched carefully at the north end 
of the lake and found in the sandy bottom, about fifty yards 
from the shore, a deep, funnel-shaped hole, evidently the begin- 
ning of the outlet. Further to the north and toward the Kalama 
river, where the lava flowed over the standing trees (the places 
of the trunks now forming wells in the lava). running water can 
be heard, and with a strong cord and bucket drawn up. Still 
nearer the Kalama a bold stream breaks out of the lava and 
flows into the river just below a beautiful fall formed by the 
Kalama flowing over the edge of the same run of lava that 


228 MOUNT ST. HELENS 


dammed up the waters of Lake Merrill. The space between the 
lake and river on the north is comparatively level, the lava in 
many places being covered with soil, and that with a heavy 
growth of timber. Where the sand and ashes predominate the 
growth is poor. The flow of lava, volcanic sand, etc., that ends 
at Lake Merrill and the falls of the Kalama, starts from the west 
and southwest sides of Mt. St. Helens, flows against the Green 
Buttes and neighboring hills, almost filling up the space between 
these elevations and the mountains, passes around the buttes, 
unites and fills in between Goat mountain and the high ridge 
northeast of it, forming a swampy meadow at the base of Goat 
mountain, the waters of which are strongly impregnated with 
iron, while to the south of the ridge runs a clear, cold stream com- 
ing from the lava at Cold Springs and joined by a second stream 
coming from the snow directly west of thesummit. To the south 
from Green Buttes the country is filled in until checked by a 
semicircle of hills that turn to the west and extend south of the 
Kalama river. A small lake fills the level space between the 
hills. The Kalama river bursts as a full-fledged stream, bub- 
bling up like a fountain from the southwest side of the more 
northerly hill, flows south to the lake, then turns to the north 
of west, flowing at first through willows and swampy ground, 
then gradually gains strength and cuts down in the volcanic 
sand and boulders on its north bank, the high ridge being to 
the south. Finally, near where the trail crosses the river, it cuts 
through the volcanic formation and ends by leaving all the vol- 
canic deposit on the south side, a spur from Goat mountain form- 
ing its north bank. When the river tumbles over the falls it leaves 
the voleanic formation and runs through a growth of fine timber 
to the Columbia river at the town of Kalama. Except where 
lava and bed rock are exposed, the country below the level of 
5,000 feet is covered with a dense growth of timber and brush. 
To the east of the head of Kalama river is a run of lava that 
starts near the summit of St. Helens and extends with a nearly 
uniform slope to the north fork of Lewis river. This lava has 
filled up the country in its course, flowing around hills as a river 
around islands. About two miles from the river it has crossed 
the course of a small stream, forming during the wet season a 
large pond, with an underground outlet sufficient to carry off 
the flow of the stream during the dry months and the exeess, 
due to rain and snow, after the dry season sets in. The water 
from the pond and stream finds its way into Lewis river under 


NAT. GEOG, 


NAT. GEOG. MAG, 
VOL. Vill, 1897, PL. $1 


= 


MAP OF 
MOUNT SAINT HELENS 
Compiled from original surveys and field notes 
by 
Lieut. Charles RP Elliott, USA. 


() 1 2 3 & 3 MILES 


a 


4 


1 
Ww AZ, 
Se 


hoe 
a eat 


MOUNT ST. HELENS 299 


the surface of the lava. East of the lava run is a bold stream 
with several branches, some coming from the snow and some 
from a swamp east of south from the mountains. The black 
lava spreads out like a fan on this side. Where it stops the 
slopes are covered with boulders, and as the high ground to the 
south arrests the flow of volcanic sand, ete., and is filled in, a 
comparatively level swamp is formed, with streams flowing into 
Big creek on one side and Pine creek on the other. Northeast 
of the lava and nearly due east of the summit the most consid- 
erable glacier on the mountain is found. The glacial stream 
issuing from it flows through boulders, ashes, pumice-stone, ete., 
as a dirty stream for about three miles, when it sinks with high 
banks of volcanic sand on both sides, but soon appears as a clear 
stream, between very high, white,sand banks, until within a few 
miles of Lewis river, where the volcanic deposits disappear. 
Going to the northeast and across Pine creek you find a suc- 
cession of buttes that form the watershed between Pine creek 
and the Big Muddy, and also act as a barrier for the sand and 
pumice-stone, now very plentiful, that has fornged a nearly level 
and barren plateau between the base of the mountain cone and 
the tops of the buttes. Two small streams—one clear, the other 
muddy—run gently over the level and, having joined, pitch over 
the steep slope and join the Big Muddy. To the north of the 
hills a third stream flows down from the ice and snow and finds 
its way also to the Big Muddy. Northeast of the mountain 
the deposit of sand, ashes, and pumiee-stone is greater than on 
any other side. This deposit, passing to the north and keeping 
west of the high ground of the original formation, has formed a 
dam across a cafion, and the result has been Spirit lake, a deep 
and quite considerable body of water. The outlet over the dam 
is known as Toutle river. Following down Toutle river from 
the lake, the flow at first is very gentle, then a shallow pond is 
formed about a quarter of a mile long, and below that the stream 
gets more rapid, but remains clear until about two miles below the 
lake, where a muddy stream comes in from the mountain. One 
mile further down a second stream comes in from near the base 
of the mountain. Leaving the river on what is called the Spirit 
Lake trail, through dense underbrush and pine thickets, you 
pass below the lower edge of a run of lava from the northeast 
side of the mountain and across a swamp, formed as before by 
volcanic agencies; also across two small streams, from springs 
below the lava, and climbing steadily up, over ground covered 


230 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


with boulders and heavy timber, the edge of the cafion of the 
South Toutle is reached. The north side of the cafion is of fine 
white sand, and is very steep and hard to climb. The South 
Toutle flows from under a glacier in plain view, and runs in a 
bed of boulders directly toward the point where the trail first 
strikes the edge of the cafion, then turns more to the west and 
with a constantly widening .bed of sand and rocks, filling the 
original cafion to a width of a half mile or more, the stream ~ 
flows sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other. The water 
occasionally forms a dam in one of its temporary beds among 
the rocks, and having gathered sufficient head, bursts the dam 
and comes down, bringing large boulders with it. After leaving 
the South Toutle and passing over high ground a second and 
smaller cafion is crossed, with a bold stream running from the 
mountain into South Toutle, then up to a high bench and down 
to Cold Springs, which crops out under the lava and flows toward 
Goat mountain and finally into Toutle river. 

The circuit of the mountain on the lower levels is now com- 
plete. At the summit of the mountain the highest point is bare 
rock. . South af east and also north of east are two other bare 
points; the intervening space is covered with snow, and between 
the two easterly points the largest glacier issues, from which Pine 
ereekruns. Almost directly north of the head of this glacier and 
across the northern point of rocks the second glacier begins, the 
water from it flowing into the North Toutle, and northwest of 
the highest point is the third giacier, the source of the South 
Toutle. 

Snow falls to a great depth over all this country in winter, but 
in early summer the warm rains and hot sun melt the snow very 
rapidly and the black lava on the mountain, to its very summit, 
is exposed in streaks radiating from a common center. 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


Magnetic Declination in the United States. By Henry Gannett. From the 
Seventeenth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey. Washing- 
ton, 1896. Pp. 203-440, with map of the United States showing the 
lines of equal magnetic declination for the year 1900. 


This memoir of 237 pages sets forth and discusses the data used in mak- 
ing the magnetic map which accompanies it. This map, whereon the 
curves of equal declination or isogonic lines for the year 1900 are shown, , 


GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


to 
— 


is about 18 by 28 inches in size, and is printed in four colors: black for 
projection lines, names, and all cultural features; blue for streams: green 
for the oceans and large lakes, and brown for the hill and mountain fea- 
tures. These relief features are shown by contour lines. The contour 
interval, from 2,000 feet upward, is 1,000 feet. Below the 2,000-foot con- 
tour the interval is variable. Over this base map the magnetic curves are 
printed in red. 

The magnetic declination, popularly called variation of the compass, is 
subject to several known periodic changes. Of these the most important 
is the secular change—a change witha period running through centuries: 
hence its name. As this secular change is progressive from year to year 
for long periods, and as it amounts in the United States to from 2/ to 5’ 
per year, it is for the surveyor and mariner the most important of the 
-periodic changes. Indeed, it is the only one of much practical importance 
at present. It is to this practically important quantity that Mr Gannett 
has wisely devoted the greater part of the labor expended on this memoir. 
The weakness of similar maps hitherto produced has been recognized by 
| both their makers and users to be largely due to defective knowledge of 
the secular change. 

Of the 237 pages comprised in the memoir 82 are devoted to data for 
secular change. A table of results by counties occupies 135 pages, while 
the remaining 20 pages are given to introductory matter, discussion, state- 
ment of sources of data, ete. 4 

The sources of the data are the Coast Survey, Lake Survey, the Wheeler, 

Hayden, and Powell Surveys, New York State Survey, New Jersey Geo- 
logical Survey, Boundary Surveys, United States Corps of Engineers, Army 
Exploring Expedition, National Academy of Sciences, and others ; but it is 
chiefly from the records of the United States General Land Office and 
from county surveyors that a vast quantity of hitherto unused material 
has been derived. Indeed, so abundant are data in the General Land 
Office that it was only needful to select for the older “ land office” States 
such as were desired. The mass is much greater than is needed to pro- 
duce a map sufficient for all practical needs. As to this Mr Gannett says: 
_ “T have not attempted to make a complete collection of this material. 
The amount is too vast to make it worth while. I have, however, col- 
lected all the observations which appear upon the plats of exteriors and 
standard lines (the Land Office requires that in the survey of all standard 
and exterior lines the declination be observed), supplementing them 
wherever needed by observations made in connection with the subdivision 
of townships. Altogether, I have abstracted from the plats of the Gen- 
eral Land Office nearly 20,000 observations, and these form, perhaps, nine- 
tenths of the material herewith presented.” 

As the work of subdivision and accompanying magnetic observations 
began a century ago, it is obvious that these Land Office records consti- 
tute a veritable storehouse of information on secular change—a st yrehouse 
of which Mr Gannett is the first to make general use. 

- In addition to these data a circular was sent to all the county surveyors 
in the United States, and from the returns much valuable information 
was obtained. 


232 GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE 


As the accuracy of the material from the Land Office and county sur- 
veyors is not of the highest, the adopted mode of reduction was not the 
most accurate. The graphic methods used were rapid and sufficiently 
accurate for the purpose, which was to present in the form of a map and 
the form of a table the best knowledge available as to the magnetic decti- 
nation in the year 1900. The work was planned and executed as a prac- 
tical matter and chiefly for the use of surveyors. 

The only wonder is that the great stock of data in the General Land 
Office has not been hitherto made use of. Now that it has been, perhaps 
some of the colleges and universities in the land office States may be stim- 
ulated to undertake a similar work for their own States, going over all the 
data and supplementing them by observations where such are found to be 
desirable. Mo. B: 


Carpenter's Geographical Reader. Asia. By Frank G. Carpenter. Pp. 304, 
with maps and illustrations. New York: American Book Co., 1897. 


This little book treats of the various countries of Asia, mainly with 
relation to the occupations, social customs, amusements, etc., of their 
inhabitants. Being derived in the main from personal observation and 
experience, its descriptions are vivid and characteristic, with plenty of 
local color. HG. 


Studies in Indiana Geography. Edited by Charles Redway Dryer, M. A., 
M. D., Professor of Geography in The Indiana State Normal School. 
First series. Pp. 113, quarto. Terre Haute, Indiana: The Inland 
Publishing Company. 1897. 50 cents. 

This is ageographic reader, treating of local geography, shaped on the 
lines of modern science. The dedication to Professor William M. Davis 
is an index to the character of the book. The opening chapter, entitled 
‘The New Geography,” is a most excellent statement of what geography 
should be. The general physical geography of the State is given in broad 
outlines, clearly and simply. The topography of the State being largely 
the result of glacial deposition, this subject receives considerable atten- 
tion under the chapter headings ‘‘ The Glacial Deposits of Indiana’’ and 
‘©The Morainal Lakes of Indiana.’’ The natural resources of the State— 
coal, gas, petroleum, soils, building stone, clays, etc.—receive a chapter. 
An interesting subject, only too briefly treated, is the changes which have 
taken place in the surface of the State during the period of white occupa- 
tion. As aspecimen of what might be done for.all our great cities, the 
book contains ‘‘A Study of the City of Terre Haute.” This consists of a 
number of questions intended to draw out from schoolboys a full account 
of the origin, history, location, mode of government, municipal improve- 
ments, and social condition of the city. It is exhaustive, extremely sug- 
gestive, and altogether admirable. The book closes with a history of the 
Great Lakes, which seems rather out of place in this connection. 

The maps in the book are by no means in keeping with the quality of 
the text, being crudely drawn and poorly executed. 

The work as a whole is a most valuable addition to the teaching of 
geography, and its influence will be felt not only in the State of Indiana, 
but elsewhere. ERG: 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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AN IMPROVED METHOD OF KEEPING THE SCORE IN 


DUPLICATE WHIST, COMPASS WhIST, STRAIGHT WHIST AND EUCHRE, 


Since Duplicate and Com- 
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The one thing needed to 
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by means of which the score 
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matches are lost aud won on 
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little device which admirably 
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same time serves as a pretty 
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marker, and pencil rest. It is 
called the ‘‘Cosmos COUNTER,”’ 
and consists of a little polished 
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on the score in such a way as to 
bring 24 little metal plates over 
the 24 spaces in the ‘“‘score”’ 
column of the card, for use in 
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Whist players will at once see 
the advantage of this new 
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it effectually prevents their op- 
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The ‘‘Cosmos Score Card,’’ 
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, designed especially to supply to teachers and 
students of geography fresh and interesting material with which to supplement the regular text-book 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOILUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES - - = . = 2 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - - J. W. Powell 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - - a 

* BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST Prot. N. S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - Pe Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller f 
THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND Its HISTORY - . . . - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


Remit with order to AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY, 


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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


\) (eee the March, 1897, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
subjects, such as Earth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its second 
volume. The hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
of research, not only in terrestrial, but in cosmical physics, that this Journal appeals to a large class of 
investigators. ‘The geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support.» 

Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs. Barus, Borgen, Chree, 
Eschenhagen, Littlehales, Rticker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo. 


Future numbers will contain: 


‘¢The Earth, a Great Magnet,’’ 
By Dr. J. A. FLEMING. 


‘The Electrification of the Atmosphere,”’ 
BY Pror. ALEXANDER MCADIE. 


‘‘ The Height of the Aurora,’’ 
By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 


‘‘The Distribution of Magnetic Obseryatories,’’ 


(Illustrated), 
By Pror. MAX ESCHENHAGEN, 
etc., etc. 
The size of the Journal is royal octavo, a volume embracing about 200 pages. Dome stic subscription 
price: Two dollars; single numbers, fifty cents. Foreign subscription price: Nine shillings, nine 


marks, or eleven francs. Address: 
é z TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 


The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


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| NEW COVER 

NEW ILLUSTRATIONS 
Send six cents. NEW TEXT 
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By PROF. en K. GILBERT, 


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Editor: JOHN HYDE 
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ONTENTS / Bee 
pee { PAGE 
> THE G ee LAKES BY EARTH MOVEMENT. 
~ G’ K. GILBERT, 233 ~ |) 


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247 


{PPED. ‘AREAS ON THE BARTH'S SURFACE AWAIT- 
oa aaa AND, GEOGRAPHER. J~SCOTT\KBLTIE. . 251 © 


AES IN Mo: ERN NAVIGATION. G. WALITTLEHALES. 266 


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HE F. F. Y. LIMITED is one of the finest trains hauled over any railway track in America. It runs 
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One of the most delightful rides in all the route is that through the New River valley. The 
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variety of green known to the mixer of colors can be seen, while the tones in autumn take on all the 
range from brown to scarlet. 

These facts should be borne in mind by the traveler between the East and the West. 


H. W. FULLER, Gen/. Pass. Agent, Washington, 0. C. 


8 8 8H 8 OOOO DSO OOE 


The Jumping-off Place 


of the United States in Northwestern Washington is a region of 
unusual grandeur. 

A wild, craggy range of mountains, the OLYMPICS, looks out 
upon the waters of the Pacific Ocean and the strait of Juan de 
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finest timber in the United States. Giant pines, cedars and firs 
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It is a paradise for the woodsman and angler. rhe lakes 
have large and new varieties of trout in them that fight viciously 
for life. It is a land little known and explored—perhaps less so 
than any region of equal area in the United States. 


The NORTHERN PACIFIC’S new tourist book, WONDERLAND '07, 
has a chapter on this section, and it will be sent to any address by ¢ spices nas 
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It has paid to Policy-holders since 
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AN IMPROVED METHOD OF KEEPING THE SCORE IN 


DUPLICATE WHIST, COMPASS WHIST, STRAIGHT WHIST AND EUCHRE 


Since Duplicate and Com- 
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the fact that mere /zck is to 
a large extent eliminated by 
a comparison of the scores 
made in the play of the same 
hands by different players. 


Cosmos Duplicate Whist Score 


COMPaSS WHEHIST 


DUPLICATE WHHIST 


The one thing needed to 
perfect the new method has 
been a convenient device 
by means of which the score * 
made on the first round can 
be concealed until after the 
replay of. the hands, as a 
knowledge of the first score 
often enables a good player 
to make a decisive gain, and 
matches are lost aud won on 
just such little chances. 


WN 
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patented Ju 


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A Washington player has at 
length invented and put upon 
the market at a very low price a 
little device which admirably 
answers the purpose, and at the 
same time serves as a pretty 
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marker, and pencil rest. It is 
called the ‘‘Cosmos COUNTER,”’ 
and consists of a little polished 
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on the score in such a way as to 
bring 24 little metal plates over 
the 24 spaces in the ‘‘score”’ 
column of the card, for use in 
concealing each first score as 
soon as recorded and until the 
hand is replayed (in duplicate 
whist) or the entire series fin- 
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OoO:0:@:sI 


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Whist players will at once see 
the advantage of this new 
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table from taking advantage, 
either by accident or design, of 
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fluenced by memory of the cards 
and score, and anything that 
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aig 


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The ‘‘Cosmos Score Card,” 
prepared for use with the 
counter, shows several new fea- 
tures, such as a heading for both 
Duplicate and Compass Whist 
and (on the reverse) for Straight 
Whist, Euchre, &c., thus ena- 
bling the same counter and score 
to be used for any game of cards. 


N 


Cosmos Counters, with tablet 
of quartered oak, maple, or 
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cts. apiece extra. Cosmos Score 
Cards, 25 cts. per package of 50; 
12 packages for $2.50; by mail 
free of postage. 


Ask to see samples at any 


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the General Agents, 


E. MORRISON PAPER CO., 1009 Penna. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MA GAZINE 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MONOGRAPHS 


On the PHySIcAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE, 
students of geography fresh and interesting materi 


designed especially to supply to teachers and 


al with which to supplement the regular text-book 


LIST OF MONOGRAPHS COMPRISING VOLUME I: 


GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES . - - - - - 

GENERAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES - - - - - - ly W. Powell 
. : v0 ~ 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - ) 


BEACHES AND TIDAL MARSHES OF THE ATLANTIC Co AST Prot. N.S. Shaler 
PRESENT AND EXTINCT LAKES OF NEVADA - - - - Prof. I. C. Russell 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—NORTHERN SECTION - - - Bailey Willis 
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS—SOUTHERN SECTION - - - G Willard Hayes 
MT. SHASTA—A TYPICAL EXTINCT VOLCANO - - - - J. S. Diller 
THE NEW ENGLAND PLATEAU - - - - - - - Prof. W. M. Davis 
NIAGARA FALLS AND ITs HISTORY - - - - - - G. K. Gilbert 


Price for one set of ten monographs, $1.50. Five sets to one address, $6.00. Single monographs, 20c. 


Remit with order to AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY, 


New York ~ Cincinnati a Chicago 


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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 


An International Quarterly Journal 


Edited by L. A. BAUER 
With the Co-operation of Eminent Magneticians 


\' ee the March, 1897, issue, this Journal, devoted exclusively to Terrestrial Magnetism and allied 
subjects, such as Earth Currents, Auroras, Atmospheric Electricity, etc., entered on its second 
volume. “Che hearty co-operation extended by the workers in this promising field of investigation, as 
abundantly shown by the numbers thus far issued, has made this Journal the international organ for 
making known the latest achievements. The magnetic needle has become such a promising instrument 
of research, not only in terrestrial, but in cosmical physics, that this Journal appeals to a large class of 
investigators. ‘The geographer, the geologist, the astronomer, the meteorologist—all are interested in 
the development of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. It should therefore receive their support 

Among the contributors of the main articles in the past have been Messrs, Barus, Borgen, Chree, 
Eschenhagen, Littlehales, Riicker, Schmidt, Schuster, and de Tillo. 


Future numbers will contain: 


‘¢The Earth, a Great Magnet,’’ 
By Dr. J. A. FLEMING. 


‘‘ The Electrification of the Atmosphere,’’ 
By Pror. ALEXANDER MCADIE. 


‘ 
‘‘ The Height of the Aurora,”’ 
By Pror. CLEVELAND ABBE. 
| 
: 


‘‘The Distribution of Magnetic Observatories,” 
(Illustrated), 
By Pror. MAX ESCHENHAGEN, 
etc., etc. 


Domestic subscription 


The size of the Journal is royal octavo, a volume embracing about 200 pages. 
Nine shillings, nine 


price: Two dollars; single numbers, fifty cents. Foreign subscription price : 
arks, or ele francs. Address : : 
» ella COS ee RRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, 


The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 


SS “ 3 \ 
\ EOPLE like to read about the great Ae a , . 
SS % N 
\ and wonderful country of the \ 
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= SS 
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\ $ four people saw on just such a trip as : 
\ Se Me ee : N 
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NS. My Me, My My 1M MY My My My My My sh My iy My M4 My i We My . J % \ 


oo 


; 


a eee Dee 


THE 
National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. VIII SEPTEMBER, 1897 No. 9 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES BY EARTH 
MOVEMENT * 


By G. K. Gitpert, 
U. S. Geological Survey 


The history of the Great Lakes practically begins with the melt- 
ing of the Pleistocene ice-sheet. They may have existed before 
the invasion of the ice, but if so their drainage system is unknown. 
The ice came from the north and northeast, and spreading over 
the whole Laurentian basin invaded the drainage districts of the 
Mississippi, Ohio, Susquehanna, and Hudson. During its wan- 
ing there was a long period when the waters were ponded between 
the ice front and the uplands south of the Laurentian basin, form- 
ing a series of glacial lakes whose outlets were southward through 
various low passes. A great stream from the Erie basin crost the 
divide at Fort Wayne to the Wabash river. A river of the mag- 
nitude of the Niagara afterward flowed from the Michigan basin 
across the divide at Chicago to the Illinois river; and still later 
the chief outlet was from the Ontario basin across the divide at 
Rome to the Mohawk valley. 

The positions of the glacial lakes are also markt by shore-lines, 
consisting of terraces, cliffs, and ridges, the strands and spits 
formed by their waves. Several of these shore-lines have been 
traced for hundreds of miles, and wherever they are thoroughly 
studied it is found that they no longer lie level but have gentle 
slopes toward the south and southwest. Formed at the edges of 

*Publisht by permission of the Director of the United States Geologival Survey, 


A more extended paper, of similar scope, entitled “ Recent earth movement in the 
Great Lakes region,” will appear in the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Survey. 


16 


234. MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 


water surfaces, they must originally have been level, and their 
present lack of horizontality is due to unequal uplift of the land. 
The region has been tilted toward the south-southwest. The dif- 
ferent shore-lines are not strictly parallel, and their gradients 
vary from place to place, ranging from a few inches to three or 
four feet to the mile. 

The epoch of glacial lakes, or lakes partly bounded by ice. 
ended with the disappearance of the ice-field, and there remained 
only lakes of the modern type, wholly surrounded by land. 
These were formed one at a time, and the first to appear was in 
the Erie basin. It was much smaller than the modern lake, 
because the basin was then comparatively low at the northeast. 
Its outline is approximately shown by the inner dotted line 
of the accompanying map. Instead.of reaching from the site 


FIG. I—ANCIENT AND MODERN OUTLINES OF LAKE ERIE 
The broken lines show the positions of the shores at two epochs of the lake’s history 


of Buffalo to the site of Toledo, it extended only to a point oppo- 
site the present city of Erie, and it was but one-sixth as large 
as the modern lake. Since that time the land has gradually 
risen at the north, canting the basin toward the south, and the 
lake has gradually encroacht upon the lowlands of its valley. 
At a date to be presently mentioned as the Nipissing, the west- 
ern end of the lake was opposite the site of Cleveland, as indi- 
cated by another dotted line. 

The next great lake to be releast from the domination of the 
ice was probably Ontario, though the order of precedence is here 
not equally clear. Before the Ontario valley held a land-bound 
lake it was occupied by a gulf of the ocean. Owing to the dif- 
_ ferent attitude of the land, the water surface of this gulf was not 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 235 
parallel to the present lake surface but inclined atanangle. In 
the extreme northeast, in the vicinity of the Thousand Islands 
the marine shores are nearly 200 feet above the present water 
level, but they descend southward and westward, passing’ bak 
neath the lake level near Oswego, and toward the eenberit end 
of the lake must be submerged several hundred feet. This con- 
dition was of short duration, and the rising land soon divided 
the waters, establishing Lake Ontario as an independent water 
body. The same peculiarity of land attitude which made the 
original Erie a small lake served to limit the extent of Ontario, 
but the restriction was less in amount because of the steeper 
slopes of the Ontario basin. Here again the southward tilting 
of the land had the effect of lifting the point of outlet and en- 
larging the expanse of the lake. 


THOUSAND i 


( 4, 
io if 


ISLANDS 


FIG. 2—ANCIENT AND MODERN OUTLINES OF LAKE ONTARIO 


The broken line shows the original extent of the lake 


There is some reason to think that the upper lakes, Huron, 
Michigan, and Superior, were at first open to the sea, so as to 
constitute a gulf, but the evidence is not so full as could be de- 
sired. When the normal lacustrine condition was establisht 
they were at first a single lake instead of three, and the outlet, 
instead of being southward from Lake Huron, was northeastward 
from Georgian bay, the outlet river following the valleys of the 
Mattawa and Ottawa to the St Lawrence. The triple lake is 
known to us chiefly through the labors of F. B. Taylor, who has 
made extensive studies of its shore-line. This line, called the 
Nipissing shore-line, is not wholly submerged, like the old 
shores of lakes Erie and Ontario, but lies chiefly above the 


236 MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 


present water surfaces. It has been recognized at many points 
about Lake Superior and the northern parts of lakes Huron and 
Michigan, and measurements of its height show that its plane 
has a remarkably uniform dip, at 7 inches per mile, in a south- 
southwest direction, or, more exactly, S.27° W. As will be seen 
by the accompanying map, reproduced from Taylor, it crosses the 
modern shore-line of Lake Superior near its western end, thereby 
passing beneath the water surface ; and it similarly passes below 
the surface of Lake Michigan near Green bay, and below the 


FIG. 3—THE NIPISSING GREAT LAKE (AFTER TAYLOR) 


Its boundaries are shown by the broken line 


surface of Lake Huron just north of Saginaw bay. The south- 
ward tilting of the land. involving the uplift of the point of 
outlet, increast the capacity of the basin and the volume of the 
lake, gradually carrying the coast-line southward in Lake Huron 
and Lake Michigan until finally it reacht the low pass at Port 
Huron and the water overflowed via the St Clair and Detroit 
channels to Lake Erie. The outlet by way of the Ottawa was 
then abandoned. and a continuance of the uplift caused the 
water to slowly recede from its northern shores. This change 
after a time separated Lake Superior from the other lakes, bring- 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 237 


ing the St Marys river into existence, and eventually the present 
condition was reacht. 

These various changes are so intimately related to the history 
of the Niagara river that the Niagara time estimates, based on 
the erosion of the gorge by the cataract, can be applied to them. 
Lake Erie has existed approximately as long as the Niagara 
river, and its age should probably be reckoned in tens of thou- 
sands or hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Ontario is 
much younger. All that can be said of the beginning of Great 
Lake Nipissing is that it came long after the beginning of Lake 
Erie, but the date of its ending, through the transfer of outlet 
from the Mattawa to the St Clair, is more definitely known. 
That event is estimated by Taylor to have occurred between 
5,000 and 10,000 years ago.* 

The lake history thus briefly sketcht is characterized by a pro- 
gressive change in the attitude of the land, the northern and 
northeastern portions of the region becoming higher, so as to 
turn the waters more and more toward the southwest. The 
latest change, from Great Lake Nipissing to Great Lakes Supe- 
rior, Michigan, and Huron, involving an uplift at the north of 
more than 100 feet, has taken place within so short a period 
that we are naturally led to inquire whether it has yet ceast. Is 
it not probable that the land is still rising at the north and the 
lakes are still encroaching on their southern shores? J. W. 
Spencer, who has been an active explorer of the shore-lines of 
the glacial lakes and has given much study to related problems, 
is of opinion that the movements are not complete, and predicts 
that they will result in the restoration of the Chicago outlet of 
Lake Michigan and the drying of Niagara.t 

The importance of testing this question by actual measure- 
ments was imprest upon me several years ago, and I endeavored 
to secure the institution of an elaborate set of observations to 
that end. Failing in this, I undertook a less expensive investi- 
gation, which began with the examination of existing records 
of lake height as recorded by gage readings, and was continued 
by the establishment of a number of gage stations in 1896. To 
understand fully the nature of this investigation It 1s necessary 
to consider the difficulties that arise from the multifarious mo- 
tions to which the lake water is subject. 

~Studies in Indiana Geography, X. A short history of the Great Lakes. Terre 


Haute, 1897. 
+ Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., vol LIII, 1894, p. 246. 


238 MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 


If the volume of a lake were invariable, and if its water were 
in perfect equilibrium under gravity, its surface would be con- 
stant and level, and any variation due to changes in the height 
of the land could be directly determined by observations on the 
position of the water surface with reference to the land; but 
these conditions are never realized in the case of the Great Lakes, 
where the volume continually changes and the water is always 
in motion. The investigator therefore has to arrange his meas- 
urements so as to eliminate the effect of such changes. 

Consider first the influence of wind. The friction of the wind 
on the water produces waves. These are temporary and practi- 
cally cease in periods of calm; the perpetual ground-swell of 
the ocean is not known on the lakes. The friction of the wind 
on the water also drives the water forward, producing currents. 
The water thus driven against the lee shores returns in under- 
currents, but the internal friction of the water resists and delays 
the return, and there is consequently a heaping of the water 
against lee shores and a corresponding lowering of its level on 
other shores. During great storms these differences amount to 
several feet, reaching a maximum in Lake Erie; in October, 
1886, a westerly gale is reported to have raised the water 8 feet 
at Buffalo and deprest it 8 feet at Toledo.* For light winds the 
changes of level are much smaller, but they are nevertheless 
appreciable, and they have even been detected in the case of the 
gentle “land and sea” breezes which in calm weather are created 
by the diurnal cycle of temperature change on the land. 

The water is also sensitive to atmospheric pressure. If the 
air prest equally on all parts of the lake surface the equilibrium 
of the water would not be disturbed; but its pressure is never 
uniform. As shown by the isobars on the daily weather map, 
there are notable differences of pressure from point to point, and 
within the length of one of the Great Lakes these often amount 
to several tenths of a barometric inch. A column of mercury 
0.1 inch high weighs as much as a column of water 1.3 inches 
high ; and whenever the atmospheric pressure at one point on a 
lake exceeds the pressure at another point by the tenth of a baro- 
metric inch, the water level at the first point is, in consequence, 
1.3 inches lower than the water level at the second point. When 
a cumulus cloud forms over the water there is a reaction on the 

* Science, vol. VIII, pp. 34, 391. The effect of a storm in October, 1893, is ably diseust 


by Wm. T. Blount, in Ann. Rept. Chief of Engineers, U. S. A., for 1894, part 6, pp. 
3431-3435. ; 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 239 


water, disturbing its equilibrium, and the passage of a thunder- 
storm often produces oscillations attracting the attention of even 
the casual observer. Such sudden and temporary variations of 
pressure give rise to waves analogous to those caused by a fall- 
ing pebble, except that they are broad and low, and these waves 
not only travel to all parts of a lake but are continued by reflec- 
tion, so that a local storm at one point is felt in the water surface 
at all points and for a considerable period. The passage of the 
greater atmospheric wayes associated with ordinary cyclonic 
storms and the impulses given by winds are also able to set the 
whole body of the lake in motion, so that it sways from side to 
side or end to end like the swaying water in a tub or basin, and 
these swaying motions are of indefinite continuance. In the 
deeper lakes, and probably in all the lakes, they are so enduring 
as to bridge over the intervals from impulse to impulse. Such 
oscillations, which appear at any point on the coastas alternate 
risings and fallings of the water, with periods ranging from a few 
minutes to several hours, are called seiches. Their amplitude is 
usually a few inches, but at the ends of lakes is sometimes a foot 
or more. 

The lakes, like the ocean, are swayed by the attractions of the 
sun and moon. ‘Their tides are much smaller than those of the 
ocean, and are even small as compared to the seiches, but they 
are still measurable. At Milwaukee the lunar tide rises and falls 
more than an inch and the solar tide a half inch, At Chicago 
and Duluth each tide amounts to an inch and a half, and their 
combination at new and full moon to three inches. 

Water is continually added to each lake by rivers and creeks, 
but the rate is not uniform. Usually a few freshets, occurring 
within two or three weeks, contribute more water than comes 
during all the remainder of the year. Water is also added in an 
irregular way by rain and snow falling directly on the lake. It 
is subtracted by evaporation, the rate of which varies greatly, and 
by overflow, which varies within moderate limits. The volume 
of water contained in the lake, being subject to these variable 
gains and losses, is itself inconstant, and the general height of 
the water surface therefore oscillates. In average years the range 
of variation for Lake Superior is 12 inches; for lakes Michigan 
and Huron, 12 inches; for Lake Erie, 14 inches, and for Lake 
Ontario, 17 inches. Low water occurs normally in January or 
February for all the lakes except Superior, where it occurs in 
March. High water is reacht sooner in the lower lakes, June 


240 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 


being the usual month for Ontario, June or July for Erie, July 
for Michigan and Huron, and August or September for Superior. 


‘a 


Pie 


Ae 


The observations 


for Lake Superior cover the period 1862-1895 ; for Michigan-Huron, 1860-1895 ; for Hrie, 1855-1895 ; for Ontario, 1860-1895 ' 


== 
sole 
a 
Kas 
il 


n 


Al 


A 


ae 


n 
RQ 
4 
< 
| 
a 
< 
Lan 
a 
A 
Q 
4 
2) 
aq 
=) 
Q 
7) 
& 
iS 
lo) 
nD 
Q 
9) 
4 
& 
4 
p 
127] 
Q 
x 
a 
& 
[e) 
mn 
vA 
© 
A 
a 
< 
y 
4 
H 
2) 
wn 
° 
H 
<q 
p 
vA 
A 
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ae 
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= 


Compiled from mouthly means publisht by the Chief of Engineers, U.S. A. Each vertical space represents six inches. 


Fig. 4 shows the character of the annual 
oscillations, as given by averages of long 
series of years. 

In a wet year more water enters the lake 
than leaves it, and there is a net rise of the 
surface; in a dry year there is a net fall. 
A series of wet years produce exception- 
ally high water, and a series of dry years 
exceptionally low, so that the entire range 
of water height is considerably greater than 
the annual range. The recorded range for 
lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron is 
between 5 and 6 feet; for Erie and Ontario, 
between 4 and 5 feet. 

The accompanying diagram (Fig. 5) of 
the oscillations of Lake Michigan illus- 
trates the annual cycle and also the pro- 
eressive changes from year to year. Being 
compiled from monthly means of gage 
readings, it does not show tides and seiches 
nor the oscillations of short period. 

These various oscillations of the water, 
though differing widely in amplitude, rate, 
and cause, yet coexist, and they make the 
actual movement of the water surface 
highly complex. The complexity of move- 
ment seriously interferes with the use of 
the water plane as a datum level for the 
measurement of earth movements, and a 
system of observations for that purpose 
needs to be planned with much care. The 
main principles of such a system are, how- 
ever, simple, and may readily be stated. 
The most important is that the direct 
measurement of the heights of individual 
points should not be attempted, but com- 
parison should always be made between 
two points, their relative height being 
measured by means of the water surface 
used as a leveling instrument. 


MICHIGAN- 


HURON 


oe 


FIG. 5—OSCILLATIONS OF THE SURFACE OF LAKE MICHIGAN, DUE TO CHANGES IN 
THE VOLUME OF THE LAKE 


Compiled under the direction of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. A., from gage read- 
ings at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from August, 1859, to June, 1897. Each horizontal 
space represents a calendar year ; each vertical space one foot 


In the diagram, Fig. 6, A C B is the profile of a lake basin, 
A and B are fixt objects on opposite shores, and we will sup- 
pose the water surface to have the position X X’. Assuming 
the water in equilibrium, all parts of this surface have the same 
height. If the height of A above the water at X be accurately 
measured by the-surveyor’s level, and the height of B above the 
water at X’ be similarly measured, then the difference between 
these two measurements gives the difference in height betwee n 
Aand B. After an interval of some years or decades the work 

A B 

——_—<—$———————————— 7 
Yj Yj " VWs 


FIG. 6—DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE METHOD OF USING A LAKE SURFACE FOR THE 


DISCOVERY AND MEASUREMENT OF EARTH MOVEMENTS 


242 MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 


is repeated. The water surface then has some different position, 
Y Y’, and the heights measured are of A above Y and of B above 
Y’. The difference between the two heights gives again the rela- 
tive height of A and B; and if earth movement has tilted the 
basin toward A or B, the change in their relative height may be 
shown by the difference in the two results of measurement. 

As the water is in fact not still, but in continual motion, the 
mere running of lines of level from A and B to the water does 
not suffice, and it is necessary to determine from observations 
on the oscillating water surface what would be its position if 
still. Such observations are made by means of gages. These 
are of various forms, but each consists essentially of a fixt point, 
or zero, close by the water, and a graduated scale by means of 
which the vertical distance of the water surface from the zero is 
measured. 

Changes in the volume of the lake influence all parts of its 
surface equally and atthesame time. To eliminate their effects 
from the measurements it is only necessary that the gage obser- 
vations at the two stations besimultaneous. The effects of wind 
waves can be prevented by breakwaters. Disturbances due to 
currents propelled by strong winds can be avoided by choosing 
times when there is little wind. The effects of light winds can be 
approximately eliminated by taking the average of many obser- 
vations, and so can the effects of seiches and tides. The effects 
of differences of atmospheric pressure can be computed from 
barometric measurements of air pressure, and the proper correc- 
tionsapplied. It is also possible, by the discussion of long series 
of observations at each station, to determine the local tidal effects 
and afterward apply corrections; and the land and sea breeze 
effect may be treated in the same way. 

In the investigation I was able to make, consideration was given 
to these various sources of error, but it was not practicable to take 
all desirable measures for avoidance or correction, because the 
reading of gages was only partly under my control. Gage sta- 
tions have been establisht on the Great Lakes at various times 
and at various places, and the records of readings have been pre- 
served. Insome cases the zeros of gages were connected by level- 
ing with bench marks of a permanent character, and in a few in- 
stances the gages themselves are stable and enduring structures. 
The most important body of information of this character is con- 
tained in the archives of the United States Lake Survey, which 
were placed at my service by the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A. By 


3G. 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 243 


searching the records I was able to select certain pairs of stations 
at which the relative heights of permanent points on the shore 
(equivalent to A and B of the diagram) had been practically de- 
termined twenty or more years ago. At some of these stations 
gages are still read ; at others I establisht gages and ran the level- 
ing lines necessary to connect them with the old benches. At 
all of them observations were maintained from July to October, 
1896, and these observations, in combination with the levelings, 
afforded measurements that could be compared with those made 
earlier so as to discover changes due to earth movement. 

It will not be necessary to give here the details of observation 
and computation, as they are fully set forth in a paper soon to 


2 


K Sault Sve Marie 


FIG. 7—MAP OF THE GREAT LAKES, SHOWING PAIRS OF GAGING STATIONS AND 
ISOBASES OF OUTLETS 


he isobases are markt by full lines. Broken lines show the pairs of stations 


be printed by the Geological Survey, but the general scope of the 
work may be briefly outlined. As the tilting shown by the geo- 
logic data was toward the south-southwest, stations were, so far as 
possible, selected to test the question of motion in that direction. 
The most easterly pair were Sacketts Harbor and Charlotte, New 
York, connected by the water surface of Lake Ontario (see map, 
Fig. 7). From observations by the U.S. Lake Survey in 1874, 
it appeared that a bench mark on the old light-house in Char- 
lotte was then 18.531 feet above a certain point on the Masonic 
Temple in Sacketts Harbor. In 1896 the measurement was Te- 


244 MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 


peated, and the difference found to be 18.470 feet, the point at 
Sacketts Harbor having gone up, as compared to the point at 
Charlotte, 0.061 foot, or about three-fourths of aninch. Similarly 
it was found that between 1858 and 1895 a point in Port Colborne, 
at the head of the Welland canal, as compared to a point in 
Cleveland, Ohio, rose 0.239 foot, or nearly three inches. Between 
1876 and 1896 a point at Port Austin, Michigan, on the shore of 
Lake Huron, as compared to a point in Milwaukee, on the shore 
of Lake Michigan, rose 0.137 foot, or one and one-half inches ; 
and in the same period a point in Escanaba, at the north end of 
Lake Michigan, as compared to the same point in Milwaukee, 
rose 0.161 foot, or about two inches. 

There is no one of these determinations that is free from doubt ; 
buildings and other structures on which the benches were markt 
may have settled, mistakes may have been made in the earlier 
leveling, when there was no thought of subjecting the results to 
so delicate a test, and there are various other possible sources of 
error to which no checks can be applied; but the fact that all 
the measurements indicate tilting in the direction predicted by 
theory inspires confidence in their verdict. This confidence is 

materially strengthened when the numerical results are reduced 
to a common unit and compared. 


Summary of Distances, Time Intervals, and Measurements of Differential 
Earth Movements 


S elie | Kone ey nes 2 
ee Fas Selec ey) Tele BGs. | esis 
Feat ye O ace ares heat aes Soe Fee ees 
Set ‘ I SSo a Le O. G a= Sees = 
Pairs of stations. | ~ = BSh | 8 eg oO) Ce | Wane | 2 Soe 
PS |SEN |Seegs|aue | &ol%| Seas 
| mop | oka Se | C55 | Aose 
(=) ea nea es lars) 'e) Ona a acs 
Miles.| Miles. Years. Feet. Feet. Feet. 
Sacketts Harbor 
wo J ~~ » > Q-7 
and Charlotte... \ 86 16 : -061 sot ots 
Port Colborne and ap a 
Cleveland....... \ 158 141 ay 239 ae Bu 
Port Austin and = 
} 5 3 9 a5 rs) 
UE Er aa \ 959 176 207 Nia che tesa 09 
Escanaba and Mil- 
>| 9 * (9) 2 oO 
ee, \ 192 186 Boro tet 43 | .06 
Mean...... Al 
Weighted mean...... 42° = .05 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 245 


The stations of the several pairs are at different distances apart, 
the directions of the lines connecting them make various anvles 
with the theoretic direction of tilting, and the time intervals 
separating the measurements are different. To reduce the results 
to common terms I have computed from each the rate of tilting it 
implies in the theoretic direction, S.27° W. In the sixth column 
of the preceding table the rate is exprest as the change in relative 
height of the ends of a line 100 miles long during a century. 

Compared in this way, the results are remarkably harmonious, 
the computed rates of tilting ranging only from 0.37 foot to 0.46 
foot per 100 miles per century ; and in view of this harmony it is 
not easy to avoid the conviction that the buildings are firm and 
stable, that the engineers ran their level lines with accuracy, that 
all the various possible accidents were escaped, and that we have 
here a veritable record of the slow tilting of the broad lake-bear- 
ing plain. 

The computed mean rate of tilting, 0.42 foot per 100 miles per 
century, is not entitled to the same confidence as the fact of tilt- 
ing. Its probable error, the mathematical measure of precision 
derived from the discordance of the observational data, is rather 
large, being one-ninth of the whole quantity measured. Perhaps 
it would be safe to say that the general rate of tilting, which may 
or may not be uniform for the whole region, falls between 0.30 
and 0.55 foot. 

While the credit of formulating the working hypothesis or geo- 
logic prediction which has thus been verified by measurement 
belongs to Spencer, itis proper to note that the fundamental idea 
of modern differential earth movement in the Great Lakes region 
was announced much earlier by G. R. Stuntz, a Wisconsin sur- 
veyor. Ina paper communicated to the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science in 1869, he cites observations 
tending to show that in 1852-53 the water of Lake Superior 
stood abnormally high at the west end while it was unusually 
low at the east, and he infers that the land is not stable. 

The geographic effects of the tilting are of scientific and eco- 
nomic importance. Evidently the height of lake water at a lake's 
outlet is regulated by the discharge and is not affected by slow 
changes in the attitude of the basin; but at other points of the 
shore the water advances or retreats as the basin is tipt. Con- 
sider, for example, Lake Superior. On the map (Fig. 7) a line 
has been drawn through the outlet at the head of St Marys 
river in a direction at right angles to the direction of tilting. All 


246 MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES 


points on this line, called the isobase of the outlet, are raised or 
lowered equally by the tilting and are unchanged with reference 
to one another. All points southwest of it are lowered, the 
amount varying with their distances from the line, and all points 
to the northeast are raised. The water, always holding its sur- 
face level and always regulated in volume by the discharge at 
the outlet, retreats from the rising northeast coasts and encroaches 
on the sinking southyest coasts. Assuming the rate of tilting 
to be 0.42 foot per 100 miles per century, the mean lake level is 
rising at Duluth 6 inches per century and falling at Heron bay 
5 inches. Where the isobase intersects the northwestern shore, 
which happens to be at the international boundary, there is no 
change. 

Lake Ontario lies altogether southwest of the isobase of its 
outlet, and the water is encroaching on all its shores. The same 
tilting that enlarged it from the area markt by the dotted line of 
figure 2 is still increasing its extent. The estimated vertical rise 
at Hamilton is 6 inches per century. The whole coast of Lake 
Erie also is being submerged, the estimated rate at Toledo and 
Sandusky being 8 or 9 inches per century. 

The isobase of the double Lake Huron-Michigan passes south- 
west of Lake Huron and crosses Lake Michigan. All coasts of 
Lake Huron are therefore rising as compared to the outlet, and 
the consequent apparent lowering of the mean water surface is 
estimated at 6 inches per century for Mackinac and at 10 inches 
for the mouth of the French river on Georgian bay. In Lake 
- Michigan the line of no change passes near Manistee, Michigan. 
At Escanaba the estimated fall of the water is 4 inches per cen- 
tury ; at Milwaukee the estimated rise is 5 or 6 inches, and at 
Chicago between 9 and 10 inches. 

These slow changes of mean water level are ceneeaiee from 
ordinary observation by the more rapid and impressive changes 
due to variations of volume, but they are worthy of considera- 
tion in the planning of engineering works of a permanent char- 
acter, and there is at least one place where their influence is of 
moment to a large community. The city of Chicago is built on 
a smooth plain little above the high-water level of Lake Michigan. 
Every decade the mean level of the water is an inch higher, and 
the margin of safety is so narrow that inches are valuable. Al- 
ready the older part of the city has lifted itself several feet to 
secure better drainage, and the time will surely come when other 
measures of protection are imperatively demanded. 


THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 247 

Looking to the more distant future, we may estimate the date 
at which the geographic revolution prophesied by Spencer will 
occur. Near Chicago, as already mentioned, is an old channel 
made by the outlet of a glacial lake. The bed of the channel at 
the summit of the pass is about 8 feet above the mean level of 
Lake Michigan and 5 feet above the highest level. In 500 or 600 
years (assuming the estimated rate of tilting) high stages of the 
lake will reach the pass, and the artificial discharge by canal will 
be supplemented by an intermittent natural discharge. In 1,000 
years the discharge will occur at ordinary lake stages, and after 
1,500 years it will be continuous. In about 2,000 years the dis- 
charge from Lake Michigan-Huron-EKrie, which will then have 
substantially the same level, will be equally divided between the 
western outlet at Chicago and the eastern at Buffalo. In 2,500 
years the Niagara river will have become an intermittent stream, 
and in 3,000 years all its water will have been diverted to the 
Chicago outlet, the Illinois river, the Mississippi river, and the 
Gulf of Mexico. 


THE TORONTO MEETING OF THE BRITISH ASSOCI- 
ATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 


If the British Association for the Advancement of Science has 
never yet done itself the honor of electing a geographer as its 
President, it at least is not open to the reproach of neglecting 
so important a department of knowledge as that which is con- 
cerned with the distribution of the human race and the manifold 
conditions of its environment. Throughout its entire history of 
67 years the Association has given geography a prominent place 
in its proceedings, and there have been few distinguished ex- 
plorers who have not reserved some of their most interesting and 
important utterances for the Geographical Section of this great 
scientific body. Just 40 years ago, in the city of Dublin, it was 
to see and hear Livingstone that people crowded into the hall 
assigned to Section E. Fifteen years later, at Brighton, before 
an equally large and brilliant assemblage, Mr Stanley narrated 
the thrilling story of his search for the great missionary-traveler 
in the wilds of equatorial Africa, and almost every Arctic ex- 
plorer and every seeker for the mysterious sources of the Nile 
and every daring adventurer who has penetrated the recesses of 


248 THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 


the great Asiatic plateau has modestly narrated the story of his 
travels and his discoveries before the British Association. 

If the recent Toronto meeting will not be remembered for any 
dramatic incidents or other highly sensational features, it was in 
many respects a notable gathering and by no means lacking in im- 
portant contributions to geographic science. The address of the 
President of the Geographical Section, Mr J. Scott Keltie, LL. D., 
Joint Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society and Editor of 
‘ the Geographical Journal and of the Statesman’s Year-Book, dealt 
with the geographic problems of the future and set forth in ad- 
mirable and most instructive array the various regions of the 
globe that are still wholly or in large part unexplored. This 
address is published, with but very slight abridgment, in the 
following pages, as a matter not merely of general interest, but 
of especial value to teachers and geographic students who find 
it difficult to keep abreast of geographic research in the more 
remote parts of the world. 

Dr Keltie’s address was delivered on August 19, and in the 
afternoon of the same day Sir George Scott Robertson, the Hero 
of Chitral, described Kafiristan and the Kafirs; Mr E. G. Raven- 
stein, of London, presented the sixth report of the Committee 
on the Climatology of Africa, a subject of great interest in view 
of the recent extension of European territory on that continent ; 
Mr E. Delmar Morgan, of London, read a paper on Nova Zem- 
bla and its Physical Geography, summarizing the results of re- 
cent Russian investigations and presenting the conclusion that 
the country is now undergoing a new process of glaciation that 
will convert it into an icy wilderness; Mr B. Leigh Smith, also 
of London, spoke on Recent Temperature Observations off Spitz- 
bergen, and a voluminous report was presented on The Position 
of Geography in the Educational System of Great Britain. 

On the following day the proceedings of the Geographic Sec- 
tion included a paper by Prof. Richard E. Dodge, of the Teachers 
College, New York, on Scientific Geography for Schools, which 
was a plea for the more scientific teaching of geography in the 
public schools and for systematic codperation in the bringing 
about of a much-needed improvement; a paper by Col. F. Bailey, 
of Edinburgh, on Forestry in India, showing the serious results 
of forest denudation in that country and the measures that have 
been adopted to remedy the evil; a Scheme of Geographical 
Classification, by Dr Hugh Robert Mill, of London; a paper by 

Mr Vaughn Cornish, on The Distribution of Detritus by the Sea ; 


THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 


249 
a paper by Mr E. G. Ravenstein, on The Kongo and the Cape 
of Good Hope, 1482 to 1488, a narrative of one of the most in- 
teresting periods in the history of geographic exploration, and 
a communication by Prof. John Milne, of the Isle of Wight, on 
Certain Submarine Geological Changes, which was mainly an 
epitome of the article on Suboceanic Changes, published in the 
July and August numbers of the Geographical Journal. 

On August 23 Mr Marcus Baker, of the U.S. Geological Survey, 
read a paper, the joint production of himself and Mr Gardiner 
G. Hubbard, President of the National Geographic Society, on 
the Geography of the United States and the Agencies employed 
in its Exploitation; General A. W. Greely presented a paper by 
Prof. F. H. Newell, Chief Hydrographer of the U. 8. Geological 
Survey, on the Hydrography of the United States; Dr T. C. Men- 
-denhall, President of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute and 
formerly Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
and Mr Otto H. Tittmann, Assistant in charge of the Office of the 
Survey, discussed the geographic work of that important goy- 
ernment bureau; Mr J. B. Tyrrell, of Ottawa, read a paper on 
the Barren Lands of Canada, by which title he designated the 
plains and prairies which stretch from Hudson bay to the Mac- 
kenzie river and from the coastline of the Arctic ocean south- 
ward to the region of civilization; Mr W. J. White read a paper 
on the Topographic Work of the Geological Survey of Canada; 
Prof. Charles D. Walcott, Director of the Geological Survey of 
the United States, presented a valuable communication on the 
geographical work of the institution over which he so ably pre- 
sides, and Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the U. 8S. Weather 
Bureau, discussed entertainingly and instructively the Clima- 
tology of the United States. 

The proceedings of August 24 opened with an address by 
Mr F. C. Selous on the Economic Geography of Rhodesia, a re- 
gion in which he has spent twenty-five years in elephant and 
lion hunting, but in which the ultimate destiny of a large part 
of the African continent is now being wrought out. This was 
followed by a Journey in Tripoli, by Mr J. T. Myers; Potamol- 
ogy as a Branch of Geography, by Prof. Albrecht Penck, of the 
University of Vienna; the Geographical Development of the 
Lower Mississippi, by Dr E. L. Corthell, of New York; South- 
eastern Alaska, by Mr Otto J. Klotz, of Ottawa; The First Ascent 
of Mt. Lefroy and Mt. Aberdeen, by Prof. H. B. Dixon, of Man- 
chester; Mexico Felix and Mexico Deserta, by Mr O. H. Howarth, 

17 


250 THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 


of London, and The Direction of Lines of Structure in Eurasia, 
by Prince Kropotkin, an important paper written in a Russian 
prison and saved from destruction by the Russian Geographical 
Society after the escape of its author. 

On August 25, the closing day of the meeting, Prof. W. M. 
Davis, of Harvard, spoke on the importance of geography as a 
university subject; General A. W. Greely read a paper by Mr 
Henry Gannett, Chief Geographer of the U.S. Geological Sur- 
vey, on the Growth and Material Conditions of the United States, 
and Dr Mill and Prof. Penck exhibited a large number of views 
illustrative of geographic scenes and conditions. 

While the foregoing represents the work of the Geographical 
Section, it by no means exhausts the list of subjects of interest 
to the student of geography that were discussed at the Toronto 
meeting. In the Section of Mathematics and Physics, on August 
19, Prof. John Milne presented a report from the Committee on 
Seismological Observations, and exhibited, for the purpose of 
illustrating the nature of certain recent discoveries, the wonder- 
fully delicate instruments that are used in locating breakages in 
submarine cables. On the same day, in the Section of Geology, 
Prof. J. C. Branner, of Stanford University, discussed The Former 
Extension of the Appalachians across Mississippi, Louisiana, 
and Texas, and Dr F. D. Adams demonstrated the plasticity of 
rocks. Again, in the Section of Mathematics and Physics, on 
August 20, Mr Alexander Johnson, of McGill University, dis- 
cussed the project of an Imperial Hydrographic Survey, and at 
the Horticultural Pavilion Prof. H. O. Forbes, of Liverpool, 
lectured on British New Guinea, its People, and the Problems 
which the Region offers to Geologists and Naturalists. 

In the Section of Meteorology, on August 23, Mr F. Napier 
Denison, of the Toronto Observatory, discussed the Great Lakes 
as a Sensitive Thermometer; Mr John Hopkinson read a paper 
on The Monthly and Annual Rainfall in the British Empire 
during the last Twenty Years, Dr Van Rijckevorsel, of Rotter- 
dam, discussed the Temperature of Europe, laying stress on the 
influences originating in western Asia on the east and in or be- 
yond the Atlantic ocean on the west; Mr R. F. Stupart, of the 
Toronto Meteorologicai Department, read a paper on The Clima- 
tology of Canada, and Mr R. G. Haliburton, a learned member 
of the Canadian Bar, discussed November Meteors and Novem- 
ber Flood Traditions. In the evening Prof. John Milne lectured 
before the Association in general session on Earthquakes and 


ao 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE 95) 


Volcanoes, an exceptionally large and distinguished 
being attracted by the fame of the man who announced in Eng- 
land on the day of its occurrence the terrible earthquake which 
visited Japan in June, 1896. 

The Anthropological Section also presented many attractions 
to the geographer, especially on August 23, when the proceed- 
ings included a paper by Mr B. Sulte on the Origin and Charae- 
teristics of the French-Canadians, an account of the Seri Indians, 
by Prof. W J McGee, Acting President of the American Associa- 
tion, and a long discussion on the Evidences of American-Asiatic 
Contact, opened by Prof. F. W. Putnam, of Harvard. 

It will readily be seen from the foregoing that the Toronto 
meeting of the British Association was the occasion of many 
notable contributions to geographic science, and no apology will 
be offered for the presentation in forthcoming numbers of Tue 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE of abridgments of such of them 
as are of greatest value and are available for the purpose. 


J. H. 


audience 


THE GREAT UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S 
SURFACE AWAITING THE EXPLORER AND 
GEOGRAPHER* 


By J. Scorr Keurig, LL. D., 


Secretary to the Royal Geographical Sociely, Editor of the Geographical Journal 
and of the Statesman’s Year-Book, etc., ele. 


We meet this year in exceptional circumstances. Thirteen 
years ago the British Association met for the first time in a por- 
tion of the empire beyond the limits of the British islands. Dur- 
ing these thirteen years much has happened of the greatest inter- 
est to geographers, and if attempted to review the progress which 
has been made during these years—progress in the exploration 
of the globe, progress in geographical research, progress in geo- 
graphical education—I could not hope to do it to any purpose in 
the short time during which it would be right for a president to 
monopolize the attention of the Section. 

But we have, at the same time, reached another stage in our 
history which naturally leads us to take stock of our progress in 


* Presidential address delivered before the Geographical Section of the British Asso- 
Giation for the Advancement of Science, at Toronto, August 19, 1897, 


252 THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


the past. We have all of us been celebrating the sixtieth year 
of the glorious reign of the Sovereign of whose vast dominions 
Canada and the United Kingdom form integral parts. The pro- 
gress made during that period in our own department of science 
has been immense; it would take volumes to tell what has been 
done for the exploration of the globe. 

The great continent of Africa has practically been discovered, 
for sixty years ago almost all but its rim was a blank. In 1887 
enormous areas in North America were unexplored and much of 
the interior of South America was unknown. Inall parts of Asia 
vast additions have been made to our knowledge; the maps of 
the interior of that continent were sixty years ago of the most 
diagrammatic character. The Australian interior was nearly as 
great a blank as that of Africa; New Zealand had not even been 
annexed. Need I remind you of the great progress which has 
been made during the period both in the North and South Polar 
areas, culminating in the magnificent achievement of Dr Nansen? 
It was just sixty years ago that the great Antarctic expedition 
under Sir James Ross was being organized ; since that, alas! little 
or nothing has been done to follow up his work. Sixty years ago 
the science of oceanography, even the term, did not exist. It is 
the creation of the Victorian era, and may be said almost to have 
had its origin in the voyage of the Challenger, which added a 
new domain to our science and opened up inexhaustible fields of 


research. 
* * * < * * * 


I have thought, then, that the most useful and most manage- 
able thing to do on the present occasion will be to indicate briefly 
what, in my estimation, are some of the problems which geogra- 
phy has to attack in the future, only taking such glances at the 
past as will enable us to do this intelligibly. 


ASIA 


Turning to the continent of Asia, we find that immense progress 
has been made during the past sixty years. In the presidential 
address given sixty years ago Mr Hamilton says of Asia: “ We 
have only a general knowledge of the geographical character of the 
Burman, Chinese, and Japan empires; the innumerable islands 
of the latter are still, except occasionally, inaccessible to European 
navigators. Geographers hardly venture on the most loose de- 
scription of Tibet, Mongolia, or Chinese Tartary, Siam, and Cochin 
China.” Since then the survey of India, one of the greatest 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE 253 


enterprises undertaken by any State, has been completed, and is 
being rapidly extended over Burma. But I need not remind you 
in detail of the vast changes that have taken place in Asia dur- 
. ing these years and the immense additions that have been made 
to our knowledge of its geography. Exploring activity in Asia 
is not likely to cease, though it is not to be expected that its in- 
hospitable center will ever be so carefully mapped as have been 
the mountains of Switzerland. 

The most important desiderata, so far as pioneer exploration 
in Asia is concerned, may be said to be confined to two regions. 
In southern and central Arabia there are tracts which are en- 
tirely unexplored. It is probable that this unexplored region is 
in main a sandy desert. At the same time it is, in the south at 
least, fringed by a border of mountains whose slopes are capable 
of rich cultivation and whose summits the late Mr Theodore Bent 
found, on his last and fatal journey, to be covered with snow. 
In exploration, as in other directions, it is the unexpected that 
happens; and if any traveler cared to face the difficulties—phys- 
ical, political, and religious—which might be met with in south- 
ern and central Arabia, he might be able to tell the world a sur- 
prising story. 

The other region in Asia where real pioneer work still remains 
to be done is Tibet and the mountainous districts bordering it on 
the north and east. Lines of exploration have in recent years 
been run across Tibet by Russian explorers like Prjevalsky, by 
Rockhill, Prince Henry of Orleans, and Bonvalot, by Bower, Lit- 
tledale,Wellby,and Malcolm. From the resultsobtained by these 
- explorers we have formed a fair idea of this, the most extensive, 
the highest,and the most inhospitable plateau in the world. A 
few more lines run in well-selected directions would probably 
supply geography with nearly all she wants to learn about such 
a region, though more minute exploration would probably fur- 
nish interesting details as to its geological history. 


THE FORBIDDEN CITY 


The region lying to the north of the Himalayan range and to 
the south of the parallel of Lhasa is almost a blank on the map, 
and there is ample room here for the enterprising pioneer. The 
forbidden city of Lhasa is at present the goal of several advent- 
urers, though as a matter of fact we cannot have much to learn 
in addition to what has been revealed in the interesting narra- 
tive of the native Indian traveler, Chandra Das. ‘The magnifi- 


254 THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


cent mountain region on the north and east of Tibet furnishes a 
splendid field for the enterprising explorer. Mrs Bishop recently 
approached it from the east, through Sze-chuen, and her descrip- 
tion of the romantic scenery and the interesting non-Mongolian 
inhabitants leaves us with a strong desire to learn more. On the 
southeast of Tibet is the remarkable mountainous region, con- 
sisting of a series of lofty parallel chains, through which run the 
upper waters of the Yangtse, the Mekong, the Salwin, and the 
Irrawaddy. This last-named river, recent exploration has shown, 
probably does not reach far into the range. But it will be seen 
by a glance at a map that the upper waters of the other rivers 
are carried far into the heart of the mountains. But these upper- 
river courses are entirely conjectural and have given rise to much 
controversy. There is plenty of work here for the explorer, 
though the difficulties, physical and political, are great. 

But besides these great unexplored regions there are many 
blanks to be filled up in other parts of Asia, and regions which, 
though known in a general way, would well repay careful exam- 
ination. There is the mountain track between the Zarafshan 

_river and the middle course of the Sarkhab, tributary of the Oxus, 
and the country lying between that and the Oxus. There isthe 
ereat Takla-Makan desert in Chinese or Eastern Turkistan, part 
of which has recently been explored by Russian expeditions and 
by that young and indefatigable Swedish traveler, Dr Sven Hedin. 
It is now one of the most forbidding deserts to be found anywhere, 
but it deserves careful examination, as there are evidences of its 
once having been inhabited, and that at no very remote period. 
It is almost surrounded by the Tarim, and on its eastern edge lies - 
Lob-nor, the remarkable changes in which have been the subject 
of recent investigation. As readers of Dr Nansen’s Voyage of 
the Fram will remember, the Siberian coast is most imperfectly 
mapped. Of course it is a difficult task, but it is one to which 
the Russian government ought to be equal. China has on paper 
the appearance of being fairly well mapped; but asa matter of 
fact our knowledge of its mountain ranges and of its great river 
courses is to a large extent extremely vague. All this awaits care- 
ful survey. In northeastern Manchuria and in many parts of 
Mongoha there are still blanks to be filled up and mountain and 
river systems to-be surveyed. In the Malay peninsula and in 
the great array of islands in the east and southeast of Asia—Su- 
matra, Borneo, the Philippines—much work still remains to be 
done. Thus for the coming century there will be abundance of 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE — 255 
work for explorers in Asia and plenty of material to occupy the 
attention of our geographical societies. 


DARKEST AFRICA 


Coming to the map of Africa, we find the most marvelous trans- 
formation during the last sixty years, and mainly during the last 
forty vears, dating from Livingstone’s memorable journey across 
the continent. Though the north of Africa was the home of one 
of the oldest civilizations, and though on the shores of the Med- 
iterranean Pheenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, and Romans were 
at work for centuries, it has only been within the memory of many 
of us that the center of the continent, from the Sahara to the con- 
fines of Cape Colony, has ceased to be an unexplored blank. This 
blank has been filled up with bewildering rapidity. Great rivers 
and lakes and mountains have been laid down in their main 
features, and the whole continent, with a few unimportant ex- 
ceptions, has been parceled out among the powers of Europe; 
but much still remains to be done ere we can form an adequate 
conception of what is in some respects the most interesting and 
the most intractable of the continents. Many curious problems 
still remain to be solved. The pioneer work of exploration has 
to a large extent been accomplished ; lines have been run in all 
directions ; the main features have been blocked out; but be- 
tween these lines the broad meshes remain to be filled in, and 
to do this will require many years of careful exploration. How- 
ever, there still remain one or two regions that afford scope for 

the adventurous pioneer. 
' To the south of Abyssinia and to the west and northwest of 
Lake Rudolf, on to the Upper Nile, is a region of considerable ex- 
tent, which is still practically unknown. Again, in the western 
Sahara there is an extensive area, inhabited mainly by the in- 
tractable Tuaregs, into which no one has been able to penetrate, 
and of which our knowledge is extremely scanty. Even in the 
central Sahara there are great areas which have not been tra- 
versed, while in the Libyan desert much remains to be done. 
These regions are of interest almost solely from the geographical 
and geological standpoints; but they deserve careful investiga- 
tion, not only that we may ascertain their actual present condi- 
tion, but in order, also, that we may try to discover some clues 
to the past history of this interesting continent. Still, it must 
be said that the great features of the continent have been so fully 
mapped during the last half century that what is required now 


256 THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


is mainly the filling-in of the details. This is a process that re- 
quires many hands and special qualifications. All over the con- 
tinent there are regions which will repay special investigation. 
Quite recently an English traveler, Mr Cowper, found not far from 
the Tripoli coast miles of magnificent ruins and much to correct 
onourmaps. If only the obstructiveness of the Turkish officials 
could be overcome, there is a rich harvest for any one who will 
go to work with patience and intelligence. Even the interior of 
Morocco,and especially the Atlas mountains, are but little known. 
The French, in both Tunis and Algeria, are extending our knowl- 
edge southward. 


EFFORTS OF THE POWERS 


All the powers who have taken part in the scramble for Africa 
are doing much to acquire a knowledge of their territories. Ger- 
many especially deserves praise for the persistent zeal with which 
she has carried out the exploration of her immense territories in 
East and West Africa. The men she sends out are unusually 
well qualified for the work, capable not simply of making a run- 
ning survey as they proceed and taking notes on country and 
people, but of rendering a substantial account of the geology, 
the fauna, the flora, and the economic conditions. Both in the 
French and the British spheres good work is also being done, 
and the map of Africa is being gradually filled up. But what 
we especially want now are men of the type of Dr J. W. Gregory, 
whose book on the Great Rift valley is one of the most valuable 


contributions to African geography ever made. If men of this _ 


stamp would settle down in regions like that of Mount Ruwen- 
zori or Lake Rudolf or the region about lakes Bangweolo and 
Tanganyika, or in the Atlas or in many other regions that could 
be named, the gains to scientific geography, as well as to the eco- 
nomic interests of Africa, would be great. An example of work 
of this kind is seen in the discoveries made by a young biologist 
trained in geographical observation, Mr Moore, on Lake Tan- 
ganyika. There he found a fauna which seems to afford a key 
to the past history of the center of the continent, a fauna which, 
Mr Moore maintains, is essentially of a salt-water type. Mr 
Moore, I believe, is inclined to maintain that the ancient con- 
nection of this part of Africa with the ocean was not by the west, 
as Joseph Thomson surmised, but by the north, through the 
_ Great Rift valley of Dr Gregory, and he strongly advocates the 

careful examination of Lake Rudolf as the crucial test of his 


i 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE 257 


ad 


theory. It is to be hoped that he or some one equally compe- 
tent will have an opportunity of carrying out an investigation 
likely to provide results of the highest importance. 


CLIMATE OF THE COUNTRY 


But there are other special problems connected with this. the 
most backward and the most repellent of continents, which de- 
mand serious investigation—problems essentially geographical. 
One of the most important of these, from the point of view of the 
development of Africa, is the problem of acclimatization. The 
matter is of such prime importance that a committee of the Asso- 
ciation has been at work for some years collecting data as to the 
climate of tropical Africa. In a general way we know that that 
climate is hot and the rainfall scanty ; indeed, even the geogra- 
_phers of the ancient world believed that Central Africa was unin- 
habitable on account of its heat; but science requires more than 
generalities, and therefore we look forward to the exact results 
which are being collected by the committee referred to with much 
hope. Wecan only go to work experimentally until we know 
precisely what we have to deal with. It will help us greatly to 
solve the problem of acclimatization when we have the exact fac- 
tors that go to constitute the climate of tropical Africa. At pres- 
ent there is no doubt that the weight of competent opinion—that 
is, opinion of those who have had actual experience of African 
climate and of those who have made a special study of the effects 
of that climate on the human constitution—is that, though white 
men, if they take due precautions, may live and do certain kinds 
of work in tropical Africa, it will never be possible to colonize 
that part of the world with people from the temperate zone. ‘This 
is the lesson taught by generations of experience of Kuropeans 
in India. 

So far, also, sad experience has shown that white people can- 
not hope to settle in Central Africa as they have settled in Can- 
ada and the United States and in Australia, and make it a nur- 
sery and a home for new generations. Even in such favorable 
situations as Blantyre, a lofty region on the south of Lake Nyasa, 
children cannot be reared beyond a certain age; they must be 
sent home to England, otherwise they will degenerate physically 
and morally. No country-can ever become the true home of a 
people if the children have to be sent away to be reared. Still, 
it is true our experience in Africa is limited. It has been main- 
tained that it might be possible to adapt Europeans to tropical 


258 THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


Africa by a gradual process of migration: Transplant southern 
Europeans to north Africa; after a generation or tivo remove their 
progeny further south, and so on, edging the succeeding genera- 
tion further and further into the heart of the continent. The ex- 
periment—a long one it would be—might be tried ; but it is to 
be feared that the ultimate result would be a race deprived of all 
those characteristics which have made Europe what it is. 


HIDDEN ENEMIES 


An able young Italian physician, Dr Sambon, has recently 
faced this important problem, and has not hesitated to come to 
conclusions quite opposed to those generally accepted. His posi- 
tion is that it has taken us centuries in Europe to discover our 
hidden enemies, the microbes of the various diseases to which 
northern humanity is a prey, and to meet them and conquer 
them. In Africa we have a totally different set of enemies to 
meet, from lions and snakes down to the invisible organisms that 
produce those forms of malaria, anzemia, and other diseases 
characteristic of tropical countries. He admits that these are 

more or less due to heat, to the nature of the soil, and other trop- 
ical conditions, but that if once we knew their precise nature and 
modes of working we should be in a position to meet them and 
conquer them. It may be so, but this is a result that could only 
be reached after generations of experience and investigation, and 
even Dr Sambon admits that the ultimate product of European 
acclimatization in Africa would be something quite different from 
the European progenitors. What is wanted is a series of care- 
fully conducted experiments. 

I have referred to the Blantyre highlands. In British East 
Africa there are plateaus of much greater altitude, and in other 
parts of Central Africa there are large areas of 4.000 feet and over 
above sea level. The world may become so full that we may be 
forced to try to utilize these lofty tropical regions as homes for 
white people when Canada and Australia and the United States 
become over populated. As one of my predecessors in this chair 
(Mr Ravenstein) tried to show at the Leeds meeting some years 
ago, the population of the world will have more than doubled in 
a century, and about 180 years hence will have quadrupled. At 
any rate, here is a problem of prime importance for the geog- 
rapher of the coming century to attack. With so many ener- 
getic and intelligent white men all over Africa, it should not be 
difficult to obtain the data which might help toward its solution. 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH'S St RFACE 259 


NORTH AMERICA 


I have dwelt thus long on Africa, because it will really be one 
of the great geographical. problems of the coming century. Had 
it been as suitable as America or Australia, we may be sure it 
would not have remained so long neglected and despised by the 
European peoples as it has done. Unfortunately for Afr ica, just 
as it had been circumnavigated, and just as Europeans were be- 
ginning to settle upon its central portion and trying to make their 
way into the interior, Columbus and Cabot discovered a new 
world—a world as well adapted as Europe for the energies of the 
white races. That discovery postponed the legitimate develop- 
ment of Africa for four centuries. Nothing could be more marked 
than the progress which America has made since its rediscovery 
400 years ago, and the stagnation of Africa, which has been known 
to Europe since long before the beginning of history. During 
these 400 years North America at least has been very thoroughly 
explored. The two great tations which divide North America 
between them have their Government surveys, which are rapidly 
mapping the whole continent and investigating its geology, phys- 
ical geography, and natural resources. 

I need hardly tell an audience like this of the admirable work 
done by the survey of Canada under Sir William Logan, Dr 
Selwyn, and his successor, Dr George Dawson; nor should it be 
forgotten that under the lands department much excellent to- 
pographical work has been carried out by Captain Deville and 
his predecessors. Still, though much has been done, much re- 
mains to be done. There are large areas which have not as yet 
been roughly mapped. Within quite recent years we have had 
new regions opened up to us by the work of Dawson and Ogilvie 
on the Yukon, Dr Bell in the region to the south of Hudson bay, 
by the brothers Tyrrell in the barren lands on the west of the 

same bay, by O’Sullivan beyond the sources of the Ottaw a, and 
by Low in Labrador. 

But it is not so long since that Dr Dawson, in reviewing what 
remains to be done in the Dominion in the way of even pioneer 
exploration, pointed out that something like a million square 
miles still remained to be mapped. Apart from the uninhabit- 
able regions in the north, there are, as Dr Dawson pointed out, 
considerable areas which might be turned to profitable agricult- 
ural and mining account of which we know little, such areas as 
these which have been recently mapped out on the south of Hud- 


260 THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


son bay by Dr Bell and beyond the Ottawa by Mr O’Sullivan. 
Although the eastern and western provinces have been very fully 
surveyed, there is a considerable area between the two lying be- 
tween Lake Superior and Hudson bay which seems to have been 
so far almost untouched. A very great deal has been done for 
the survey of the rivers and lakes of Canada. I need hardly say 
that in Canada, as elsewhere in America, there is ample scope for 
the study of many problems in physical geography—past and 
present glaciation and the work of glaciers, the origin and régime 
of lake basins, the erosion of river beds, the oscillation of coast 
lines. Happily, both in Canada and the United States there are 
many men competent and eager to work out problems of this class, 
and in the reports of the various surveys, in the transactions of 
American learned societies, in scientific periodicals, and in sepa- 
rate publications, a wealth of data has already been accumulated 
of immense value to the geographer. 


UNITED STATES 


Every geologist and geographer knows the important work 
which has been accomplished by the various surveys of the 
United States, as well as by the various State surveys. The 
United States Coast Survey has been at work for more than half 
a century, mapping not only the coast but all the navigable 
rivers. The Lake Survey has been doing a similar service for 
the shores of the Great Lakes of North America. But it is the 
work of the Geological Survey which is best known to geogra- 
phers—a survey which is really topographical as well as geolog- 
ical, and which, under such men as Hayden, King, and Powell, 
has produced a series of magnificent maps, diagrams, and mem- 
oirs of the highest scientific value and interest. Recently this 
survey has been placed on a more systematic basis, so that now 
a scheme for the topographical survey of the whole of the terri- 
tory of the United States is being carried out. Extensive areas 
in various parts of the States have been already surveyed on 
different scales. It is to be hoped that in the future, as in the 
_ past, the able men who are employed on this survey work will 
have opportunities of working out the physiography of particu- 
lar districts, the past and present geography of which is of ad- 
vancing scientific interest. Of the complete exploration and 
mapping of the North American continent we need have no ap- 
prehension ; it is only a question of time, and it is to be hoped 
that neither of the governments responsible will allow political 


stent 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE 261 
exigencies to interfere with what is really a work of national 
importance. 


CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA 


It is when we come to Central and South America that we find 
ample room for the unofficial explorer. In Mexico and the Cen- 
tral American States there are considerable areas of which we 
have little or only the vaguest knowledge. In South America 
there is really more room now for the pioneer explorer than 
there is in Central Africa. In recent years the Argentine Repub- 
lic has shown laudable zeal in exploring and mapping its im- 
mense territories, while a certain amount of good work has also 
been done by Brazil and Chile. Most of our knowledge of South 
America is due to the enterprise of Europeans and of North Amer- 
ican explorers. Along the great river courses our knowledge is 
fairly satisfactory, but the immense areas, often densely clad with 
forests, lying between the rivers are almost unknown. In Pata- 
gonia, though a good deal has recently been done by the Argen- 
tine government, still in the country between Punta Arenas and 
the Rio Negro we have much to learn, while on the West Coast 
range, with its innumerable fjord-like inlets, its islands and 
peninsulas, there is a fine field for the geologist and physical 
geographer. Indeed, throughout the whole range of the Andes 
systematic exploration is wanted, exploration of the character 
of the excellent work accomplished by Whymper in the region 
around Chimborazo. 

There is an enormous area lying to the east of the northern 
Andes and including their eastern slopes, embracing the eastern 
half of Ecuador and Colombia, southern Venezuela, and much 
of the country lying between that and northern Bolivia, includ- 
ing many of the upper tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco, 
of which our knowledge is of the scantiest. Even the country 
lying between the Rio Negro and the Atlantic is but little known. 
There are other great areas in Brazil and in the northern Chaco 
which have only been partially described, such as the region 
whence the streams forming the Tapajos and the Paraguay take 
their rise, in Mato Grosso. A survey and detailed geographical 
and topographical description of the whole basin of Lake Titi- 
caca is a desideratum. 

In short, in South America there is a wider and richer field for 
exploration than in any other continent. But no mere rush 
through these little-known regions will suffice. The explorer 


262 THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


must be able not only to use his sextant and his theodolite, his 
compass, and his chronometer. Any expeditions entering these 
regions ought to be able to bring back satisfactory information 
on the geology of the country traversed, and of its fauna and 
flora, past and present. Already the revelations which have been 
made of the past geography of South America and of the life that 
flourished there in former epochs are of the highest interest. 
Moreover, we have here the remains of extinct civilizations to 
deal with, and although much has been done in this direction, 
much remains to be done, and in the extensive region already 
referred to the physique, the traditions, and the customs of the 
natives will repay careful investigation. 


AUSTRALIA 


The southern continent of Australia is in the hands of men of 
the same origin as those who have developed to such a wonder- 
ful extent the resources of Canada and the United States, and 
therefore we look for equally satisfactory results so far as the 
characteristics of that continent permit. The five colonies which 
divide among them the three million square miles of the conti- 
nent have each of them efficient government surveys, which are 
rapidly mapping their features and investigating their geology ; 
but Australia has a trying economic problem to solve. In none 
of the colonies is the water supply quite adequate; in all are 
stretches of desert country of greater or less extent. The center 
and western half of the continent are covered by a desert more 
waterless and more repellent than even the Sahara; so far as our 
present knowledge goes, one-third of the continent is uninhabit- 
able. This desert area has been crossed by explorers, at the.ex- 
pense of great sufferings, in various directions, each with the same 
dreary tale of almost featureless sandy desert, covered here and 
there with spinifex and scrub, worse than useless. There are 
hundreds of thousands of square miles still unknown, but there 
is no reason to believe that these areas possess any features that 
differ essentially from those which have been found along the 
routes that have been explored. 

There have been one or two well-equipped scientific expedi- 
tions in recent years that have collected valuable data with re- 
gard to the physical characteristics, the geology and biology of 
the continent; and it is in this direction that geography should 
ook for the richest results in the future. There remains much 
to be done before we can arrive at satisfactory conclusions as to 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE 263 
the physical history of what is in some respects the most remark- 
able land area on the globe. Though the surface water supply 
is so scanty, there is reason to believe that underneath the sur- 
face there is an immense store of water. In one or two places in 
Australia, especially in western Queensland and in New South 
Wales, this supply has been tapped with satisfactory results: 
millions of gallons a day have been obtained by sinking ee 
Whether irrigation can ever be introduced on an extensive scale 
into Australia depends upon the extent and accessibility of the 
underground water supply, and that is one of the geographical 
problems of the future in Australia. New Zealand has been fairly 
well surveyed, though a good deal remains to be done before its 
magnificent mountain and glacier system is completely known. 
In the great island of New Guinea both the British and the Ger- 
mans are opening up the interiors of their territories to our know!- 
edge, but the western and much larger portion of the island pre- 
sents a large field for any explorer who cares to venture into its 
interior. 


POLAR EXPLORATION 


The marvelous success which has attended Dr Nansen’s daring 
adventure into the Arctic seas has revived a widespread interest 
in polar exploration. Nansen may be said to have almost solved 
the North Pole problem—so far, at least, as the Old World side 
of the Pole is concerned. That some one will reach the Pole at 
no distant date is certain; Nansen has shown the way, and the 
legitimate curiosity of humanity will not rest satisfied till the 
goal be reached. But Arctic exploration does not end with the 
attainment: of the Pole. Europe has done her share on her own 
side of the Pole; what about the side which forms the hinter- 
land of North America, and especially of Canada? To the north” 
of Europe and Asia we have the scattered groups of islands, Spits- 
bergen, Franz Josef Land, Nova Zembla, and the New Siberian 
islands. To the north of America we have an immense archi- 
pelago, the actual extent of which is unknown. Nansen and 
other Arctic authorities maintain that the next thing to be done 
is to complete exploration on the American side—to attempt to 
do for that half of the North Polar region what Nansen has done 
for the other half. It may be that the islands which fringe the 
northern shores of the new world are continued far to the north ; 
if so, they would form convenient stages for the work of a well- 
equipped expedition. It may be that they do not go much far- 


264 THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


ther than we find them on our maps. Whatever be the case, it 
is important, in the interests of science, that this section of the 
polar area be examined; that as high a latitude as possible be 
attained; that soundings be made to discover whether the deep 
ocean extends all round the Pole. 

It is stated that the gallant Lieutenant Peary has organized a 
scheme of exploring this area which would take several years to 
accomplish. Let us hope that he will be able to carry out his 
scheme. Meantime, should Canada look on with indifference ? 
She has attained the standing of a great and prosperous nation. 
She has shown the most commendable zeal in the exploration 
of her own immense territory. She has her educational, scien- 
tific, and literary institutions which will compare favorably with 
those of other countries; her press is of a high order, and she 
has made the beginnings of a literature and an art of her own. 
In these respects she is walking in the steps of the mother coun- 
try. But has Canada not reached a stage when she is in a posi- 
tion to follow the maternal example still further? What has 
more contributed to render the name of Great Britain illustrious 
than those enterprises which for centuries she has sent out from 
her own shores, not a few of them solely in the interests of sci- 
ence? Such enterprises elevate a nation and form its glory and 
its pride. Surely Canada has ambitions beyond mere material 
prosperity ; and what better beginning could be made than the 
equipment of an expedition for the exploration of the seas that 
lie between her and the Pole? I venture to throw out these 
suggestions for the consideration of those who have at heart the 
honor and glory of the great Canadian Dominion. 


THE ANTARCTIC REGIONS 


Not only has an interest in Arctic exploration been revived, 


but in Europe at least an even greater interest has grown up in 
the exploration of the region around the opposite Pole of the 
earth of which our knowledge is so scanty. Since Sir James C. 
Ross’ expedition, which was sent out in the year 1839, almost 
nothing has been done for Antarctic research. We have here to 
deal with conditions different from those which surround the 
North Pole. Instead of an almost landless ocean, it is believed 
by those who have given special attention to the subject that a 
continent about the size of Australia covers the South Polar re- 
gion. But we do not know for certain, and surely, in the interests 
of our science, it is time we had a fairly adequate idea of what 


THE UNMAPPED AREAS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE 


265 
are the real conditions. We want to know what is the extent of 
that land, what are its glacial conditions, what is the character 
of its geology, what evidence exists as to its physical and bio- 
logical conditions in past ages? We know there is one lofty, 
active voleano. Are there any others? Moreover, the science 
of terrestrial magnetism is seriously impeded in its progress 
because the data in this department from the Antarctic are so 
scanty. The seas around this continent require to be investi- 
gated both as to their depth, their temperature, and their life. 
We have here, in short, the most extensive unexplored area on 
the surface of the globe. 

- For the last three or four years the Royal Geographical Society, 
backed by other British societies, has been attempting to move 
the home government to equip an adequate expedition to com- 
plete the work begun by Ross sixty years ago, and to supplement 
the great work of the Challenger ; but though sympathy has been 
expressed for Antarctic exploration, and though vague promises 
have been given of support, the government is afraid to enter 
upon an enterprise which might involve the services of a few 
naval officers and men. We need not criticise this attitude ; but 
the Royal Geographical Society has determined not to let the 
matter rest here. It is now seeking to obtain the support of pub- 
lic-spirited men for an Antarctic expedition under its own au- 
spices. It is felt that Antarctic exploration is peculiarly the 
work of England, and that if an expedition is undertaken it will 
receive substantial support from the great Australasian colonies, 
which have so much to gain from a knowledge of the physical 
condition of a region lying at their own doors and probably hav- 
ing a serious influence on their climatological conditions. Here, 
then, is one of the greatest geographical problems of the future, 
the solution of which should be entered upon without further 
delay. It may be mentioned that a small and well-equipped 
Belgian expedition has already started, mainly to carry out deep- 
sea search around the South Pole area, and that strenuous eflorts 
are being made in Germany to obtain the funds for an expedition 
on a much larger scale. 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


But our science has to‘deal not only with the lands of the 
globe; its sphere is the whole of the surface of the earth and all 
that is thereon, so far at least as distribution is concerned. The 
department of oceanography is a comparatively new creation ; in- 

18 


266 THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION 


deed, it may be said to have come definitely into being with the 
famous voyage of the Challenger. There had been expeditions 
for ocean investigation before that, but on a very limited scale. 
It has only been through the results obtained by the Challenger, 
supplemented by those of expeditions that have examined more 
limited areas, that we have been able to obtain an approximate 
conception of the conditions which prevail throughout the va- 
rious ocean depths—conditions of movement, of temperature, of 
salinity, of life. We have only a general idea of the contours of 
the ocean bed, and of the composition of the sediment which 
covers that bed. The extent of the knowledge thus acquired may 
be gauged from the fact that it occupies a considerable space in 
the fifty quarto volumes—the Challenger publications—which it 
took Dr John Murray twenty years to bring out. 

What islands are to the ocean, lakes are to the land. Itis only 
recently that these interesting geographical features have received 
the attention they deserve. 

Rivers are of not less geographical interest than lakes, and these 
have also recently been the subject of special investigation by 
physical geographers. I have already referred to Professor Davis’ 
study of a special English river system. The work in the En- 
glish lake district by Mr Marr, spoken of in connection with Dr 
Mill’s investigations, was mainly on the hydrology of the region. 
Both in Germany and in Russia special attention is being given 
to this subject, while in America there is an enormous literature 
on the Mississippi alone, mainly, no doubt, from the practical 
standpoint, while the result of much valuable work on the St 
Lawrence is buried in Canadian official publications. 


THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION 


By G. W. LirTLEHALEs, 
U. S. Hydrographic Office 


Transoceanic navigation, with all that it has been to the com- 
merce of the world and the development of the civilization of the 
nineteenth century, rests upon the magnetic needle of the mari- 
ner’s compass. None but those who may estimate the effect of 
the sudden loss of the earth’s magnetism will ever fully know 
the extent of the influence of the compass in human affairs. 


THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION 267 
Throughout the history of ocean navigation it has remained pre- 
eminent among nautical instruments; and today, by the side of 
the chronometer and sextant, it is scarcely less important than 
it was when it constituted the navigator’s sole equipme nt. The 
later instruments have contributed to precision in the use of the 
compass and to precise navigation in general, but they have in 
no sense supplanted it or greatly affected the degree of its funda- 
mental importance. 

Up to the era of iron ships the management of the mariner’s 
compass was as simple as the surveyor’s, being influenced by the 
earth’s magnetism alone; but with the growth of the application 
of steam propulsion to modern ships and the employment of iron 
and steel in their construction it was found that every ship her- 
self becomes a great magnet like the earth is, although of lesser 
intensity. 

It has long been known that the earth acts upon the magnetic 
needle somewhat as a bar magnet does, and that it has definite 
poles of magnetic strength and a magnetic field surrounding it 
which may be represented in general by lines of magnetic in- 
tensity issuing from one pole and proceeding to the other by 
eurved paths to which a freely suspended magnetic needle will 
everywhere set itself tangent. For more than a century it has 
been customary among geomagneticians to represent the elements 
of the direction and intensity of the earth’s magnetism as mani- 
fested at its surface by lines conceived to be drawn upon the 
surface of the globe. The lines passing through all places where 
the angle between the plane of the astronomical meridian and 
tthe vertical plane passing through a freely suspended magnetic 
needle is the same are called lines of equal magnetic declination 
or, among mariners and surveyors, lines of equal variation of the 
compass. These lines issue from one magnetic pole and pass by 
curved paths to the other and through the geographical poles of 
the earth. The lines which are conceived to be drawn through 
all places where the angle between the direction of a freely sus- 
pended needle and the plane of the horizon is the same are called 

lines of equal magnetic inclination or dip. They gird the earth 
in circumferences parallel to the magnetic equator, somewhat the 
same as the parallels of latitude with reference to the geo- 
graphical equator. The ‘magnetic equator is the line px: assing 
through every point at which the freely suspe snded needle lies in 
a horizontal plane. As we travel from the magnetic equator to- 
ward the northern magnetic pole the needle inclines more and 


268 THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION 


more, the north end tending dow nwards until the pole is reached, 
when the needle assumes a vertical direction. As we travel 
toward the southern magnetic pole the same takes place with 
the south end of the needle. 

Similar results may be obtained by carrying a small needle 
through the magnetic field ofa. bar-magnet. At the neutral band 
it will be parallel to the bar, while, as either end is approached, 
the dip toward the Pole becomes more and more; and as with 
the bar-magnet, which has a magnetic field that varies in inten- 
sity from point to point, so with the earth, whose magnetic field 
is powerful near the Poles and steadily moderates in strength as 
the magnetic equator is approached. There is thus a third set 
of lines passing through all points where the magnetic intensity 
is the same. These are known as isodynamic lines or lines of 
equal magnetic intensity. In general contour they follow the 
lines of equal inclination or dip. 

These different systems of lines representing the magnetic ele- 
ments have not on the earth that symmetry and regularity which 
they would present around a steel bar; but, on the contrary, they 

often pursue serpentine courses with many a bend and loop; 
and since the values of the magnetic elements are not fixed either 
as to time or locality, they shift their positions hourly, daily, 
monthly, yearly, and through centuries. These changes are all 
believed to be periodic and, with the exception of the secular 
change, are of such small amplitude that they do not affect the 
use of the compass on the seas where commerce is carried on. 
So that for purposes of navigation, the terrestrial magnetic lines 
may be drawn so as to hold good for several years from a given 
epoch. ; 

A freely suspended magnetic needle dipping, as it does, every- ~ 
where except on the magnetic equator, is of no value to guide a 
ship. The compass needle must be horizontal. This condition 
is attained in practice by putting a small sliding counterpoise on 
the needle to overcome the downward pull of the earth’s mag- 
netism, or by floating the compass-card in a mixture of water and 
alcohol. It is, therefore, only the horizontal component of the 
earth’s magnetism that gives steadiness to the needle of the 
compass and influences its direction. 

If a wooden ship, with no metal other than the copper in her 
frame, were to sail around the world, her compass would experi- 
ence only those magnetic phases that result from the influence 
of the earth’s magnetism—more or less steadiness, according to 


THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION ong 


the varying amount of the horizontal component of the intensity 
of the terrestrial magnetic field, and a variation of the compass 
of larger or smaller amount according to geographical position — 
the ship herself would exert no influence whatever. Sut, in 
modern navigation, instead of guiding a vessel having no mag- 
_ netic influence whatever over the globe—a great magnet whose 
magnetic elements are known—the mariner’s compass is em- 
ployed in guiding a steel vessel, which is a great magnet, whose 
magnetic elements are ever varying and capricious, over the 
globe, a greater magnet. 

Ifa bar-magnet be brought into a horizontal position under a 
compass-needle that has assumed a steady position under the 
influence of the earth’s magnetism, the compass-needle will im- 
mediately move and assume a position which is the resultant of 
the joint action of the earth and the bar-magnet; and with every 
change in the azimuth or inclination of the bar-magnet the com- 
pass-needle will assume a new resultant position. This is anal- 
ogous to the joint action of the magnetism of the earth and the 
iron ship on the mariner’s compass, only the influence of the 
ship is vastly complicated by the existence, along with her per- 
manent magnetic elements, of the ever-varying magnetic effects 
resulting from the inductive action upon the “soft” iron of the 
ship, of the fields of the earth’s magnetism, and the ship’s per- 
manent magnetism. 

If a cylinder of pure wrought iron that has not been hammered 
and is entirely free from magnetism be held vertically in our 
latitude the upper end instantly becomes a south and the lower 
a north pole. If it be reversed, the magnetism also reverses, so 
that the upper and lower ends are still as they were before—a 
south anda north pole, respectively. When itis held horizontally 
in the meridian the end toward the north becomes a north pole, 
while that toward the south becomes a south pole; and when 
it is revolved slowly or rapidly in azimuth, the foci of magnetic 
polarity move with the fidelity of a shadow, until when the cyl- 
inder points east and west, all the side facing the north is per- 
vaded by north magnetism, and all facing the south by south 
magnetism. Again, let us conceive the hull of a ship to be like 
the cylinder of pure wrought-iron and as susceptible of mag- 
netic induction in being steered over its ever-changing courses 
as the cylinder is when turned into different positions. ‘Then, 
as the ship steers north, in the northern magnetic hemisphere, 
the bow will become the center of north polarity and the stern 


270 THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION 


that of south polarity. As she gradually changes course to the 
eastward, so will the north focus shift to the port bow, the south 
focus to the starboard quarter, and the neutral line dividing them, 
which while the ship headed north was athwartship, will now 
become a diagonal from starboard bow to port quarter. When 
the ship heads east all the starboard side is pervaded with south 
polarity, the port with north, and the neutral line takes a gen- 
eral fore-and-aft direction. Continuing to change course to the 
southward, the poles and neutral line continue their motion in 
the opposite direction, until at the south the conditions at north 
are repeated, but this time it is the stern that is a north pole, 
while the bow is a south pole. At west the conditions at east 
prevail, only that it is now the starboard side that has north 
polarity and the port side south polarity. And this transient 
induction in both the cylinder and the ideal ship is solely due 
to the effect of the earth’s magnetic field in which they move. 

Leaving now the ideal or “soft” iron ship and passing to the 
consideration of the actual ship, which is built of many beams 
and frames that have been bent, hammered, and twisted in fash- 

ioning them for the construction, we find that the structure, al- 
_ though still containing many “soft” iron pieces that become mag- 
nets when lying in the magnetic meridian and lose their magnetic 
qualities when turned at right angles to that plane, has acquired 
characteristics that make it as permanent. and well defined a 
magnet as the steel bar, with poles and neutral line as in the 
bar, but located according to the direction, with reference to the 
magnetic meridian, in which the ship’s keel lay during the 
course of her construction. 

An iron ship, with her frames, plating, decks, beams, stanch- 
ions, shafts, engines, smoke-pipes, yards, and masts, is not a sim- 
ple magnet like a steel bar, but a network of magnets having the 
characteristics of a simple magnet growing out of many and di- 
verse and reactionary influences within the hull. However 
complex the network of magnets may be, yet, for purposes of 
analytical investigation to reach results to enable the mariner 
to allow for the influence of the ship’s magnetism upon the 
compass, its effect may be considered as taking place in three 
coordinate axes, namely, fore-and-aft, athwartship, and vertically 
downward, with the pivot of the compass needle as the origin- 

Almost al] the structural iron of a ship is symmetrically ar- 
ranged with reference to the vertical plane through the keel, so 
that for any piece on the starboard side another is generally 


> 


a ee rae 


1) aS eel 


THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION 97 


found similarly disposed on the port side: and the problem is 


simplified to pairs of parallel forces, each pair h 
ant parallel to one of the ciordinate axes. The effect of every 
magnetic particle, whether of permanent or induced magnetism. 
may be reduced to this condition. If the sum total of all the 
magnetic forces parallel to each ciordinate axis be transferred 
to it, and the whole be conceived to be concentrated upon the 
north point of the compass-needle, the entire magnetic power 
of the ship may be compared to that of three imaginary com- 
pound-magnets—one laid horizontally in the axis of X; the 
second, also horizontally, in the axis of Y, and the third, verti- 
cally, in the axis of Z. By steaming around a circle in the open 
sea and observing the compass bearing of the sun with the ship’s 
head on equidistant compass courses, and also, at the same 
_ times, the astronomical bearings of the sun, the magnetic effect 
of the ship—that is, of the three imaginary compound-magnets 
in the axes of X, Y, and Z—which causes the needle to deflect 
from the magnetic meridian by different angles at the different 
headings, can be immediately found, if the variation of the com- 
pass due to the geographical locality is known. As the ship 
makes a complete circle in azimuth, the north end of the needle 
is drawn sometimes to the right hand of the magnetic meridian 
and sometimes to the left hand; in the former case the deflec- 
tion is called east deviation and in the latter west deviation. A 
table of these deflections, serially arranged, is called a table of 
deviations of the compass. The harmonic analysis of such a 
table of deviations consists in representing each of the element- 
ary magnets, whose effects contribute to make up the imaginary 
compound-magnets, as a separate disturbing cause whose effect 
upon the compass needle may be represented by a constant 
multiplied by a simple harmonic function of the compass-azi- 
muth of the ship’s head. Adding together the effects of the 
different disturbing causes, thus represented, and placing them 
equal to the deviation observed on a certain heading of the ship, 
a conditional equation may be formed for each of the headings 
upon which the deviation was observed. 

From such a series of conditional equations normal equations 
may be found by the method of least squares, and from them 
the harmonic constants which represent the elementary disturb- 
ing magnets. hus it is that from the effect an intelligent com- 
prehension of the cause may be gained. 

With these coefficients a navigator may compute beforehand 


aving its result- 


72 THE COMPASS IN MODERN NAVIGATION 


bo 


the value of the deviation to which his compass will be subject 
on any heading of the ship; but in making long cruises and 
passing into different magnetic latitudes they require unceasing 
attention, because some of them represent the effects of the in- 
duction of the earth’s magnetic field upon the “ soft ” iron of the 
ship, and as the ship sails the ocean she passes through ever- 
varying fields of terrestrial magnetism. Her own magnetism is 
also undergoing continual, though small, changes due to the 
wrenching and straining of the ship by the action of the sea. 
Yet, by examining thoroughly into the harmonic coefficients and 
by considering the known values of the elements of the earth’s 
magnetism, a careful navigator may predict a table of deviations 
for his ship and compass in any part of the world. 

He will then understand and be prepared for such changes in 
the ship’s magnetism as arise from the heeling of the ship, from 
change in geographical position, and from alteration in the course 
after the ship has remained for a long time on one heading, and 
he may navigate his vessel with the confidence and security that 
he would have in a wooden ship, for he can at any time correct 
- the course steered by the compass so that the magnetic course 
actually made good may be laid down upon the chart or used in 
the calculation of the ship’s reckoning, he can correct bearings 
of the land by the amount of deviation due to the direction of 
the ship’s head at the time they were taken, and if he wishes to 
shape a course for a port, having found by calculation or from 
the chart the correct magnetic course to be made good, he can so 
apply the deviation as to obtain the compass course to be steered. 

In many modern ships the deviations are largely reduced by 
introducing magnets into positions near the compass to compen- 
sate for the effects of the ship’s magnetism. The analysis of the 
table of deviations shows that the polar forces acting in the ship 
may be represented by imaginary magnets, and it is, therefore, 
certain from well known laws of magnetic action that the effects 
of these disturbing forces may be neutralized by introducing real 
magnets whose forces have the same magnitudes but act in the 
opposite directions. 


The proceedings of the British Association at Toronto were 
admirably reported by the local press, the daily reports of the 
Globe, together with a finely illustrated supplement, aggregating 
nearly 150 columns, or the equivalent of an octavo volume of 
. 900 pages of long primer. 


“A GOOD MONTH 


—AND THE LAST ONE THIS YEAR— 
IN WHICH 


/ELLOWSTONE 
<> PARK. 


Ke On aa for the 
NORTHERN PACIFIC'S 


WONDERLAND ’97, 


By F. W. HODGE, — 


BuREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY ; 


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Down the Volga, from Nini Novgorod to 
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VOL. VIIl, 1897, PL. 32 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


THE ENCHANTED MESA— THE GREAT SOUTHWESTERN CLEFT AND TALUS HEAP 


THE 
National Geographic Magazine 


Vou. VIII OCTOBER, 1897 No. 10 


THE ENCHANTED MESA 
By F. W. Hoper, 


Bureau of American Ethnology 


_ The pueblo of Acoma, in western central New Mexico, is the 
oldest settlement within the limits of our domain. Many of the 
walls that still stand on that beetling pefiol were seen by Coro- 
nado during his marvelous journey in 1540, and even then they 
were centuries old. 

The valley of Acoma has been described as “ the Garden of 
the Gods multiplied by ten, and with ten equal but other won- 
ders thrown in; plus a human interest, an archeological value, 
an atmosphere of romance and mystery ;” and the comparison 
has not been overdrawn. Stretching away for miles lies a beau- 
tiful level plain clothed in grama and bound on every side by 
mesas of variegated sandstone rising precipitously from 300 to 
400 feet, and relieved by minarets and pinnacles and domes and 
many other features of nature’s architecture. About their bases 
miniature forests of pifion and cedar are found, pruned of their 
dead limbs by native wood-gatherers. Northwestward, Mount 
Taylor, the loftiest peak in New Mexico, rears its verdant head, 
and 20 miles away to the westward the great frowning pine- 
fringed Mesa Prieta, with the beautiful vale of Cebollita at its 
feet, forms a fitting foreground to every dying sun. 

But none of these great rock-tables is so precipitous, so awe- 
inspiring,.and seemingly so out of place as the majestic isolated 
Katzimo or Enchanted Mesa, which rises 430 feet from the middle 
of the plain as if too proud to keep company with its fellows; 
and this was one of the many wonderful homesites of the 

19 


274 THE ENCHANTED MESA 


Acomas during their wanderings from the mystic Shipipu in 
the far north to their present lofty dwelling place. 

Native tradition, as distinguished from myth, when uninflu- 
enced by Caucasian contact, may usually be relied on even to 
the extent of disproving or verifying that which purports to be 
historical testimony. The Acoma Indians have handed down 
from shaman to novitiate, from father to son, in true prescrip- 
torial fashion for many generations, the story that Katzimo was 
once the home of their ancestors, but during a great convulsion 
of nature, at a time when most of the inhabitants were at work 
in their fields below, an immense rocky mass became freed from 
the friable wall of the cliff, destroying the only trail to the sum- 
mit and leaving a few old women to perish on the inaccessible 
height. What more, then, could be necessary to enwrap the 
place forever after in the mystery, of enchantment? 

This tradition was recorded in its native purity some twelve 
years ago by Mr Charles F. Lummis, who has done so much to 
stimulate popular interest in this most interesting corner of our 
country, and the same story was repeated by Acoma lips to the 
present writer while conducting a reconnaissance of the pueblos 
in the autumn of 1895. During this visit, desiring to test the 
verity of the tradition, a trip was made to the base of Katzimo, 
where a careful examination of the talus (especially where it is 
piled high about the foot of the great southwestern cleft (Pl. 32, 
33) up which the ancient pathway was reputed to have wound 
its course) was rewarded by the finding of numerous fragments of 
pottery of very ancient type, some of which were decorated in a 
vitreous glaze, an art now lost to Pueblo potters. The talus at 
this point rises to a height of 224 feet above the plain, and there- 
fore slightly more than half-way up the mesa side. It is com- 
posed largely of earth, which could have been deposited there 
in no other way whatsoever than by washing from the summit 
during periods of storm through many centuries. An examina- 
tion of the trail to a point within 60 feet of the top exhibited 
traces of what were evidently the hand and foot holes that had 
once aided in the ascent of the ancient trail, as at Acoma today. 
Even then the indications of the former occupancy of the En- 
chanted Mesa were regarded as sufficient and that another one 
of many native traditions had been verified by archeologic proof. 

Enchanted Mesa has become celebrated during the last sum- 
mer through the reports of the expedition of Prof. William Libbey, 
of Princeton, who, after several days of effort, succeeded in scal- 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. 


THE GREAT SANDSTONE CLEFT OF THE MESA 


Through this cleft the traditional trail passed, and distinct traces of it are t 
on each side of the vertical fissure to the right of the upper | 


ee 


—— 


THE ENCHANTED MESA 275 


ing the height, in the latter part of July, by means of a life-say- 
ing equipment. It would seem that Professor Libbey neglected 
to search for relics in the talus, that he devoted no attention 
to the great southwestern cleft or cove up which the trail was 
reputed to have passed, and that after spending some three hours 
on the narrow southern extension of the mesa top, awaiting the 
arrival of a ladder from Acoma to conduct him across a fissure, 
he employed the remaining two hours in a reconnaissance of 
the wider and more interesting part of the height, finding noth- 
ing that would indicate even a former visit by human beings.* 

‘While engaged in archeologic work in Arizona and later in 
Cebollita valley in western central New Mexico, some 20 miles 
westward from Acoma pueblo, I was directed to visit Katzimo 
once more in order to determine what additional data of an arche- 
ological nature might be gathered by an examination of the 
summit. The knowledge gained by the previous visit made it 
apparent that a light equipment only would be necessary to ac- 
complish the task. Procuring an extension ladder, comprising 
six 6-foot sections, some 300 feet of half-inch rope, and a pole- 
pick, together with a number of bolts, drills, ete., which after- 
ward were found to be needless, I proceeded to Laguna, the 
newest, yet the most rapidly decaying, of all the pueblos, on the 
Santa Fé Pacific railroad. Here I was fortunate in enlisting 
the services of Major George H. Pradt, who has served as a 
United States deputy surveyor in that section for nearly 30 
years; Mr A. C. Vroman, of Pasadena, California, a few of whose 
excellent photographs are here reproduced, and Mr H.C. Hayt, 
of Chicago. Much of the success of the little expedition is due 
to the untiring aid of these gentlemen, and for many creature 
comforts I am indebted to the Messrs Marmon, whose beautiful 
little home at Laguna has delighted the heart of many a weary 
waytfarer in that sunny land. 

Leaving the railroad September 1, we proceeded with two 
farm wagons, each drawn by a very small black mule and a 
large white horse, driven by two sturdy Laguna boys. The road 
trends westward for about seven miles, then turns southward 
through a rather wide valley scarred with arroyas and lined with 

* Had the explorer crossed to the northern part of the mesa by means of a bench a 
few feet below the summit of the rocky southern tongue, it would not have been neces- 
sary for him to spend most of his time so fruitlessly in awaiting the arrival of means to 
cross the fissure. The ladder was found as Professor Libbey had left it, but was taken 
down by one of the Indians, who followed the bench mentioned, in order to secure the 


rope for his own use. The ladder is the short one shown in PI. 33, the photograph 
having been made during the descent. 


276 THE ENCHANTED MESA 


fantastically carved sandstone cliffs. The summit of Mesa En- 
cantada is visible for several miles ere the vale of Acoma is 
reached, and as one enters the valley proper he cannot fail to 
appreciate the wisdom displayed by the natives in the selection 
of the beautiful, grassy, mesa-dotted plain that has been their 
home for so many generations. 

The next day was spent in the village witnessing that curious 
anomaly of paganism intermixed with christianity, known as the 
Fiesta de San Estevan. On the morning of the 3d an early start 
was made for Mesa Encantada, which lies three miles northeast- 
ward from the pueblo, just within the eastern boundary of the 
Acoma grant, in latitude 34° 54’ N., longitude 107° 34’ W. 

The remainder of the forenoon was employed in making camp 
in the little grove of cedars at the base of the cleft near the south- 
western corner of the height, in unpacking apparatus, and in de- 
termining the altitude of the mesa above the western plain. The 
observations of Major Pradt show that the elevation of the foot of 
the great talus slope above the plain is at this point 33 feet, the 
apex of the talus 224 feet above the plain, and the top of the 
highest pinnacle on the summit of the mesa overlooking the cleft 
431 feet* above the same datum. (PI. 32.) 

The start from camp was madeatnoon. The ascent of the talus, 
in which the potsherds had been observed in such considerable 
quantities two years previously, was made in a few minutes, the 
ladders, ropes, and photographic and surveying instruments 
being carried with some effort, since climbing, heavily laden, at 
an altitude of 6,000 feet, in a broiling sun, is no trifling labor; but 
the real work began when the beginning of the rocky slope of the 
cleft was reached. One member of the party, taking the lead, 
dragged the end of arope to a convenient landing place, where a 
dwarf pifion finds sufficient nourishment from the storm-water 
and sand from above to eke out a precarious existence. Fastening 


the rope to the tree, the outfit was hauled up, and the other ~ 


members of the party found a ready means of ascent. The next 
landing was several feet above, at the base of a rather steep pitch 
of about twelve feet. This wall, although somewhat difficult to 
scale, may be climbed with greater or less safety by the aid of 
several small holes in its face. These holes were doubtless made 
artificially, but as the narrow pathway at this point is now a drain- 

*These elevations were determined trigonometrically by means of an engineers’ 
transit, using a base-line of 660 feet measured opposite the cleft, the observations from 


the northern end of the line giving 430 feet and from the southern end 432 feet; mean, 
431 feet. 5 


Ot 


THE ENCHANTED MESA 277 


age course during periods of storm, the soft sandstone has become 
so much eroded that they have apparently lost their former shape. 
The cliff at this point was readily surmounted with the aid of 
two sections of the ladder, a rope being carried over the slope 
above and secured to a large bowlder in the corner of a conve- 
nient terrace some 60 feet below the summit. 

This was the point which I reached during the 1895 visit. At 
that time I spent several minutes on this ledge, making diligent 


FIG. I—ENCHANTED MESA FROM THE SOUTH 


search on the walls of the cove for evidences of pictographs, but 
finding none. This does not signify that none ever existed, for 
both here and elsewhere about the cliffs great blocks of stone 
have fallen away so recently that their edges have not yet had 
time to round by erosion, and the now exposed faces of their 
former abiding places on the cliff wall are yet unstained by 
weathering. (See Fig. 1.) 


278 THE ENCHANTED MESA 


The bowlder previously alluded to rests in a corner of the ter- 
race below a long crack that extends the entire height of the 30 
feet of wall (Pl. 33), just as it had appeared to me before, and 
I well remember viewing the chasm while seated on it. I note 
these circumstances, since one of the first things that met my 
gaze on reaching this point during our late climb was a collection 
of four oak sticks, lying beside the bowlder, that I am sure were 
not there during my previous climb. They were about 2} feet in 
length, an inch thick, and had been freshly pointed at each end 
with a sharp tool, evidently a hatchet. Their occurrence here 
suggested a careful investigation of the fissure above, which re- 
sulted in the finding of a regular series of pecked holes, appar- 
ently very ancient, for their edges had been so eroded that they 
are now visible only on close examination. So shallow, indeed, 
had the holes been worn that Lat once saw that while the pointed 
sticks afforded an indication of the former use of the holes, it 
would have been impossible for the latter to have been employed 
as a means of scaling the wall in modern times. I therefore con- 
cluded that the sticks had recently been left there by one who 
desired to gain access to the summit, but had failed in the at- 
tempt. This conclusion was confirmed immediately afterward 
when I found, almost beneath the bowlder, a sherd of typical 
modern Acoma pottery and an unfeathered prayer-stick, and a 
few moments later Mr Hayt dug from the moist sand in the 
corner other fragments of the same vessel, evidently the remains 
of asacrifice, which, had it been accessible, would doubtless have 
been deposited on thesummit. It should here be said that the 
difference in ancient and modern Acoma ceramics is far greater 
than between modern Acoma and Zufi ware, for example, and 
it requires no very intimate acquaintance to enable anybody to 
readily distinguish the one variety from the other in the latter 
types. rath ae 

After making this interesting find we proceeded to fit together 
the entire ladder in order to scale the 30 feet of sheer wall now 
before us. Selecting the middle of the eastern face of the cove 
as the most convenient and least hazardous point of ascent, the 
ladder was adjusted and carefully raised, section by section, until 
it reached the lower part of the sloping terrace above. Two 
holes were then pecked in the soft sandstone floor to prevent 
the now almost vertical ladder from slipping forward down the 
chasm. Again a member of the party went forward, drawing 
with him a rope fastened about the waist, the remaining three 


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HLNOS DNIMOO SLINWAS S3HL 4O LYVd ISALLV14d SHL 


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THE ENCHANTED MESA 279 


(the Indians stayed below) holding the ladder as rigidly as pos- 
sible; yet it swayed and creaked and bent like a reed until the 
top was reached, and it required no little care to step from an 
upper rung to the dizzy sloping ledge without forcing the ladder 
from its insecure bearing. The shelf was gained in safety, how- 
ever ; the rope was tied to a rung and made fast around a large 
block of stone on the terrace to the left. The others ascended, 
one by one, each with the rope tied around his chest and drawn 
about the rock by the leader as a measure of precaution. Then 
the equipage, wrapped in blankets, was fastened to the end of a 
rope thrown to the two Indians below and drawn up, piece by 
piece. The remainder of the ascent was made without difficulty. 
The time consumed by the entire climb was somewhat over two 
hours. 

If the view from the valley at Acoma is beautiful, that from 
the summit of Katzimo is sublime. Mesa Prieta was sullen 
still, and the pink mesas, haughty in their grandeur from the 
plain, now seemed to realize their insignificance in the hght of 
the glories beyond. Placid little pools, born of the storm the 
day before, lay glinting like diamonds on an emerald field, while 
old Mount Taylor tried in vain to lift his lofty head above the 
clouds that festooned the northern horizon. 

The summit of Encantada has been swept and carved and 
swept again by the winds and rains of centuries since the ances- 
tors of the simple Acomas climbed the ladder-trail of which we 
' found the traces. The pinnacled floor has not always appeared 
as it is today, for it was once thickly mantled by the sherd-strewn 
soil that now forms a goodly part of the great talus heaps below. 
The walls of the dwellings, undoubtedly of the sun-baked mud- 
balls that Castafieda describes, must have been erected on this 
soil stratum, for the native finds in earth, when he has it, a bet- 
ter footing for his walls than he does on bare rock, and one may 
readily see that the film of soil that still remains occurs in places 
that would have afforded the best sites for dwellings. (PI. 34.) 

The day before was a day of storm; it even rained hard 
enough to drive an Indian from his religion, and yet not a cup- 
ful of water found a resting place on the entire mesa surface save 
in a few “ potholes” eroded in the sandstone. The water had 
poured over the brink in a hundred cataracts, each contributing 
of the summit’s substance to the detritus round about the base 
as in every storm for untold ages. 

There is little wonder, then, that I despaired of finding even 


’ 


280 THE ENCHANTED MESA 


a single relic when we had reached the top of the trail and looked 
about at the destruction wrought; and yet we had been on the 
summit only a few minutes when Major Pradt found a sherd of 
pottery of very ancient type, much crackled by weathering. This 
fragment is of plain gray ware, quite coarse in texture, with a 
dégraissant of white sand. 

Beginning at the eastern side we immediately began to explore 
the rim of the escarpment, in a short time encountering the rude 
monument which had been observed by Professor Libbey, who 


| ] 


FIG. 2—AN ARTIFICIAL MONUMENT ON THE SUMMIT 


expresses the opinion that it may have found its origin in ero- 


sion; but it seems to me, as I think it will appear to any one 


who will examine the accompanying illustration (Fig. 2), that 
only a glance is necessary to determine beyond all doubt that the 
pile could not have been erected save by the hand of man. 
The structure stands on a natural floor of sandstone at the edge 
of the eastern cliff, and consists of a narrow slab some 30 inches 
in length held erect by smaller slabs and bowlders about the base, 
the stratification of the upright slab being vertical, that of the 
supporting stones horizontal. It would have been impossible 
for the structure to have originated by any but artificial means. 


_——— 


THE ENCHANTED MESA 281 


The reconnaissance of the eastern rim was continued north- 
ward and of the western edge southward, but no further evi- 
dences of aboriginal occupancy were observed. The sun was 
lowering, so that we were compelled to suspend the investigation 
in order to make preparation for our night’s camp. After sup- 
per, Mr Vroman and Mr Hayt built a huge fire, for the evening 
air at this altitude is very chilly. We passed the night in ques- 
tionable comfort and were out of our blankets at dawn. After 
a hasty breakfast, we immediately began a survey of the mes: 


* 


| 


FIG. 3—THE ENCHANTED MESA FROM THE SOUTHEAST 


rim, and while thus engaged were somewhat surprised to find 
three Acomas among us. They were scarcely friendly at first ; 
indeed, according to the story of our two Lagunas, who had 
spent the night in the camp below, they had seen our fire and 
had come with the avowed intention of compelling us to de- 
scend, even if they had to threaten to cut down our ladder. A 
little explanation, however, coupled with the information that 
we kept our coffee and sugar in a crevice beyond the camp fire, 
soon appeased any wrath that may have been concealed in their 
bosoms and induced communicativeness. 

These three natives were Luciano Cristoval, teniente of the 


282 THE ENCHANTED MESA 


tribe and a medicine priest; Luis Pino and Santiago Savard, 
principales, After careful inquiry in regard to the tradition of 
the former occupancy of Katzimo, Luciano informed us that 
“the elders” had lived there so long ago and the storms in his 
country were so destructive that we could now hardly expect to 
find any remains on the surface of the mesa. When we told him 
and his companions that a potsherd had already been found, 
they became deeply interested and manifested no little anxiety 
to find other evidences of the lofty homesite of their ancestors. 
I think there can be no doubt that this was the first visit of any 
of the present Acomas to the mesa top. They evinced much 
curiosity in the place, and were greatly surprised when we took 
them to the stone monument, of which they could give no satis- 
factory explanation. It is needless to say that the natives did 
not intimate that the pile was due to natural causes. 

As already stated, the Indians were deeply interested in find- 
ing further evidence of ‘occupancy, and I encouraged them to 
search for relics. They had proceeded only a few yards, accom- 
panied by Major Pradt, when the teniente found a fragment 
of ancient pottery quite similar to the sherd picked up the 
evening before. A few moments later several more fragments 
were found (two of them of different kinds of indented ware), as 
well as a portion of a shell bracelet still bearing evidence of con- 
siderable wear, anda large arrowpoint. Soon after the keen-eyed 
Luciano discovered near the northern rim of the mesa the blade 
end of a white stone ax, on the edge of which several small 
notches had been made. The exposed side of this implement was 
thoroughly bleached and crackled, while the side in contact with 
the ground was stained and still damp when the finder handed it 
tome. After descending the mesa the same Indian exhibited 
the blade end of another ax which showed a portion of the groove 
and which was notched similarly to the other. He had found it 
on the summit, or rather on a ledge a few feet below the summit. 
Both Mr Hayt and myself tried to purchase it, but the Indian 
refused to part with the specimen, as he was a medicine priest 
and desired to keep it for ceremonial use. Like the other imple- 
ment, this ax was thoroughly bleached on one side by weather- 
ing, the unexposed side being stained through contact with the 
lichen-covered ground. : 

We descended the mesa about noon of the second day (Sep- 
tember 4), having spent about 20 hours on the summit. During 
this time I employed every opportunity in making a critical 


THE ENCHANTED MESA 283 


Zi DVN 
\ a 
ANH AN 
ATA NS 
DNATA a 


T=" a ee 


Fe s| ENCHANTED MESA 
; FS | NEW MEXICO 


Surveyed in 1897 


BY GEORGE H.PRADT 
Scale 
200 J 
SS — 


FIG. 4—MAP OF THE MESA SUMMIT 


a ee ey a a ee 


/ 


254 THE ENCHANTED MESA 


study of the general features of the top of Katzimo throughout 
the 2,500 feet of its length (see Fig. 4), devoting special consid- 
eration to the topography of the site, the erosion, the earthy de- 
posits, the drainage, and the great cedars that stand gaunt and 
bare or lie prone and decaying because their means of subsistence 
have been so long washed away, and I was forced to the conclu- 
sion that had house-walls, whether of stone or adobe, ever existed 
on the summit at a reasonably remote period, there is no possi- 
bility that any trace of them could have remained to this day. 
The abundance of ancient relics in the talus, the distinct remains 
of the ladder-trail, the specimens found on the summit coupled 
with the destruction wrought by nature, the tradition itself—all 
testify to the former habitation of the.site. 

To the Acomas Katzimo is still enchanted, and as a subject in 
the study of mysticism the man of science must yet regard it. The 
lore of a millennium is not undone by a few hours of iconoclasm. 


ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAYS 


According to the Western Electrician, there were, on January 1, 
1897, 15,250 miles of street-car track in the United States, of 
which 13,580 miles, or 89 per cent, were operated by electricity, 
1,010 miles, or 6.6 per cent, by horses, 515 miles, or 3.4 per cent, 
by cable, and 145 miles, or 1 per cent, by steam dummy. The 
adoption of electricity as a motive power has completely revo- 
lutionized the methods of city and suburban transportation. 
Between January 1, 1888, and January 1, 1897, the number of 
horse cars in use decreased from 21,736 to 3,664, while the num- 
ber of electric cars increased from 172 to 37,097. In 1888 horse 
cars represented 86 per cent and electric cars seven-tenths of 
one per cent of the total car equipment. At the beginning of 
the present year 79 street cars out of every 100 were propelled 
by electricity and only seven out of 100 by horses. A eval ie 


MODIFICATION OF THE GREAT LAKES BY EARTH 
MOVEMENT—AN ERRATUM 


We regret to state that two of the figures illustrating Mr Gil- 
bert’s article in the September number are transposed. The 
narrow figure on page 240 belongs on page 241, and the square 
figure at the top of page 241 belongs on page 240. As the fig- 
ures stand, they are associated with the wrong titles. 


GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES* 


By GARDINER G. Hupparp, LL. D., 
President of the National Geographic Society, 


AND 
Marcus BAKER, 


U. S. Geological Survey 


The United States, now a little more than a century old, com- 
prises an area of 8,600,000 square miles, an area a little greater 
than that of Canada and a little less than that of Europe. From 
easternmost Maine to westernmost Alaska it stretches through 
120 degrees of longitude, or about one-third of the earth’s cir- 
cumference. Thus, in midsummer, sunrise in eastern Maine 
occurs 20 minutes before sunset in westernmost Alaska. From 
southernmost Florida, reaching to the verge of the torrid zone, 
it stretches northward to northernmost Alaska, more than 300 
miles within the Arctic circle, while in altitude it ranges from 
200 or more feet below sea level in the deserts of southern Cali- 
fornia to heights of more than 18,000 feet in Alaska. 

Beginning with the close of the war for independence, 114 years 
ago, as 18 distinct and independent states stretching along the 
Atlantic seaboard from New Hampshire to Georgia, we have first 
a loose confederation of states which, speedily breaking down, 
was replaced by the present constitutional union of the people, 
bound together in 45 sovereign states and 5 territories. In 1790 
the 15 states had an area of about 350,000 square miles and a 
population of a little less than 4,000,000. A century later its 
area was nearly eleven times as great and its population about 
seventeen times as great, or between 65 and 70 millions. 

Discovery of what is now the United States began just four 
centuries ago this very year, when the Bristol merchant Cabot, 
the first white man (after the Norsemen) to set foot on the Amer- 
ican continent, antedating Columbus by fourteen months, landed 
on the bleak coast of Labrador, and then cruised southward as 
far as Virginia. This, like all discoveries, was only a beginning, 


*An address before the Geographical Section of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at Toronto, August 23, 1897. 


285 


286 GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES 


which pointed the way to and stimulated other discoveries. 
These are still unfinished, and within the limits of the United 
States some tracts still exist which have never been seen by the 
white man. Of other tracts, though seen and long vaguely 
known, our knowledge is still dim and shadowy. 

For a century after Cabot small advance was made in our 

knowledge of the continent formally taken possession of by him 
in the name of his sovereign lord, King Henry VII. Thé out- 
line of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts were crudely delineated, 
but of the Pacific coast north of California our maps until about 
1750 were either blank or filled with fabled lands or monsters. 
Bering’s voyage of 1741 yielded the first definite knowledge of 
northwestern America, but it was not until nearly 40 years later, 
in 1778, that Cook, the great English navigator, gave to the world 
the general outlines of Alaska as we now know them. ‘The gen- 
eral features of the coast of western North America obtained by 
Cook were some 16 years later vastly improved, from southern 
California to Kadiak, by another English navigator, the equal 
if not the superior of Cook, whom every American student 
delights to honor, Capt. George Vancouver. . 
_ The period of the war for independence in the last quarter of 
the last century was one of great.geographic activity and stimu- 
lated the production of maps of the revolted colonies. The 
numerous and excellent, for their time, maps by the English 
geographer, Jefferys, may be taken as the best exponent of Amer- 
ican geography one hundred years ago. They show fairly well 
the Atlantic coast line from the maritime provinces of Canada to 
Georgia, and so much of the interior as was the scene of hostil- 
ities; but west of the Appalachian mountain chain the delinea- 
tion was conjectural. The existence of the Great Lakes, of the 
mighty Mississippi, and of the fertile valley drained by it were 
barely known. 

Such was the world’s geographic knowledge of what is now the 
United States when those states united in 1789. The knowledge 
subsequently acquired is the work of the United States, the in- 
dividual states, private persons, and corporations. 

The General Land Office.—One of the earliest agencies by which 
geographic knowledge was increased was the General Land Office. 

The general government found itself in 1783 possessed of a re- 
gion called the Northwest Territory, lying beyond the mountains. 
Into this region settlers came about the beginning of the century. 
That they might acquire title to land for their homes, the gov- 


oe wey 


‘ 
3 
? 
i 
’ 


GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES 287 


ernment early devised a system of land partition. Surveyors 
were sent into the wilderness to subdivide the land for purposes 
of record and sale or gift. The land was divided into square 
tracts six miles on each side, called towns or townships, and their 
corners marked, sometimes by ax marks on trees called blazes, 
and sometimes by artificial marks. <A row of such towns run- 
ning north and south is called a range, and numbered E. and W. 
from some arbitrary meridian. Similarly a row of towns run- 
ning east and west is called town; and is numbered north or south 
from an arbitrary base line. Each town was further subdivided 
into 36 squares, each containing one square mile, or 640 acres, 
called asection. Thesections are similarly numbered from 1 to 36 
in every town. Each corner of each section was marked by the 
surveyors, who were thus required actually to chain over every 
mile, to keep a record of their measures, to note all streams and 
lakes, and the character of soil and timber; to note the magnetic 
declination, and to submit to the General Land Office a skeleton 
map of each town subdivided, together with their field-notes. 
These maps, called town plats, now constitute a vast body of 
original records in the General Land Office in Washington, and 
are the sole dependence of map-makers for hundreds of thousands 
of square miles of our territory. Every state and territory in the 
Union except the original thirteen, Maine, Vermont, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Texas, and Alaska, has been thus in whole or in part 
surveyed and subdivided. This work, now far advanced toward 
completion, has always been under the contrgl of the General 
Land Office, now a part of the Department of the Interior. 

For geographic purposes the results are shown in a series of 
state maps and a general map of the United States. The work 
was for about a century done by contract, but within the past 
two or three years a part has been done by the U.S. Geological 
Survey in connection with its topographic surveys. 

Thus indirectly the General Land Office has for a century been 
and still continues to be one of the important geographic agen- 
cies of the United States. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey.—Another old and important geo- 
graphic agencyis the Coast and Geodetic Survey, under the Treas- 
ury Department. The primary purpose of this bureau was to 
accurately chart the coast for purposes of commerce and defense. 
Its field of work is tidewater with a fringe of topography land- 
wards and a somewhat extensive border of sea bottom seawards. 
Created in 1807, it made little progress till 1832. In that year it 


288 GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES 


was revived and has continued uninterruptedly till the present 
day. 

From the beginning its ideals were high. Great accuracy has 
ever been and is. its motto. It has been a leader and not a fol- 
lower. It has developed its own methods and instruments, and 
to its officers, civil, military, and naval, we are indebted, among 
other things, for the zenith telescope for the most accurate deter- 
mination of latitudes; for the application of the telegraph to 
longitude determinations ; for the invention, construction, and 
use of a machine for predicting tides, and for great improvements 
in apparatus for measuring the force of gravity. The polyconic 
projection now so extensively used was developed and applied 
by officers of this bureau, as also were appliances for deep-sea 
sounding and the study of the ocean deeps. 

Its field of work was extended in 1871 to include geodetic work 
in the interior, and in 1876 it received the name of Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, by which itis officially designated, though often 
referred to as the Coast Survey. Itis one of the active geographic 
agencies of the United States, and isnot only making charts, coast 
pilots, and tide tables, but is contributing to our knowledge of 
- ocean physics, terrestrial magnetism, and of the size, shape, and 
structure of our planet. 

Engineer Corps, U. S. A.—The U.S. Engineers, though not now 
actively prosecuting geographic research, have in the past made 
notable contributions to geography. Prior to and even since the 
war of the rebellion, 1861-’65, numerous expeditions in the far 
west were made by army officers, and each of these added some- 
thing to our geographic knowledge. Aside from these various 
military reconnaissances two noteworthy surveys have been car- 
ried on in the past by the U.S. Engineers. One was a survey of 
the northern and northwestern lakes, which, after an’ existence 
of forty years, was concluded in 1881. It made a series of de- 
tailed and accurate charts of all the Great Lakes,and a valuable 
collection of data. Its series of lake levels has very recently been 
put to use in determining certain secular changes in the crust 
of the earth forming the great basin in which those lakes lie. If 
the slow tilting of this basin southward which these levels show, 
when compared with recent ones, continues for a period of 
about 6,000 years, then it is calculated that Niagara will have 
vanished, and all the lakes except Ontario will drain to the Mis- 
sissippi by way of the Chicago outlet. These highly interesting 
and somewhat startling conclusions have just been presented at 


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GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES 289 


the Detroit meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science by Mr G. K. Gilbert, of the U. 5. Geological 
Survey. 

Another noteworthy geographic work by the U.S. Engineers 
was a general map-making survey in the far west under the di- 
rection of Capt. George M. Wheeler, U.S. E., and usually referred 
to as the Wheeler survey. A considerable tract of country was 
mapped by it on a scale of 8 miles to 1 inch. This survey with 
two others, the so-called Hayden and Powell surveys, were merged 
in the present Geological Survey in 1879. 

The work of improving rivers and harbors in the interest of 
commerce is now carried on by the United States engineers, and 
their geographic work consists in special surveys for these im- 
provements and of a new survey of the Great Lakes. 

Geological Survey.—The chief agency for increasing geographic 
knowledge of the United States at the present time is the United 
States Geological Survey, now eighteen years old. Nearly or 
quite one-half of its energies and funds are expended in the pro- 
duction of topographic maps, and thus it is in fact, though not 
in name, the United States Topographic and Geologic Survey. 
The conditions confronting this survey at its creation differed 
in one important particular from those similarly confronting 
European geological surveys. Those surveys had, in almost if 
not quite every case, been preceded by topographic surveys, and 
the geologists found maps, adequate to their needs, ready made. 
But in the United States topographic maps were not available, 
as there had been no topographic survey. Thus progress in geo- 
logic mapping was impeded at the outset by the lack of suitable 
maps. Accordingly in 1882 authority was given to make topo- 
graphic maps, and since then about one-half of the energies of 
the Survey have been given to their production. Since 1882 the 
Survey has surveyed and mapped on scales of one, two, and four 
miles to the inch an area of 760,000 square miles, almost equal 
to the combined areas of Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, 
and Portugal. The results are contained on 980 atlas sheets, 460 
on the one-mile scale, 460 on the two-mile scale, and 60 on the 
four-mile scale. These surveys have been made in nearly every 
state and territory. Following these came the geological sur- 
veys. But before much progress was possible a large amount of 
preliminary investigation was needful to determine the great 
features whose details were to be wrought out and mapped. A 
system of rock classification uniformly applicable to so great and 


20 


290 GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES 


complex an area as the United States required much careful pre- 
liminary work. That has been accomplished and systematic 
geologic mapping has been in progress for some years. 

The aspect of the country and its utility for man’s use is 
largely dependent on the annual rainfall. This ranges from a 
very few inches in the driest part of the arid or desert regions of 
the southwest to nearly or quite 3 feet per year on the coast of 
Southern Alaska. As the humid regions were settled up popu- 
lation gradually pushed into the semi-arid and desert regions of 
the far west, where agriculture without artificial irrigation is im- 
possible, but with irrigation marvelously successful. Thus came 
a demand for knowledge as to water supply, and to this work one 
division of the Geological Survey is wholly devoted. 

Intimately associated with water supply is the forestry prob- 
lem. The proper administration of the forests—their preserva- 
tion from destruction by carelessness or greed—is a question 
now attracting serious attention. A number of large forest tracts . 
in the west have been recently set apart as reservations, and these, 
with the Yellowstone National Park, the Yosemite, and others 
previously reserved, comprise a total area estimated at 38,880,000 
acres, or more than 60,000 square miles. In the budget for this 
year Congress has included an item of $150,000 for the survey 
of these forest reserves. This work is under the direction of the 
United States Geological Survey. 

The output of the mines and quarries of the United States has 
grown in value from $369,000,000 in 1880 to $622,000,000 in 1896. 
That authentic information on this subject might be promptly 
available a division of mineral statistics has existed in the Geo- 
logical Survey from the beginning, charged with the duty of 
gathering and publishing statistics. This it does in an annual 
volume devoted to mineral statistics, and the state of the mining 
industry from year to year finds permanent record in these vol- 
umes. 

Navy Department.—The Hydrographic Office of the Bureau of 
Navigation has for a primary aim the securing and publication 
of information useful to those who go down to the sea in ships. 
This includes surveys and chart-making of all coasts (except 
those of the United States), ocean meteorology, terrestial mag- 
netism, and ocean physics. The charting of the coasts of the 
United States is done exclusively by the Coast Survey, which has 
nearly completed the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and about three- 
fifths of the Pacific coast, except Alaska, of which only a small 


GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES 291 


part is as yet surveyed. Of foreign coasts, the Hydrographic 
Office has recently surveyed and charted the western coast of the 
peninsula of Lower California, one of the Mexican states, about 
1,000 miles in extent. It has extended our knowledge of the sea. 
abysses by various lines of soundings in the interest of projected 
cable lines, and it lessens the perils of ocean travel by the monthly 
issue of pilot charts of the North Pacific and North Atlantic 
oceans, containing data as to derelicts, ice-fields, storm tracks, 
and other information useful to the mariner. The systematic 
collection of data for these pilot charts results in a constant 
increase in our knowledge of the geography of the sea. 
‘Weather Bureau.—Yo investigate the history, structure, and 
contents of the crust of the earth is the peculiar province of the 
Geological Survey ; to study the currents, movements, and char- 
acteristics of the earth’s salt-water envelope is the province of the 
Coast Survey and the Hydrographic Office; to investigate the 
character, amount, habits, and migrations of its contained life is 
the province of the Fish Commission. The study of the all- 
enveloping gaseous ocean in which we live and move—that in- 
visible sea of air with its ever-varying moods of restful calm and 
fierce storm, now delightfully transparent and now somber or 
menacing with storm-cloud, sometimes scorching and sometimes 
freezing—the study of this gaseous envelope, of the laws which 
govern its behavior and the daily deduction from these laws 
which foretell to the sailor, the farmer, the traveler what he may 
expect—is the peculiar province of the Weather Bureau. May 
we not properly call this field of study the geography of the air? 
And has it not ever formed a large chapter in our physical geogra- 
phies? The weather service in the United States is 27 years old, 
dating from 1870. At first it was a military organization called the 
Signal Service, and its purpose was to give “notice on the north- 
ern lakes and on the seacoast, by magnetic telegraph and marine 
signals, of the approach and force of storms.” Its primary object 
was, therefore, not the study of climate, but the prediction of 
storms. It seeks to tell the weather of tomorrow rather than 
that of the last year or the last century. But, as we are forced to 
judge the future by the past, the study of meteorological records 
is not neglected, and within the bureau there has ever been a 
corps of scientific experts at work upon such lines as gave prom- 
ise of producing something new or useful for the forecaster. The 
bureau is now a civilian one, having been transferred from the 
War Department to the Department of Agriculture. Its present 


292 GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES 


field of activity is far wider than we have indicated—so wide, 
indeed, that time will not permit even a mention of details. 

Thus have we briefly su